Every year, as Easter approaches, people across the globe hardboil eggs and dye them brilliant colors. Where did this tradition come from? There's no one answer to that question—in fact, there are many accounts as to how dying eggs became a part of the tradition surrounding the Christian holiday of Easter. Here are five of them.
1. A Spring Celebration
Eggs were often associated with pagan festivals and celebrations of spring. Eggs were symbolic of rebirth and new life, making them an appropriate part of the celebration of spring and the new life that comes after winter. It was common for eggs to be decorated in conjunction with these spring festivals, and common to see these colored eggs given as gifts to friends and family. The symbolism of rebirth fit well with the spring holiday of Easter, as it is the celebration of Jesus’ resurrection. The practice of decorating eggs and giving them as gifts was adopted by Christians and included in their Easter celebrations.
2. A Mesopotamian Tradition
According to Volume 5 of Donahoe's Magazine, a monthly Catholic-oriented general interest magazine that ran from 1878 to 1908, early Christians in Mesopotamia dyed eggs red to mimic the blood that Christ shed during his crucifixion. The church purportedly took up this tradition and it has continued ever since.
In several legends, Mary Magdalene is a key player in the creation of the egg-dying tradition. One version involves Mary Magdalene’s trip to Jesus’ tomb three days after his crucifixion. She carried a basket of cooked eggs to share with the other women who would be mourning at the tomb. When she arrived to find the stone rolled away from the entrance and the tomb empty, the eggs in her basket turned a brilliant shade of red.
Another legend tells of Mary Magdalene going to speak to the Roman Emperor Tiberius after Jesus rose from the dead. She greeted the emperor by saying “Christ is risen.” Tiberius replied, “Christ has no more risen than that egg is red,” gesturing to an egg that was, depending on the version of the legend, on his table or held by Mary herself. As soon as the emperor said this—you guessed it—the egg turned red.
5. Mary, the Mother of Jesus, and the Red Egg
Some Eastern European legends credit not Mary Magdalene, but Jesus' mother Mary, as the source of the egg-dying tradition. Mary was present at her son’s crucifixion on Good Friday and, according to these legends, she brought eggs with her. In one version, blood from Jesus’ wounds drops on the eggs, coloring them red. Another version of the legend tells of Mary weeping, begging the soldiers at the cross to be less cruel to her son. She gives these soldiers eggs and, as her tears fall on them, they are spotted with brilliant color.
Freeze all motor functions. Bring yourself back online. HBO’s hit series Westworld might be made up of a lot of cryptic speeches and shoot-em-up action, but there is definitely another level to the game. So saddle up and put some modern hits on the player piano at the Mariposa Saloon because here are a few of the best Easter eggs you might have missed. Spoilers ahead!
1. CONFUSED ABOUT TIMELINES? KEEP TRACK OF THE BRANDING.
Westworld doesn’t waste any time explaining that the series operates on multiple timelines, with characters appearing years—and even decades—apart. But if you’re confused about the “when,” keep an eye out for the distinctive “W” logo of the park in the background of certain shots. If you spot a retro, 1970s-infused looking wordmark—like the ones seen when Angela introduces William to the park in “Chestnut”—then you’re in the past timeline.
If you spot a sleek, Apple-like “W,” like the one seen toward the end of the same episode when Sizemore shows the Delos executives his new narrative, “Odyssey on Red River,” then you know it’s present day within the show.
2. THE ORIGINAL GUNSLINGER MAKES A QUICK CAMEO.
Theseries is based on the 1973 film of the same name, which was written and directed by Michael Crichton and features a similar premise of robots leading a revolt against guests in a Wild West-themed amusement park. The main villain of the movie, with his distinctive robotic posture and black hat, is “The Gunslinger,” played by actor Yul Brynner. While the movie and the series aren’t specifically in the same universe, Brynner’s antagonist makes a quick appearance in the background of the show when Bernard explores the old section of the park in “The Adversary.”
Co-creator Jonathan Nolan talked about any movie/show crossovers with Entertainment Weekly, saying, “We wanted to connect to the ideas in the original film, but also take a look at this place as a cultural institution that is not new, because these ideas aren’t new.”
3. DOLORES IS GOING DOWN THE RABBIT HOLE.
Besides Dolores’s distinctive blue dress, blonde hair, and a plot about awakening in a surreal locale, there are a few more direct allusions to Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland throughout Westworld—and beyond.
In “The Stray,” Bernard asks Dolores to read an excerpt from the book during one of their consciousness sessions, having her say, “Dear, dear, how queer everything is today. And yesterday, things went on just as usual. I wonder if I've been changed in the night." But the mystery goes a little further down the rabbit hole ... or, more precisely, the J.J. Abrams rabbit hole.
The same exact passage was featured in Episode 10 of Season 4 of Abrams’s TV series, Lost, when the character Jack reads a bedtime story to Claire’s son.
4. ROBERT FORD AND ARNOLD ARE DEFINITELY CLAUDE DEBUSSY FANS.
The so-called reveries, first introduced in “The Original,” are a series of memories and gestures supposedly programmed by Ford and his partner Arnold as part of a routine host update, but actually end up causing the hosts to recall their past loops.
They could have been called something other than the eloquent-sounding term that roughly translates to daydream in French, but it’s obvious that Ford and Arnold couldn’t let their fandom for French composer Claude Debussy go unsaid.
We first hear Debussy’s song “Reverie” in “The Stray,” when a pianist host plays the track during Ford and Bernard’s private conversation in the park executive’s office. Ford later uses the specific song to calm Maeve down in “Trace Decay”—perhaps an indication he did the same thing to Bernard earlier, since we eventually find out that Bernard is, in fact, a robot version of Arnold.
5. BIOSHOCK FANS BEWARE.
It’s no secret that the park resembles an open world video game construct where players can wander wherever they please and get into any number of subplots and scenarios. So it’s no surprise that series creators Nolan and Lisa Joy were inspired by classic open world video games like BioShock when planning out all the supposedly real-world shenanigans guests could get into in the show.
The popular first-person shooter was such an influence that a bust of Sander Cohen, a character from the game, can be seen in Ford’s office in “The Stray.”
At a Westworld panel at New York Comic-Con, Nolan explained: “I was [with] Ken Levine, the designer of those games, talking about the non-player characters—Elizabeth, specifically, in BioShock Infinite. In a scene, I think I had just run through and shot everyone and kept going. And he was talking about how much craft had gone into all the conversations that the non-player characters had, and all their dreams and aspirations. And I just thought, 'Oh, isn’t that tragic? Isn’t that sad? And the player just ignores it all. The bastards.'"
6. FELIX SPEAKS JOHN HAMMOND’S LANGUAGE.
“Contrapasso” features a blink-and-you’ll-miss-it nod to original Westworld creator Michael Crichton’s other theme-park-run-amok classic, Jurassic Park.
In his spare time, bumbling but lovable host repairman Felix secretly tries to revive a malfunctioning robot bird in an attempt to be the Westworld programmer he always wanted to be. And when he finally wakes his fake feathered friend, he offers some familiar words of encouragement. "That’s it. Come on, little one," he says, sounding eerily similar to Jurassic Park’s Robert Ford proxy, John Hammond, in a scene from the 1993 Steven Spielberg film based on Crichton's book.
We suspect that won’t be the only Crichton/Spielberg allusion as the series progresses. In season two's "Reunion,” the host named El Lazo (played in this loop by Breaking Bad star Giancarlo Esposito) monologues about why he's done with his current situation by telling a story about a childhood visit to the circus, much in the same way John Hammond tells a metaphor for the failings of Jurassic Park by recounting a trip to the circus as a child.
7. THE CHARACTER NAMES ARE APOCALYPTIC.
Given Ford’s nihilistic look at humanity (this is the guy who said, “Never place your trust in us. We’re only human. Inevitably, we will disappoint you,” after all), if Westworld is building to some sort of robo-apocalypse, then it should make complete sense. It was all in the names.
Some of the symbology behind the character names in the show are literally apocalyptic. Forlorn cowboy Teddy Flood’s surname could refer to the biblical flood of Noah’s ark. Teddy’s ostensible rival, Wyatt, is described by hosts as “a pestilence,” or one of the four Horsemen of the Apocalypse in the Bible. Roguish bandit Hector Escaton’s surname is a slightly different spelling from eschaton, a theological word meaning the end of the world.
8. THE SERIES CREATORS MUST HAVE LOVED SHAKESPEARE IN SCHOOL.
If you’re a lit nerd, and especially a fan of the Bard, then watching Westworld must be a blast from the get-go. Malfunctioning host Peter Abernathy’s monologue at the end of “The Original” quotes from a whopping three different Shakespeare plays: King Lear, Henry IV, and The Tempest.
Arguably the most prominent line by a number of hosts (including Dolores and Peter) throughout the show comes from Friar Lawrence’s line from Romeo and Juliet, when they say, “These violent delights have violent ends.”
One of the scariest and saddest Shakespeare quotes is from “Trompe L’Oeil,” when Ford has the robotic Bernard kill head of quality assurance Theresa Cullen. Ford slightly misquotes Hamlet when he says "for in that sleep, what dreams may come?"
9. LIKE MOZART, BEETHOVEN, AND CHOPIN, FORD NEVER DIED.
In the season one finale, “The Bicameral Mind,” Ford hints that he isn’t done with the park just yet even though Dolores kills him. In his monologue in front of the Delos board he says, “An old friend once told me something that gave me great comfort. Something he had read. He said that Mozart, Beethoven, and Chopin never died. They simply became music.”
In much the same way those geniuses “became” their work, Ford pops up again in season two’s premiere, “Journey Into Night,” as the younger host version of himself who challenges the Man in Black to a new game in the park.
The Chopin connection goes a bit further in a flashback to Jim Delos’s retirement party in “Reunion,” when Dolores plays Chopin’s “Sonata for Piano No. 2 in B-Flat Minor,” to which the grizzled billionaire and Ford antagonist says, "Anything but f***in' Chopin."
10. ROBERT FORD MUST HAVE LOVED PSYCHOLOGY CLASS.
One of the incredibly abstract but driving concepts behind season one of Westworld was “The Bicameral Mind,” a theory that Arnold and Ford use to “bootstrap consciousness” in the hosts. The hypothesis imagines a three-tiered pyramid approach to allow the artificial intelligence of the park’s robots to be self-aware with memory at the bottom, improvisation and self-interest in the middle, and a big ol’ question mark at the top because, as Ford explains, Arnold never figured out what’s at the top. Maybe that’s why all the hosts go haywire.
Anyway, the notion of the Bicameral Mind isn’t some made-up mumbo jumbo. It actually originated in the 1976 book The Origins of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind by American psychologist Julian Jaynes. In the book, Jaynes posited that humans developed the ability to think for themselves only after they were able to discern that the voices in our heads weren’t god. Similarly, hosts like Dolores hear voices in their heads and think it’s Arnold only to realize they’re hearing their own consciousness, and thus are self-aware beings.
11. DR. FORD, OR DR. FRANKENSTEIN?
The similarities between Ford and the main character of Mary Shelley’s gothic classic Frankenstein are a bit obvious: mad scientists who create a new form of life that backfires against them. So it’s perhaps fitting that one of Ford’s witticisms is taken directly from the book.
In a conversation between Ford and Bernard in “Trace Decay,” when the latter asks the former why he had him kill Theresa, Ford responds by explaining that her death doesn’t mean much in the grand scheme of his new narrative. He caps it off by quoting Shelley: "One man's life or death were but a small price to pay for the acquirement of knowledge which I sought, for the dominion I should acquire."
12. FORD KEEPS HIS FAVORITE HOSTS CLOSE.
Ford is nothing if not an eccentric weirdo. This is a guy who keeps a host in his office to do nothing put play the piano every time he wants some music while brainstorming AI consciousness. But there are some more recognizable hosts in his office besides the piano player.
If you look closely, directly behind Ford’s desk there is a wall of faces. Though never explained, these are ostensibly dry run versions of host faces created by the still unexplained white goo that solidifies into host skin. Two of those faces belong to Ford’s favorite star-crossed robots: Dolores and Teddy.
13. MAEVE IS OFF HER LOOP ... OR IS SHE?
The thrilling finale of season one saw the newly conscious, former madame Maeve recruit fellow hosts Hector and Armistice to mow down park security on her way out on the park train to freedom. But an onscreen revelation from Bernard makes it seem like she’s not as free to control her own destiny as she thinks she is.
After resurrecting Bernard, he uses one of the programmer devices to show her that her programming was actually altered to make her want to escape, recruit hosts, and get out via the train. Maeve, refusing to admit she doesn’t have free will, tells Bernard, "These are my decisions, no one else’s," but the device proves her wrong. Look closely and you see that Ford has pre-programmed the steps for her to "Recruit," "Escape," "Manipulate," and even "Mainland Infiltration." It seems Ford wanted her to be free, but not in the way she wants.
Whether you attend a church service, decorate eggs, or devour Peeps, no Easter celebration is complete without a visit from the Easter Bunny. Check out these 10 things you may not know about the Easter Bunny, from its contested origins to its surprising iterations around the world.
1. IT MAY HAVE COME FROM A PAGAN GODDESS OF FERTILITY—WITH SOME HELP FROM A BROTHER GRIMM ...
While we don’t know its exact origins, some believe the Easter Bunny has its roots in Anglo-Saxon paganism. According to Bede, a prolific 8th-century English monk, the Anglo-Saxon month Eosturmonath (broadly the Easter season) "was once called after a goddess of theirs named Eostre, in whose honor feasts were celebrated in that month. Now they designate that Paschal season by her name, calling the joys of the new rite by the time-honored name of the old observance." Whether Eostre was real or an invention by Bede has long been controversial, but scholarship on the goddess didn't really pick up for over a thousand years.
In his 1835 book Deutsche Mythologie, Jacob Grimm (of the Brothers Grimm) speculated that Eostre was connected to a German goddess named Ostara (whose existence, again, is controversial). Almost 40 years later, Adolf Holtzmann wrote that "The Easter Hare is unintelligible to me, but probably the hare was the sacred animal of Ostara," and a contemporary named K. A. Oberle hypothesized that "the hare which lay the parti-coloured Easter eggs was sacred to [Ostara]."
Over the years, other writers repeated these speculations as fact, and the idea that a hare was one of Eostre's sacred animals spread. Although hares and rabbits are different species, they're often conflated because the animals look alike and are both associated with fertility.
2. … OR IT MAY COME FROM A MYTH ABOUT THAT GODDESS'S BIRD.
Other scholars, however, think the Easter Bunny originated from an Anglo-Saxon myth about Eostre. According to the myth, the goddess was entertaining a group of kids one day. To make them laugh, she transformed her pet bird into a rabbit, giving it the ability to lay colored eggs. Eostre then gave the eggs to the children. A similar myth portrays a more malevolent Eostre, who turned her pet bird into a rabbit or hare because she was enraged. But other historians, noting the lack of any information outside of Bede regarding Eostre or Ostara, have speculated that these stories are possibly corruptions of Ukrainian folktales that explained that country's practice of making pysanky—essentially highly decorated eggs. An alternate hypothesis is that Oberle (or perhaps Holtzmann) made the decision that because the rabbit lays eggs it must have at some point transformed from a bird, making this story an entirely late-19th century invention.
3. THE PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH INTRODUCED THE OSCHTER HAWS TO THE U.S.
In the late 17th century, groups of Christian German immigrants began settling in Pennsylvania. They taught their children about the Oschter Haws (or Osterhase), a hare from German folklore that gave colorful eggs to well-behaved children on Easter. To prepare for the Oschter Haws's arrival, German and German-American kids built a small nest or basket for the hare's eggs. Over time, the Oschter Haws character gained popularity and was Americanized, morphing into the Easter Bunny.
4. IT'S NOT IN THE BIBLE, BUT IT MIGHT BE ASSOCIATED WITH THE VIRGIN MARY.
"The Madonna of the Rabbit," by Titian, circa 1530.
Like Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny is a secular symbol of a Christian holiday. Although the Easter Bunny doesn't appear in the Bible, some religious scholars argue that it was originally associated with the Virgin Mary, rather than the pagan goddess Eostre. Because rabbits and hares were so fertile, Ancient Greeks and early medieval Christians thought that the animals could reproduce without having sex. Consequently, artwork and manuscripts often depict the Virgin Mary with rabbit iconography, alluding to the view that both the Virgin Mary and rabbits were able to have virgin births.
5. IN AUSTRALIA, IT'S THE EASTER BILBY …
Rather than celebrate Easter with bunnies, Australians are increasingly ushering in fall (which is when Easter falls in the southern hemisphere) with the Easter Bilby. Also called rabbit-bandicoots, bilbies are Australian marsupials with long, rabbit-like ears. Things began looking grim for bilbies two centuries ago, when new predators and diseases were introduced into their habitat. Then, European rabbits—an invasive species whose population really took off when a few were released more than 150 years ago so they could be hunted—drove them out of their natural habitat until only a few thousand of the animals remained. But in the 1980s and '90s, Australians began doing more to protect the bilby. A book called Billy The Aussie Easter Bilby popularized the concept of the Easter Bilby, and the establishment of the Foundation for Rabbit-Free Australia educated Australians about the ecological harm that rabbits wreak. Today, you can find chocolate bilbies in Australia around Easter time, and some chocolate companies even donate a portion of their proceeds to organizations that save the animals.
6. … AND IN OTHER COUNTRIES, YOU'LL FIND THE EASTER BELL, WIZARD, AND CUCKOO.
Two women feed candy to fish while dressed as Easter witches at the Aquaria Vattenmuseum in Stockholm, Sweden in 2016.
JESSICA GOW, TT/AFP/Getty Images
While the Easter Bilby might sound strange to anyone unfamiliar with it, other countries have their own, even weirder versions of the Easter Bunny. In most of France, children believe that flying church bells travel to the Vatican and bring back chocolate treats in time for Easter Sunday. In Sweden, kids dress up as wizards and witches rather than bunnies. And in Switzerland, the Easter Cuckoo (bird) is a symbol of the spring holiday.
7. A SENSORY-FRIENDLY EASTER BUNNY CATERS TO KIDS WITH AUTISM.
A sensory-friendly Caring Bunny greeted and posed for photos with children with autism and special needs on World Autism Awareness Day in 2017. Sponsored by Autism Speaks, the event took place in malls across the U.S., which dimmed the lights, lowered the music, and shut down noisy escalators and fountains to accommodate kids who were unable to deal with the visual and auditory stimulation of a normal mall.
8. FAMOUS PEOPLE LOVE DONNING BUNNY COSTUMES.
The Easter Bunny drops eggs on the field in between innings of a Cincinnati Reds game.
Joe Robbins, Getty Images
While most people enjoy dressing up for Halloween, celebrities can't seem to get enough of donning a big rabbit suit on Easter. Singers, actors, and sports stars such as Mariah Carey, Madonna, David Beckham, Miley Cyrus, Snoop Dogg, and Kanye West have all shared photos of themselves wearing Easter Bunny costumes, which range from a simple set of bunny ears to a full-body white, fluffy suit.
9. FORMER U.S. PRESS SECRETARY SEAN SPICER WAS ONCE THE WHITE HOUSE EASTER BUNNY.
Then-White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer reads a book to children during the White House's annual Easter Egg Roll in 2017.
Chip Somodevilla, Getty Images
The White House's annual Easter Egg Roll, which began in 1878, draws children and families to the President's home for egg hunting and musical performances. Traditionally, a member of the president's administration dresses up as the Easter Bunny to entertain kids and their families. When George W. Bush was president, then-assistant U.S. trade representative for media and public affairs Sean Spicer wore the bunny costume. In March 2016, Spicer poked fun at his old role, retweeting a photo of himself with the comment: "The good ole days—what I would give to hide in a bunny costume again."
10. CHOCOLATE BUNNIES ARE INSANELY POPULAR.
Joe Raedle, Getty Images
Halloween and Easter are the two big holidays for candy sales, with Easter sometimes coming out on top (at least in dollar sales). This year, Americans are expected to spend $18.2 billion on the holiday, and 89 percent of celebrants planned to buy Easter candy like chocolate bunnies, marshmallow bunnies and eggs, and jelly beans. About 90 million chocolate bunnies are produced every Easter, which makes for a ton of mouthwatering chocolate rabbits in kids' (and adults') Easter baskets.