How Just One Nasty Winter Forced This Lizard to Evolve

PiccoloNamek, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0
PiccoloNamek, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

Scientists say a single unusually cold season altered the course of history for one American reptile. The green anoles who survived the winter of 2014 were those who could stand the cold—a trait they passed on to their offspring. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science.

The green anole, Anolis carolensis, also known erroneously as the American chameleon, is a vibrant little lizard that makes its home in the southeastern U.S. and Caribbean. Its range extends from Texas as far north as Oklahoma. This is unusual for reptiles, whose cold-blooded bodies typically restrict them to balmier climates.

Map of the geographic range of the green anole.
Graphic by Julie McMahon

To find out how the anoles were managing it, Shane Campbell-Staton, now of the University of Illinois, paid visits to five scattered populations in 2013. He collected samples and a few live lizards from each group to test their DNA, gene expression, and tolerance for low temperatures.

He found a fair amount of variation between lizard communities. Those in Oklahoma had clearly evolved to handle the weather there, while specimens from further south couldn't take the cold.

Satisfied with his data and findings, Campbell-Staton prepared to wrap up the project.

Then winter came. You may remember the winter of 2014, when a polar vortex created record-breaking low temperatures and wrought terrible storms across the U.S., including in anole territory. Campbell-Staton couldn't help but wonder how—or if—the cold-intolerant lizards had survived.

The next spring and summer, he and his colleagues made another circuit through anole country and collected more samples. The Oklahoma families hadn't fared too poorly. But down south, things had clearly changed. The genetic code of Texan lizards looked more like their northern cousins, and individuals were far better at handling a chill. 

The research team realized that the brutal winter had killed off most of the cold-intolerant lizards, leaving behind only those who happened to have genes more like their northern cousins'. Those lizards reproduced, creating new generations of cold-ready individuals.

But that's not necessarily a good thing.

"One might think, 'Oh, they responded! They're better now,'" Campbell-Staton said in a statement. "But selection always comes at a cost, which is death, basically. It may be that the animals that did not survive this storm had the genetic variants to survive a heat wave, or a drought, or some other extreme event. And now those lineages are essentially gone." 

Maine Man Catches a Rare Cotton Candy Lobster—For the Second Time

RnDmS/iStock via Getty Images
RnDmS/iStock via Getty Images

Just three months after a cotton candy lobster was caught off the coast of Maine, another Maine resident has reeled in one of the rare, colorful creatures.

Kim Hartley told WMTW that her husband caught the cotton candy lobster off Cape Rosier in Penobscot Bay—and it’s not his first time. Four years ago, he caught another one, which he donated to an aquarium in Connecticut. While the Hartleys decide what to do with their pretty new foster pet, it’s relaxing in a crate on land.

Though the chances of finding a cotton candy lobster are supposedly one in 100 million, Maine seems to be crawling with the polychromatic crustaceans. Lucky the lobster gained quite a cult following on social media after being caught near Canada’s Grand Manan Island (close to the Canada-Maine border) last summer, and Portland restaurant Scales came across one during the same season. You can see a video of the discovery in Maine from last August below:

According to National Geographic, these lobsters’ cotton candy-colored shells could be the result of a genetic mutation, or they could be related to what they’re eating. Lobsters get their usual greenish-blue hue when crustacyanin—a protein they produce—combines with astaxanthin, a bright red carotenoid found in their diet. But if the lobsters aren’t eating their usual astaxanthin-rich fare like crabs and shrimp, the lack of pigment could give them a pastel appearance. It’s possible that the cotton candy lobsters have been relying on fishermen’s bait as their main food source, rather than finding their own.

While these vibrant specimens may look more beautiful than their dull-shelled relatives, even regular lobsters are cooler than you think—find out 25 fascinating facts about them here.

[h/t WMTW]

What’s Better Than a Dog in a Sweater? A Sweater That Shows an Image of Your Dog in a Sweater

Sweater Hound
Sweater Hound

If you think the sight of someone walking their sweater-clad dog is just about the cutest thing in the world, you’re absolutely correct. But what if that person was wearing a sweater that showed an image of their dog wearing a sweater? If you think that sounds even cuter, you’re in for a treat.

According to People, New York-based apparel company Sweater Hound will knit you a sweater that displays an image of your dog in a sweater—all you have to do is submit your favorite photo of your dog. And, because not all dogs love wearing sweaters in real life, your dog doesn’t have to be wearing a sweater in the photo you upload.

Each sweater is made from a combination of acrylic and recycled cotton, and will prove to your pet that you truly do love them more than anyone else (unless you already own sweaters emblazoned with the faces of your friends and family).

The sweaters, which cost $98 each, come in both child and adult sizes, and you can choose between cream, navy, black, and gray. The options don’t stop there—Sweater Hound offers sweaters that show your dog wearing just a bow tie, a bow tie and a sweater, a Santa hat and scarf, reindeer ears and a sweater, or even a “Super Dog” cape and domino mask outfit.

sweater hound dog wearing a bow tie on a sweater
Sweater Hound

If sweaters aren’t really your style, there are also hoodies and sweatpants decorated with a smaller, logo-sized image of your dog. Or, you could snuggle with your prized pooch underneath a warm blanket bearing a rather giant image of said pooch.

blanket with an image of a dog wearing a bow tie and sweater
Sweater Hound

While the company does specialize in creating dog-related products, they’ll do their best to accommodate people who love salamanders in Santa hats, birds in bow ties, and other pets wearing clothes. You can email them at Hello@Sweaterhound.com to discuss your options.

If you’re hoping to get someone a gift from Sweater Hound this holiday season, you should act fast: You have to place your order by December 4 in order to guarantee delivery before Christmas, and that date will likely change as the days go by.

Adorable, customizable clothing is just one of the many perks of being a dog owner—here are 10 more scientifically proven benefits.

[h/t People]

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