We Just Got Two Steps Closer to Personalized Cancer Vaccines

Sriram Subramaniam, National Cancer Institute (NCI), Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain
Sriram Subramaniam, National Cancer Institute (NCI), Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Attempting to wipe out cancer can at times seem like a cruel, high-stakes game of Whack-a-Mole. Recurrence is common, and while treated tumors may disappear, new ones often appear in different parts of the body. But two new studies published today in the journal Nature may have found a better way: personalized vaccines that could kick the disease out for good.

Current forms of cancer treatment can be quite effective in knocking tumors out, but they can’t keep them from coming back. That’s partly because cancer is not one disease but many, each with its own unique combination of genetic mutations and accompanying antigens (immune-triggering molecules), and standardized treatments can’t reach them all.

But what if we could create targeted treatments for each combination? Two small clinical trials of skin cancer vaccines have attempted just that.

For the first study, researchers created a vaccine that targets specific antigens, alerting the body to their presence so it can fight back. Of the six people who were given the vaccine, four were still cancer-free after 25 months. While the remaining two people did have melanoma, their tumors were responsive to treatment and eventually completely disappeared.

The second study used patients’ RNA to create customized vaccines that targeted antigens called neo-epitopes. The scientists administered the vaccine to 13 people. Of those 13, eight were tumor-free 23 months later, and one person was declared tumor-free after the vaccination and regular treatment. Most importantly, the vaccine had done what it set out to do: all 13 participants had shown an immune response. Their bodies learned what to do to get rid of the cancer.

While these results are impressive, both studies were quite small. We’ll need more studies and larger clinical trials before we can say for sure that the vaccines work, and we’ll need to test them in other forms of cancer. But as first steps go, these are promising indeed.

Crocs Is Donating More Than 100,000 Pairs of Shoes to Healthcare Workers

Sturdy, comfortable Crocs are a favorite among healthcare professionals.
Sturdy, comfortable Crocs are a favorite among healthcare professionals.
David Silverman/Getty Images

Crocs have long been a favorite among healthcare workers who spend hours on their feet each day—and now, they can get a pair for free.

This week, the company announced that it will give away more than 100,000 pairs of shoes to medical professionals fighting the new coronavirus in the U.S. ClickOrlando reports that workers can submit their requests for Crocs Classic Clogs or Crocs at Work via an online form on the Crocs website, which will open each weekday at 12 p.m. EST and continue accepting orders until it fulfills its daily allotment.

According to a press release, that allotment is a whopping 10,000 pairs of shoes per day. The as-yet-unspecified end date for the program—called “A Free Pair for Healthcare”—depends on inventory levels and the number of requests the company receives. In addition to shipping shoes to individuals, Crocs is also planning to donate up to 100,000 more pairs directly to healthcare organizations. So far, they’ll send shoes to the Dayton Area Hospital Association in Ohio, St. Anthony North Health Campus in Denver, Colorado, the Atlantic Health System in New Jersey, and more.

“These workers have our deepest respect, and we are humbled to be able to answer their call and provide whatever we can to help during this unprecedented time,” Crocs president and CEO Andrew Rees said in the release. “Share the word to all those in healthcare and please be mindful to allow those who need these most to place their requests. This is the least we can do for those working incredibly hard to defeat this virus.”

Healthcare professionals can request their free Crocs here.

[h/t ClickOrlando]

On This Day in 1953, Jonas Salk Announced His Polio Vaccine

Getty Images
Getty Images

On March 26, 1953, Dr. Jonas Salk went on CBS radio to announce his vaccine for poliomyelitis. He had worked for three years to develop the polio vaccine, attacking a disease that killed 3000 Americans in 1952 alone, along with 58,000 newly reported cases. Polio was a scourge, and had been infecting humans around the world for millennia. Salk's vaccine was the first practical way to fight it, and it worked—polio was officially eliminated in the U.S. in 1979.

Salk's method was to kill various strains of the polio virus, then inject them into a patient. The patient's own immune system would then develop antibodies to the dead virus, preventing future infection by live viruses. Salk's first test subjects were patients who had already had polio ... and then himself and his family. His research was funded by grants, which prompted him to give away the vaccine after it was fully tested.

Clinical trials of Salk's vaccine began in 1954. By 1955 the trials proved it was both safe and effective, and mass vaccinations of American schoolchildren followed. The result was an immediate reduction in new cases. Salk became a celebrity because his vaccine saved so many lives so quickly.

Salk's vaccine required a shot. In 1962, Dr. Albert Sabin unveiled an oral vaccine using attenuated (weakened but not killed) polio virus. Sabin's vaccine was hard to test in America in the late 1950s, because so many people had been inoculated using the Salk vaccine. (Sabin did much of his testing in the Soviet Union.) Oral polio vaccine, whether with attenuated or dead virus, is still the preferred method of vaccination today. Polio isn't entirely eradicated around the world, though we're very close.

Here's a vintage newsreel from the mid 1950s telling the story:

For more information on Dr. Jonas Salk and his work, click here.