6 Things to Know Now That Hurricane Season Has Started

A tiny Tropical Storm Arlene swirls harmlessly in the central Atlantic Ocean on April 20, 2017.
A tiny Tropical Storm Arlene swirls harmlessly in the central Atlantic Ocean on April 20, 2017.
Image Credit: NASA

Tropical Storm Arlene formed in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean on April 20, 2017, briefly coming to life far away from land—where it was little more than an oddity to gawk at on satellite imagery. Even though the short-lived system wasn’t much of a threat (beyond aggravating some fish), the early start to the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season grabbed headlines.

But if you're a coastal resident anxious about the summer to come, fear not! It doesn't necessarily bode ill for the season. Now is as good a time as any to talk about what you can expect in this upcoming year, and to take a look at the innovative ways forecasters are improving how you can prepare for an approaching storm.

1. DON’T GET TRIPPED UP BY THE TERM SUBTROPICAL.

Tropical Storm Arlene first began its life as a subtropical cyclone. The word subtropical sounds intimidating, but it just describes the meteorological structure of the storm itself. Tropical cyclones are low-pressure systems that form over warm ocean waters and maintain their strength through thunderstorms raging near the center of the storm. They are tight, compact systems that are warm and muggy all the way from the surface to the top of the clouds.

The atmosphere is fluid, though, so not all storms perfectly fit that definition. That’s where subtropical cyclones enter the picture. A subtropical cyclone is one that resembles a tropical cyclone, but it’s not completely warm throughout the storm. It’s also not compact. Unlike a tropical cyclone, where the strongest winds are concentrated right near the center of the storm, the wind field in a subtropical cyclone can be far removed from the center and stretch hundreds of miles across. Sometimes these cyclones progress into tropical versions, sometimes they don't.

2. A STORM IN APRIL ISN’T AN OMEN FOR THE SEASON TO COME.

It’s not too unusual for a tropical or subtropical system to develop before the start of hurricane season. Hurricane season in the Atlantic runs from June 1 to November 30, but that’s just when they’re most likely to develop. The 2016 hurricane season started with Hurricane Alex in January—which was highly unusual—with the season’s second system, Tropical Storm Bonnie, forming in May. The last time we saw a storm in April was Tropical Storm Ana near Bermuda in April 2003.

Since 2007, we’ve seen eight tropical or subtropical cyclones develop before the official start of hurricane season. These early-season storms formed in years that were both quiet and active. In other words, storms that form before the start of hurricane season are usually case studies in their own right rather than a sign of things to come. Plus, no matter how many storms develop, it only takes one storm hitting land to cause major problems.

3. IT’S HARD TO TELL EXACTLY WHAT WILL HAPPEN THIS HURRICANE SEASON.

So much of what happens in the Atlantic Ocean’s hurricane season depends on what’s going on out in the eastern Pacific Ocean. El Niño and La Niña can have a major impact on how many storms are able to form. Years with El Niño conditions tend to see fewer storms in the Atlantic due to increased wind shear, which shreds potential storms apart before they can develop. Years featuring a La Niña can have the opposite effect, as cool waters in the Pacific help reduce destructive wind shear flowing out over the Atlantic—creating more opportunities for tropical systems to develop.

We’re in a “neutral” phase of the El Niño-La Niña cycle right now, which means that water temperatures in the eastern Pacific are right around where they should be. NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center is also calling for the chance for an El Niño toward the peak of hurricane season, though nothing is set in stone. If that happens as forecast, there’s a chance this season might come in a little quieter than average.

4. FORECASTS ARE A LITTLE BETTER THAN THEY WERE A FEW YEARS AGO.


A forecast map showing the cone of uncertainty for Hurricane Matthew on October 3, 2016.
Image Credit: Dennis Mersereau

When tropical storms and hurricanes fire up this summer, the most noticeable part of the coverage you’ll see online and on television is the cone of uncertainty, a shaded bubble that stretches along the length of the storm’s forecast track. This cone of uncertainty is the historical margin of error in hurricane track forecasts. Forecasts today are good enough that you can expect that the eye of a tropical cyclone will stay somewhere within that cone of uncertainty about two-thirds of the time.

At the end of each hurricane season, meteorologists at the National Hurricane Center (NHC) calculate the error in their previous forecasts and determine how far off their track forecasts were, on average. The NHC takes this average error at each time step and uses the resulting distance to draw a circle around their forecast points, connecting each circle to make the cone we’re all familiar with. The cone of uncertainty has steadily shrunk over the years—and the cone will grow a little narrower once again this year.

5. GET READY FOR STORM SURGE WARNINGS.

The deadliest part of a landfalling tropical storm or hurricane is flooding from storm surge, or the sea water that’s pushed inland by strong, persistent winds. Most storm surges are small; however, the surge in a large or intense storm can completely submerge a one-story home and push water several miles inland.

Since the threat for storm surge flooding can get lost in the focus on how strong the wind is blowing, the NHC will start officially issuing storm surge watches and warnings this year. Communities placed under one of these new storm surge warnings can expect life-threatening coastal flooding within 36 hours. This new focus on flooding might help convince people who would otherwise attempt to ride out the storm that it’s a better idea to leave for a few days than risk their lives.

6. YOU’LL HAVE A BETTER IDEA OF WHEN THINGS WILL GET UGLY.


A map showing the forecast arrival time for tropical storm force winds in Hurricane Matthew on October 3, 2016.
Image Credit: NOAA/NHC

Another new product being introduced this year by the National Hurricane Center is an arrival time map [PDF]. This forecast will show you when you can reasonably expect the damaging winds of a tropical storm or a hurricane to reach a certain point based on the storm’s current forecast track. This will help people and agencies gauge just how long they have to prepare for a storm before conditions deteriorate and venturing outside is too dangerous. However, these times are estimates—if the storm changes direction, speeds up, or slows down, the arrival times will change accordingly. Generally with storm systems, you can never be too prepared.

10 Products for a Better Night's Sleep

Amazon/Comfort Spaces
Amazon/Comfort Spaces

Getting a full eight hours of sleep can be tough these days. If you’re having trouble catching enough Zzzs, consider giving these highly rated and recommended products a try.

1. Everlasting Comfort Pure Memory Foam Knee Pillow; $25

Everlasting Comfort Knee Pillow
Everlasting Comfort/Amazon

For side sleepers, keeping the spine, hips, and legs aligned is key to a good night’s rest—and a pain-free morning after. Everlasting Comfort’s memory foam knee pillow is ergonomically designed to fit between the knees or thighs to ensure proper alignment. One simple but game-changing feature is the removable strap, which you can fasten around one leg; this keeps the pillow in place even as you roll at night, meaning you don’t have to wake up to adjust it (or pick it up from your floor). Reviewers call the pillow “life-changing” and “the best knee pillow I’ve found.” Plus, it comes with two pairs of ear plugs.

Buy it: Amazon

2. Letsfit White Noise Machine; $21

Letsfit White Noise Machine
Letsfit/Amazon

White noise machines: They’re not just for babies! This Letsfit model—which is rated 4.7 out of five with nearly 3500 reviews—has 14 potential sleep soundtracks, including three white noise tracks, to better block out everything from sirens to birds that chirp enthusiastically at dawn (although there’s also a birds track, if that’s your thing). It also has a timer function and a night light.

Buy it: Amazon

3. ECLIPSE Blackout Curtains; $16

Eclipse Black Out Curtains
Eclipse/Amazon

According to the National Sleep Foundation, too much light in a room when you’re trying to snooze is a recipe for sleep disaster. These understated polyester curtains from ECLIPSE block 99 percent of light and reduce noise—plus, they’ll help you save on energy costs. "Our neighbor leaves their backyard light on all night with what I can only guess is the same kind of bulb they use on a train headlight. It shines across their yard, through ours, straight at our bedroom window," one Amazon reviewer who purchased the curtains in black wrote. "These drapes block the light completely."

Buy it: Amazon

4. JALL Wake Up Light Sunrise Alarm Clock; $38

JALL Wake Up Light Sunrise Alarm Clock
JALL/Amazon

Being jarred awake by a blaring alarm clock can set the wrong mood for the rest of your day. Wake up in a more pleasant way with this clock, which gradually lights up between 10 percent and 100 percent in the 30 minutes before your alarm. You can choose between seven different colors and several natural sounds as well as a regular alarm beep, but why would you ever use that? “Since getting this clock my sleep has been much better,” one reviewer reported. “I wake up not feeling tired but refreshed.”

Buy it: Amazon

5. Philips SmartSleep Wake-Up Light; $200

Philips SmartSleep Wake-Up Light
Philips/Amazon

If you’re looking for an alarm clock with even more features, Philips’s SmartSleep Wake-Up Light is smartphone-enabled and equipped with an AmbiTrack sensor, which tracks things like bedroom temperature, humidity, and light levels, then gives recommendations for how you can get a better night’s rest.

Buy it: Amazon

6. Slumber Cloud Stratus Sheet Set; $159

Stratus sheets from Slumber Cloud.
Slumber Cloud

Being too hot or too cold can kill a good night’s sleep. The Good Housekeeping Institute rated these sheets—which are made with Outlast fibers engineered by NASA—as 2020’s best temperature-regulating sheets.

Buy it: SlumberCloud

7. Comfort Space Coolmax Sheet Set; $29-$40

Comfort Spaces Coolmax Sheets
Comfort Spaces/Amazon

If $159 sheets are out of your price range, the GHI recommends these sheets from Comfort Spaces, which are made with moisture-wicking Coolmax microfiber. Depending on the size you need, they range in price from $29 to $40.

Buy it: Amazon

8. Coop Home Goods Eden Memory Foam Pillow; $80

Coop Eden Pillow
Coop Home Goods/Amazon

This pillow—which has a 4.5-star rating on Amazon—is filled with memory foam scraps and microfiber, and comes with an extra half-pound of fill so you can add, or subtract, the amount in the pillow for ultimate comfort. As a bonus, the pillows are hypoallergenic, mite-resistant, and washable.

Buy it: Amazon

9. Baloo Weighted Blanket; $149-$169

Baloo Weighted Blanket
Baloo/Amazon

Though the science is still out on weighted blankets, some people swear by them. Wirecutter named this Baloo blanket the best, not in small part because, unlike many weighted blankets, it’s machine-washable and -dryable. It’s currently available in 12-pound ($149) twin size and 20-pound ($169) queen size. It’s rated 4.7 out of five stars on Amazon, with one reviewer reporting that “when it's spread out over you it just feels like a comfy, snuggly hug for your whole body … I've found it super relaxing for falling asleep the last few nights, and it looks nice on the end of the bed, too.” 

Buy it: Amazon 

10. Philips Smartsleep Snoring Relief Band; $200

Philips SmartSleep Snoring Relief Band
Philips/Amazon

Few things can disturb your slumber—and that of the ones you love—like loudly sawing logs. Philips’s Smartsleep Snoring Relief Band is designed for people who snore when they’re sleeping on their backs, and according to the company, 86 percent of people who used the band reported reduced snoring after a month. The device wraps around the torso and is equipped with a sensor that delivers vibrations if it detects you moving to sleep on your back; those vibrations stop when you roll onto your side. The next day, you can see how many hours you spent in bed, how many of those hours you spent on your back, and your response rate to the vibrations. The sensor has an algorithm that notes your response rate and tweaks the intensity of vibrations based on that. “This device works exactly as advertised,” one Amazon reviewer wrote. “I’d say it’s perfect.”

Buy it: Amazon

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

Expeditions Gather Climate Change Clues on Mount Everest in Two New Documentaries

Team members climb up a slope during the expedition to find Sandy Irvine's remains on Mount Everest.
Team members climb up a slope during the expedition to find Sandy Irvine's remains on Mount Everest.
Matt Irving/National Geographic

Two one-hour documentaries premiering tonight reveal what Mount Everest is really like—and what scientists can learn from studying it.

Both docs are produced by and airing on National Geographic. In Lost on Everest, premiering at 9 p.m. EDT, climber Mark Synnott and Nat Geo photographer Renan Ozturk lead a team of seasoned mountaineers on a mission to discover what happened to Andrew “Sandy” Irvine, who vanished with fellow explorer George Mallory during the first Everest climb in June 1924. While Mallory’s body was located by a BBC-sponsored operation in 1999, Irvine’s exact fate has remained a mystery for nearly a century since his disappearance. As Synnott and his companions search for evidence, they encounter their own harrowing set of obstacles, from hurricane-force winds to medical emergencies.

Climbers on Mount Everest
Climbers ascend the Khumbu Icefall, a notoriously dangerous section of the summit route.
Mark Fisher/National Geographic Society

But Mount Everest isn’t only a challenge for adventure-seekers and intrepid investigators—it also holds thousands of years’ worth of information about how climate change has altered the environment, which can help scientists predict its future effects. In Expedition Everest, airing at 10 p.m. EDT, actor Tate Donovan narrates the journey of an international group of scientists and climbers with an ambitious set of data-collecting objectives.

One task is to use drones, laser scanners, and cameras to capture footage of every inch of the ascent, so researchers can create a 360-degree portrait of the mountain and track how glacial melt alters the landscape in the coming years. Since the Himalayas contain the water supply for roughly one-fourth of the world’s population, the increase in glacial melt—which has already doubled since 2000—could threaten the futures of billions of people living in the region.

Scientists drill ice cores on Mount Everest
Mariusz Potocki and members of the National Geographic and Rolex Perpetual Planet Everest Expedition team collect the highest-ever ice core at 8020 meters (26,312 feet) near the South Col of Everest.
Dirk Collins/National Geographic Society

Even more immediate is the risk of flash floods, which are difficult to predict without a constant feed of weather data from high altitudes. Another goal of the expedition is to install weather stations at five locations along the climbing route, which will monitor temperature, humidity, air pressure, wind speed, and other factors that help alert meteorologists to an impending flood.

Some researchers have joined the expedition to drill deep into the ice at an altitude above 8000 meters (26,000 feet)—Mount Everest's "death zone"—and collect ice cores. These long tubes of ice reveal how the atmosphere has changed over thousands of years. Others are collecting similar cores of sediment at the bottom of a lake, as well as examining how plant and animal life has adapted to the warming temperatures and rising water levels.

Overall, Expedition Everest illustrates how the Himalayas function as an early indicator of what climate change will do to other places.

As climate scientist Anton Seimon explains in the documentary, “We’re getting a window into what the rest of the world is starting to experience—and likely to experience in growing proportions.”

You can watch the double feature tonight, June 30, at 9 p.m. EDT on National Geographic.