This Wearable Device Can Reduce Chronic Pain, No Drugs Required

NEUROMETRIX
NEUROMETRIX

There are no easy treatment options for people with chronic pain. Opioid painkillers like Vicodin and OxyContin can help, but they’re highly addictive and come with a significant risk of overdose. The current epidemic of opioid overdoses (from both prescription drugs and heroin) in the U.S. may be the country’s worst drug crisis ever, killing more than 52,000 people in 2015 alone. Yet some scientific reviews have found that opioids may not even be that effective in the long term.

There are ways to combat chronic pain without pills, though, and a Boston-area technology company called NeuroMetrix is trying to bring drug-free pain relief to the masses, no prescription required. Its Quell electrical stimulation band (available on the FSA Store) is designed to reduce chronic pain in regular users, reducing medication use in the process.

The Quell device, which is about the size of a thin wallet, is designed to be strapped to your upper calf—the back of your calf has plenty of nerves for the device to work on—with a stretchy fabric band, much like the workout armbands that hold your smartphone or MP3 player while you run. When you turn the device on, it delivers low-level electrical stimulation to your leg for 60 minutes, then turns off for 60 minutes, then begins the cycle again for however long you wear the band.

One theory scientists use to explain pain perception, called gate control theory [PDF], hypothesizes that nerve fibers can only carry so much information to the brain, and activating the types of nerve fibers that respond to pressure and vibration rather than acute pain can inhibit the transmission of pain signals, effectively “closing the gate” between your brain and those nerves so pain messages can’t pass. According to this idea, the electrical stimulation provided by devices like Quell can block nerves from transmitting pain signals to the brain. (The same idea has been used to explain acupuncture’s pain-relieving properties.)

Opioid medications mimic the effects of the brain’s natural opioid peptides, like endorphins. (The word endorphin actually means “the morphine within.”) While at-home electrical stimulation devices called Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation units (or TENS machines) already exist, they work much like opioid drugs, by stimulating endorphin production. Quell works slightly differently—by activating the production of another type of naturally produced opioid peptide called enkephalins.

“Enkephalins are not endorphins, but they act in a similar way,” according to NeuroMetrix founder Shai Gozani, who has a Ph.D in neurobiology as well as a medical degree. When you take opioids for a long period of time, your tolerance for endorphins and the opioid drugs that mimic them can increase. “There are no drugs that mimic enkephalins,” Gozani says, which is helpful both from a drug-tolerance perspective and because if you’re already taking painkillers, Quell provides a different kind of relief on top of what you’re already feeling from the medication. Even if Quell doesn’t make your pain go away entirely, it can work in conjunction with your meds so that you don’t need quite as many prescription painkillers to get through the day.

black Quell device sticking out of the top of the black and blue Quell sports band against a white background
NeuroMetrix

While Quell only attaches to your leg, the influx of enkephalins provides pain relief throughout the body. The company recommends it for joint pain, lower back pain, leg and foot pain, and fibromyalgia. I suffer from chronic back pain, but it’s not concentrated in my lower back, so I was dubious as to whether the device would work for me. In the interest of scientific inquiry, I tested Quell on myself for Mental Floss.

The device turned out to be incredibly simple to set up. You just need to slip the unit into the band and snap the electrodes—which come attached to a long paper strip with four squares of conductive gel—onto the inside. You wrap the electrode strip around your calf using the band, then open up the mobile app. Through the app, you can calibrate the level of the vibrations, rate your pain for that day, and start or stop therapy sessions. (You can control Quell using the button on the device itself rather than the app, but it’s much easier on your phone.)

When you turn it on, Quell delivers electrical stimulation in hour-long sessions, but NeuroMetrix recommends that you do several sessions a day to get the full effect. I tested it out for several months, typically wearing it just before bed and while I slept.

Though the words “electrical stimulation” may make you think of shocks, Quell feels more like a little vibration. Ideally, the sensation should be just short of noticeable—when I sat very quietly, I could sometimes identify the tingle of the electric current, but barely, and when I was up and moving, I couldn’t feel it at all. This is both a strength and a weakness of the product, though. On the one hand, you can go on with your normal life without feeling like you’re being zapped. On the other hand, more than once, I tried to take off the band without realizing that it was in the middle of a treatment cycle and gave my fingers an unpleasant shock (not exactly painful, but not enjoyable either). Occasionally while asleep, I accidentally dislodged the band, cutting short my treatment. And I found that in my tossing and turning at night, I managed to stretch out the fabric band considerably, making dislodging it much more likely.

Quell doesn’t make pain disappear completely. I still have back pain daily, even while wearing the device. It doesn’t work for my knee pain, either. But while the device doesn't eliminate my back pain completely, it does make the pain more manageable. I found that it relaxed my muscles, relieving some of the tension that builds up around the spot where I feel the most pain. After I had technically tried Quell for long enough to review it, I continued to use it nightly. I even shelled out $82 for a three-month supply of new electrodes.

two white electrode strips with blue conductive gel
NeuroMetrix

There’s a good amount of science to back of NeuroMetrix’s claims about Quell, which is FDA-approved as an over-the-counter pain-relieving device. In a a peer-reviewed study in the Journal of Pain Research, more than 80 percent of participants felt an improvement in their pain after two months of use. Around 67 percent were able to reduce their medication usage.

Chronic pain is far from a rare problem, and better options for pain relief that don’t involve pills could make a significant difference. The CDC says that as many as one in four patients taking opioid painkillers long-term becomes addicted. And there are plenty of people who need pain relief. According to the National Institutes of Health, more than 11 percent of the U.S. population (25.3 million adults) suffers from daily chronic pain, meaning pain that has lasted more than three months or, in the case of an injury, when it lasts beyond when the tissue itself has healed. One study estimates that 28 million people in the UK suffer from some kind of chronic pain, often related to arthritis, rheumatism, or back and neck problems.

Most TENS units already on the market aren’t exactly user-friendly compared to Quell. The type of pain relief they provide is localized, so you have to figure out where to place the electrodes for your specific type of pain and deal with interfaces and settings that might as well require a nursing degree to comprehend. And you can’t use them while you sleep, according to the FDA, even though for many people, chronic pain interferes with their ability to snooze.

Quell uses higher-frequency stimulation for longer periods of time than other devices, which is what produces the enkephalin effect. “You’re basically blocking the effect of the pain signals as they come into the spinal cord, decreasing the number of pain signals that come into the brain,” Gozani says. Since not as many pain signals make their way to the brain, you perceive less pain overall. It takes 20 to 40 minutes of high-frequency stimulation (80 to 100 pulses per second, in this case) for the body to begin producing enkephalins, but when you wear the band for several hours per day, it produces more widespread, longer-lasting pain relief than if you used a TENS unit to give yourself a 30-minute rush of endorphins.

It’s also just easy to use. While the $250 Quell starter kit is more expensive than what you’d pay for some TENS units (they range from $30 to $500), the simplicity of the design alone is worth the price. It only takes a second to put on and control, and you can wear it whenever and wherever you want. You can’t exactly sit around in your cubicle or go for a run while hooked up to a bunch of different electrodes, but it’s easy enough to wear a Quell band under pants while walking around. It’s also much more powerful: NeuroMetrix estimates that Quell is five times more powerful than the average TENS device, and unlike the others, it’s approved to use when you sleep. (The device monitors your movements and reduces power to 80 percent when it senses you’re asleep.)

Quell may not work for everyone, and it may not eliminate your pain completely. But even a little relief can be worth it if you’re in constant pain.

Buy it here using your FSA funds.

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10 of the Most Popular Portable Bluetooth Speakers on Amazon

Altech/Bose/JBL/Amazon
Altech/Bose/JBL/Amazon

As convenient as smartphones and tablets are, they don’t necessarily offer the best sound quality. But a well-built portable speaker can fill that need. And whether you’re looking for a speaker to use in the shower or a device to take on a long camping trip, these bestselling models from Amazon have you covered.

1. OontZ Angle 3 Bluetooth Portable Speaker; $26-$30 (4.4 stars)

Oontz portable bluetooth speaker
Cambridge Soundworks/Amazon

Of the 57,000-plus reviews that users have left for this speaker on Amazon, 72 percent of them are five stars. So it should come as no surprise that this is currently the best-selling portable Bluetooth speaker on the site. It comes in eight different colors and can play for up to 14 hours straight after a full charge. Plus, it’s splash proof, making it a perfect speaker for the shower, beach, or pool.

Buy it: Amazon

2. JBL Charge 3 Waterproof Portable Bluetooth Speaker; $110 (4.6 stars)

JBL portable bluetooth speaker
JBL/Amazon

This nifty speaker can connect with up to three devices at one time, so you and your friends can take turns sharing your favorite music. Its built-in battery can play music for up to 20 hours, and it can even charge smartphones and tablets via USB.

Buy it: Amazon

3. Anker Soundcore Bluetooth Speaker; $25-$28 (4.6 stars)

Anker portable bluetooth speaker
Anker/Amazon

This speaker boasts 24-hour battery life and a strong Bluetooth connection within a 66-foot radius. It also comes with a built-in microphone so you can easily take calls over speakerphone.

Buy it: Amazon

4. Bose SoundLink Color Bluetooth Speaker; $129 (4.4 stars)

Bose portable bluetooth speaker
Bose/Amazon

Bose is well-known for building user-friendly products that offer excellent sound quality. This portable speaker lets you connect to the Bose app, which makes it easier to switch between devices and personalize your settings. It’s also water-resistant, making it durable enough to handle a day at the pool or beach.

Buy it: Amazon

5. DOSS Soundbox Touch Portable Wireless Bluetooth Speaker; $28-$33 (4.4 stars)

DOSS portable bluetooth speaker
DOSS/Amazon

This portable speaker features an elegant system of touch controls that lets you easily switch between three methods of playing audio—Bluetooth, Micro SD, or auxiliary input. It can play for up to 20 hours after a full charge.

Buy it: Amazon

6. Altec Lansing Mini Wireless Bluetooth Speaker; $15-$20 (4.3 stars)

Altec Lansing portable bluetooth speaker
Altec Lansing/Amazon

This lightweight speaker is built for the outdoors. With its certified IP67 rating—meaning that it’s fully waterproof, shockproof, and dust proof—it’s durable enough to withstand harsh environments. Plus, it comes with a carabiner that can attach to a backpack or belt loop.

Buy it: Amazon

7. Tribit XSound Go Bluetooth Speaker; $33-$38 (4.6 stars)

Tribit portable bluetooth speaker
Tribit/Amazon

Tribit’s portable Bluetooth speaker weighs less than a pound and is fully waterproof and resistant to scratches and drops. It also comes with a tear-resistant strap for easy transportation, and the rechargeable battery can handle up to 24 hours of continuous use after a full charge. In 2020, it was Wirecutter's pick as the best budget portable Bluetooth speaker on the market.

Buy it: Amazon

8. VicTsing SoundHot C6 Portable Bluetooth Speaker; $18 (4.3 stars)

VicTsing portable bluetooth speaker
VicTsing/Amazon

The SoundHot portable Bluetooth speaker is designed for convenience wherever you go. It comes with a detachable suction cup and a carabiner so you can keep it secure while you’re showering, kayaking, or hiking, to name just a few.

Buy it: Amazon

9. AOMAIS Sport II Portable Wireless Bluetooth Speaker; $30 (4.4 stars)

AOMAIS portable bluetooth speaker
AOMAIS/Amazon

This portable speaker is certified to handle deep waters and harsh weather, making it perfect for your next big adventure. It can play for up to 15 hours on a full charge and offers a stable Bluetooth connection within a 100-foot radius.

Buy it: Amazon

10. XLEADER SoundAngel Touch Bluetooth Speaker; $19-$23 (4.4 stars)

XLeader portable bluetooth speaker
XLEADER/Amazon

This stylish device is available in black, silver, gold, and rose gold. Plus, it’s equipped with Bluetooth 5.0, a more powerful technology that can pair with devices up to 800 feet away. The SoundAngel speaker itself isn’t water-resistant, but it comes with a waterproof case for protection in less-than-ideal conditions.

Buy it: Amazon

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

10 Surprising Uses for Coffee That Don’t Involve Drinking It

Coffee is not a one-trick pony.
Coffee is not a one-trick pony.
RyanJLane/iStock via Getty Images

For the people who manage to make it through each day without tossing back cup after cup of Mother Nature’s deliciously bitter bean water, coffee might seem totally useless. And even if you do run on java, you may not realize how useful those leftover grounds can be. From fertilizing your garden to making boxed brownies taste homemade, here are 10 ways to make the most of coffee without drinking a drop.

1. Fix furniture scuffs and scratches.

You can claim the scuffs are what give your coffee table its character, but would you say the same if you knew how easy it was to get rid of them? This DIY stain from PopSugar calls for your leftover coffee grounds, 1/4 cup of warm water, and 1/4 cup of vinegar; shake the mixture, let it sit for at least an hour, and then rub it into furniture blemishes with a rag (you may need to apply a few layers for darker shades of wood).

2. Make an air freshener for just about anywhere.

Funnel some dried coffee grounds into an old pair of pantyhose and tie it off at the top for a simple air freshener that will neutralize funky smells in your fridge, car, gym bag, or any other place that has you wrinkling your nose.

3. Eliminate lingering odors on your hands.

hand scrub with coffee grounds
Soft, stench-free hands, courtesy of coffee.
iprogressman/iStock via Getty Images

The natural deodorizing property of coffee can help when you want to get a stubborn stench off your hands, too. Mix a pinch of coffee grounds into your soap and scrub until your fingers no longer smell like onions, garlic, or whatever else you’ve been chopping.

4. Exfoliate your face.

Finely ground coffee is gentle enough to use as a facial exfoliant, and it’s also packed with antioxidants that are great for your skin. This recipe from Nyakio Grieco, founder of the skincare line Nyakio Beauty, is a mixture of coffee grounds, brown sugar, avocado oil, and coconut oil, with additional options to modify it based on your skin type.

5. Fertilize your garden.

coffee grounds as plant fertilizer
Plants run on coffee, too.
MonthiraYodtiwong/iStock via Getty Images

According to Healthline, coffee grounds release nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, and other minerals that stimulate plant growth—and they also repel insects that might damage those plants. You can sprinkle coffee grounds directly on the soil, or you can add them to your compost and work it into your garden once everything’s decomposed.

6. Clean your fireplace.

Cleaning out your fireplace can fill the air with ash, making it a pretty miserable task even for people without respiratory issues. Sprinkling a thin layer of coffee grounds on top first will prevent the ash from rising when you sweep it up.

7. Enrich your baked goods.

Coffee-flavored cakes, muffins, and other desserts are delicious to anyone who loves a good cup of Joe, but coffee can also take certain baked goods to the next level without making them taste like moist, fluffy espresso beans. According to Lifehacker, this works best for chocolate desserts like brownies and cakes, especially if you’re using a box mix. Just substitute brewed coffee for whatever amount of water the recipe calls for; the coffee will add richness and complexity to the chocolate flavor, and your guests will think you made the dessert from scratch.

8. Fill a homemade pincushion.

cupcake pincushion
Let's put a pin in it.
anskuw/iStock via Getty Images

Filling your homemade pincushion with dried coffee grounds will keep all your pins in one place and make your sewing box smell delightful. Here are step-by-step instructions to create your own from the Queen Bean Coffee Company blog.

9. Enhance your fish bait.

There’s not much scientific evidence that coffee does indeed attract more fish, but plenty of seasoned fishers vouch for its efficacy—there are even coffee-scented bait products on the market. Gone Outdoors recommends letting worms wriggle around in coffee grounds for a while before putting them on the hook.

10. Dye some fabric.

You’re one large pot of coffee away from nailing the natural prairie look. Dyeing your clothes fifty shades of tan really just entails soaking them in brewed coffee for varying lengths of time, but these additional tips from The Spruce Crafts can help you get your desired results. (Even if you’re not interested in revolutionizing your wardrobe, using coffee as dye can come in handy if you need to dirty an item for a Halloween costume or upcycle an already-stained kitchen towel.)