What Famous Novels Look Like Stripped of Everything But Punctuation

Punctuation marks are the unsung heroes of writing. They determine the story's rhythm and clarity, but are doomed to play second fiddle to the author's words. Inspired by a series of posters featuring literary punctuation, scientist and writer Adam J Calhoun decided to compare how different literary figures throughout history have wielded punctuation. He stripped down novels like Pride and Prejudice, Frankenstein, and Ulysses to analyze the differences between authors’ styles. And there is a stark visual difference. In the photo above, Cormac McCarthy’s concise Blood Meridian is on the left while William Faulkner’s Absalom, Absalom! is on the right.

Here's a section of Pride and Prejudice:


Calhoun also charted the ratio of different punctuation marks in novels, visualizing James Joyce’s total lack of quotes in Ulysses, Ernest Hemingway’s love of dialogue, and more. Take a look at how punctuation use has changed over the years:


He also charted the number of words per sentence in certain novels, and made heat maps of the punctuation usage. See all his visualizations on Medium, and if you’re code-savvy, you can make similar posters yourself.

[h/t Boing Boing]

All images courtesy Adam J Calhoun

First Editions of Pride and Prejudice, Emma, and Other Jane Austen Novels Can Be Yours

GeorgiosArt, iStock via Getty Images
GeorgiosArt, iStock via Getty Images

Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen hasn't been out of print since its initial publication in 1813. Now, fans of the British classic have a chance to own an original copy. On February 20, first editions of all of Austen's beloved books—including Pride and Prejudice, Emma, and Persuasion—are hitting the auction block.

Born in England in 1775, Austen is one of the most influential British writers of all time. Her stories are famous for their witty commentary of English society, and they've been adapted into everything from modern rom-coms to an apocalyptic zombie novel.

First editions of her books from the early 19th century will go up for bid at an auction organized by Swann Auction Galleries in New York. A three-volume print of Pride and Prejudice from 1813 is expected to fetch between $20,000 and $30,000. The copy of Emma, which was printed in 1816, has an estimated value of $15,000 to $20,000, while Sense and Sensibility from 1816 is projected to earn $30,000 to $40,000. The first edition of Sense of Sensibility (published as "By a Lady") comes from a run of no more than 1000 copies that sold out in less than two years. The two other novels up for bid are Northanger Abbey and Mansfield Park.

The Austen works for sale are part of Swann's upcoming auction of fine books and manuscripts. A signed limited-edition copy of the Virginia Woolf short story "Kew Gardens" will be sold at the same event. You can view the items here before the auction goes live on Thursday.

First-edition of Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen.
Swann Auction Galleries

First-edition of Sense and Sensibility by Jane Austen.
Swann Auction Galleries

The Scottish Play: Why Actors Won’t Call Macbeth by Its Title

Macbeth and the three witches in Shakespeare's possibly cursed play.
Macbeth and the three witches in Shakespeare's possibly cursed play.
Photos.com/iStock via Getty Images

If you see someone burst from the doors of a theater, spin around three times, spit over their left shoulder, and shout out a Shakespearean phrase or curse word, it’s likely they just uttered “Macbeth” inside the building and are trying to keep a very famous curse at bay.

As the story goes, saying “Macbeth” in a theater when you’re not rehearsing or performing the play can cause disaster to befall the production. Instead, actors commonly refer to it as “the Bard’s play” or “the Scottish play.”

According to History.com, the curse of Macbeth originated after a string of freak accidents occurred during early performances of Shakespeare’s 1606 play. In the very first show, the actor portraying Lady Macbeth unexpectedly died, and Shakespeare himself had to take over the role. In a later one, an actor stabbed King Duncan with an actual dagger rather than a prop knife, killing him on stage.

Macbeth has continued to cause calamity after calamity throughout its four centuries of existence. Harold Norman died from stab wounds sustained during a fight scene while playing Macbeth in 1947, and there have been several high-profile audience riots at various performances, too—the worst was at New York’s Astor Place Opera House in 1849, when fans of British actor William Charles Macready clashed with those of American actor Edwin Forrest. Twenty-two people died, and more than 100 others were injured.

Since Macbeth has been around for so long and performed so often, it’s not exactly surprising its history contains some tragic moments. But many believe these accidents are the result of a curse actual witches cast on the play when Shakespeare first debuted it.

As the Royal Shakespeare Company explains, Shakespeare really did his research when creating the three witches in Macbeth: “Fillet of a fenny snake,” “eye of newt and toe of frog,” and other lines from the “Song of the Witches” were supposedly taken from “real” witches’ spells from the time. According to legend, a coven of witches decided to punish him for using their magic by cursing his play.

For skeptics, Christopher Eccleston—who played Macbeth in a Royal Shakespeare Company production in 2018—offers a slightly more believable theory about the origin of the curse. In the interview below, he explains how theater companies that were struggling financially would stage Macbeth, a crowd favorite, to guarantee ticket sales. Therefore, saying “Macbeth” in a theater was an admission that things weren’t going well for your company.

[h/t History.com]

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