If “brain-eating amoebae” isn't the most terrifying combination of words you’ve ever heard, it will be by the time you finish reading this article. Although infection from the Naegleria fowleri amoeba is rare, it does happen from time to time. Just last month, a 29-year-old man died from a brain-eating amoeba after visiting a wave pool in Waco, Texas. The CDC is currently investigating the incident. Here are a few things you should know about this pernicious organism.
1. THEY LIVE IN WARM FRESH WATER.
Warm bodies of fresh water like lakes, rivers, and hot springs are usually where the single-celled amoebae like to hang out. They can also be found in soil, and in extremely rare cases, in contaminated tap water or swimming pools that haven’t been properly chlorinated. While most people encounter the amoebae in lakes or rivers, the CDC reports found that between 2007 and 2016, one person became infected after using a backyard slip-n-slide and three people became infected after using a nose irrigation device. Contaminated tap water was to blame in all four cases.
2. YOU WON’T GET INFECTED FROM SWALLOWING CONTAMINATED WATER, THOUGH.
Infection only occurs when water containing Naegleria fowleri enters the nose. In other words, accidentally swallowing river water while swimming doesn’t put someone at risk, but getting water up one’s nose does. Although the presence of Naegleria fowleri in fresh water is common, infections still remain rare.
3. THEY’RE NOT USUALLY ATTRACTED TO HUMANS.
These amoebae don’t go out of their way to feast on human brains. In fact, they’re usually content to eat bacteria found in the soil or sediment of lakes or rivers. “Normally, it’s totally harmless, doing its own thing in the mud, eating whatever it finds there, going about its business, not bugging anybody,” biologist Dan Riskin told Mental Floss in 2017. However, once it enters a new environment (such as an unsuspecting victim’s nasal cavity), it resumes eating whatever it can find.
4. AFTER ENTERING THE NOSE, THEY TRAVEL UP THE OLFACTORY NERVE.
Once inside the nasal cavity, an amoeba starts eating away at the olfactory bulbs, which are responsible for processing information about odors. “It makes its way up that olfactory nerve, reproducing and eating, until it hits the brain,” Riskin said. “And once it’s in the brain, it’s game over for the kid that had it shoved up his nose.” That’s because the amoebae eat brain tissue and cells, resulting in brain swelling, necrosis, and usually death.
5. THE DISEASE IT CAUSES IN HUMANS IS ALMOST ALWAYS FATAL.
Once infected, a disease called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) sets in. Early symptoms include severe headache, fever, nausea, and vomiting, and some of the stage-two symptoms are seizures, hallucinations, altered mental state, and coma. Generally, people start to show symptoms about five days after infection and die five days after that. The fatality rate is more than 97 percent, but again, infection is rare. Of the 143 cases of infection reported between 1962 and 2017, only four people survived, according to the CDC. But don't worry, your odds of contracting a brain-eating amoeba are about 1 in 70 million.
6. YOU CAN REDUCE YOUR RISK BY PLUGGING YOUR NOSE.
Brain-eating amoebae shouldn't be at the top of your list of concerns while swimming—drowning, for instance, is a far greater danger—but there are still a few things you can do to protect yourself. Try squeezing your nose shut while jumping or diving, or keep your head above water while taking a dip.
If you’ve already mastered DIY houses for birds and dogs, maybe it’s time you built one for yourself.
As Simplemost reports, there are a number of house kits that you can order on Amazon, and the Allwood Avalon Cabin Kit is one of the quaintest—and, at $32,990, most affordable—options. The 540-square-foot structure has enough space for a kitchen, a bathroom, a bedroom, and a sitting room—and there’s an additional 218-square-foot loft with the potential to be the coziest reading nook of all time.
The construction process might not be a great idea for someone who’s never picked up a hammer, but you don’t need an architectural degree to tackle it. Step-by-step instructions and all materials are included, so it’s a little like a high-level IKEA project. According to the Amazon listing, it takes two adults about a week to complete. Since the Nordic wood walls are reinforced with steel rods, the house can withstand winds up to 120 mph, and you can pay an extra $1000 to upgrade from double-glass windows and doors to triple-glass for added fortification.
Though everything you need for the shell of the house comes in the kit, you will need to purchase whatever goes inside it: toilet, shower, sink, stove, insulation, and all other furnishings. You can also customize the blueprint to fit your own plans for the space; maybe, for example, you’re going to use the house as a small event venue, and you’d rather have two or three large, airy rooms and no kitchen or bedroom.
In an era where nerd is a nickname given by and to people who have pretty much any passing interest in popular culture, it’s hard to imagine the way old-school nerds—people with serious and socially-debilitating obsessions—were once ostracized. Computers, progressive rock, and role-playing games (among a handful of other 1970s- early '80s developments) created a path from which far too many of the lonely, awkward, and conventionally undateable would never return. But in the 1980s, movies transformed these oddballs into underdogs and antiheroes, pitting them against attractive, moneyed, successful adversaries for the fate of handsome boys and pretty girls, cushy jobs, and first-place trophies.
The 1985 film Real Genius ranked first among equals from that decade for its stellar cast, sensitive direction, and genuine nerd bona fides. Perhaps fittingly, it sometimes feels overshadowed, and even forgotten, next to broader, bawdier (and certainly now, more problematic) films from the era like Revenge of the Nerds and Weird Science. But director Martha Coolidge delivered a classic slobs-versus-snobs adventure that manages to view the academically gifted and socially maladjusted with a greater degree of understanding and compassion while still delivering plenty of good-natured humor.
As the movie commemorates its 35th anniversary, we're looking back at the little details and painstaking efforts that make it such an enduring portrait not just of ‘80s comedy, but of nerdom itself.
1. Producer Brian Grazer wanted Valley Girl director Martha Coolidge to direct Real Genius. She wasn’t sure she wanted to.
Following the commercial success of 1984’s Revenge of the Nerds, there was an influx of bawdy scripts that played upon the same idea, and Real Genius was one of them. In 2011, Coolidge told Kickin’ It Old School that the original script for Real Genius "had a lot of penis and scatological jokes," and she wasn't interested in directing a raunchy Nerds knock-off. So producer Brian Grazer enlisted PJ Torokvei (SCTV) and writing partners Babaloo Mandel and Lowell Ganz (Splash, City Slickers) to refine the original screenplay, and then gave Coolidge herself an opportunity to polish it before production started. “Brian's original goal, and mine, was to make a film that focused on nerds as heroes," Coolidge said. "It was ahead of its time."
2. Martha Coolidge’s priority was getting the science in Real Genius right—or at least as right as possible.
In the film, ambitious professor Jerry Hathaway (William Atherton) recruits high-achieving students at the fictional Pacific Technical University (inspired by Caltech) to design and build a laser capable of hitting a human-sized target from space. Coolidge researched the subject thoroughly, working with academic, scientific, and military technicians to ensure that as many of the script and story's elements were correct. Moreover, she ensured that the dialogue would hold up to some scrutiny, even if building a laser of the film’s dimensions wasn’t realistic (and still isn’t today).
3. One element of Real Genius that Martha Coolidge didn’t base on real events turned out to be truer than expected.
From the beginning, the idea that students were actively being exploited by their teacher to develop government technology was always fictional. But Coolidge learned that art and life share more in common than she knew at the time. “I have had so many letters since I made Real Genius from people who said, 'Yes, I was involved in a program and I didn’t realize I was developing weapons,'" she told Uproxx in 2015. “So it was a good guess and turned out to be quite accurate.”
4. Val Kilmer walked into his Real Genius audition already in character—and it nearly cost him the role.
After playing the lead in Top Secret!, Val Kilmer was firmly on Hollywood’s radar. But when he met Grazer at his audition for Real Genius, Kilmer decided to have some fun at the expense of the guy who would decide whether or not he’d get the part. "The character wasn't polite," Kilmer recalled to Entertainment Weekly in 1995. "So when I shook Grazer's hand and he said, 'Hi, I'm the producer,' I said, 'I'm sorry. You look like you're 12 years old. I like to work with men.'"
5. The filmmakers briefly considered using an actual “real genius” to star in Real Genius.
Among the performers considered to play Mitch, the wunderkind student who sets the movie’s story in motion, was a true genius who graduated college at 14 and was starting law school. Late in the casting process, they found their Mitch in Gabriel Jarrett, who becomes the third generation of overachievers (after Kilmer’s Chris and Jon Gries’s Lazlo Hollyfeld) whose talent Hathaway uses to further his own professional goals.
6. Real Genius's female lead inadvertently created a legacy for her character that would continue in animated form.
Michelle Meyrink was a staple of a number of ‘80s comedies, including Revenge of the Nerds. Playing Jordan in Real Genius, she claims to “never sleep” and offers a delightful portrait of high-functioning attention-deficit disorder with a chipper, erratic personality. Disney’s Chip 'n Dale: Rescue Rangers co-creator Tad Stones has confirmed that her character went on to inspire the character of Gadget Hackwrench.
7. A Real Genius subplot, where a computer programmer is gaming a Frito-Lay contest, was based on real events.
In the film, Jon Gries (Napoleon Dynamite) plays Lazlo Hollyfeld, a reclusive genius from before Chris and Mitch’s time who lives in a bunker beneath their dorm creating entries to a contest with no restrictions where he eventually wins more than 30 percent of the prizes. In 1969, students from Caltech tried a similar tactic with Frito-Lay to game the odds. But in 1975, three computer programmers used an IBM to generate 1.2 million entries in a contest for McDonald’s, where they received 20 percent of the prizes (and a lot of complaints from customers) for their effort.
8. One of Real Genius's cast members went on to write another tribute to nerds a decade later.
Dean Devlin, who co-wrote Stargate and Independence Day with Roland Emmerich, plays Milton, another student at Pacific Tech who experiences a memorable meltdown in the rush up to finals.
9. The popcorn gag that ends Real Genius isn’t really possible, but they used real popcorn to simulate it.
At the end of the film, Chris and Mitch build a giant Jiffy Pop pack that the laser unleashes after they redirect its targeting system. The resulting popcorn fills Professor Hathaway’s house as an act of revenge. MythBusters took pains to recreate this gag in a number of ways, but quickly discovered that it wouldn’t work; even at scale, the popcorn just burns in the heat of a laser.
To pull off the scene in the film, Coolidge said that the production had people popping corn for six weeks of filming in order to get enough for the finale. After that, they had to build a house that they could manipulate with hydraulics so that the popcorn would “explode” out of every doorway and window.
10. Real Genius was the first movie to be promoted on the internet.
A week before Real Genius opened, promoters set up a press conference at a computer store in Westwood, California. Coolidge and members of the cast appeared to field questions from press from across the country—connected via CompuServe. Though the experience was evidently marred by technical problems (this was the mid-1980s, after all), the event marked the debut of what became the online roundtable junket.