How Just One Nasty Winter Forced This Lizard to Evolve

PiccoloNamek, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0
PiccoloNamek, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

Scientists say a single unusually cold season altered the course of history for one American reptile. The green anoles who survived the winter of 2014 were those who could stand the cold—a trait they passed on to their offspring. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science.

The green anole, Anolis carolensis, also known erroneously as the American chameleon, is a vibrant little lizard that makes its home in the southeastern U.S. and Caribbean. Its range extends from Texas as far north as Oklahoma. This is unusual for reptiles, whose cold-blooded bodies typically restrict them to balmier climates.

Map of the geographic range of the green anole.
Graphic by Julie McMahon

To find out how the anoles were managing it, Shane Campbell-Staton, now of the University of Illinois, paid visits to five scattered populations in 2013. He collected samples and a few live lizards from each group to test their DNA, gene expression, and tolerance for low temperatures.

He found a fair amount of variation between lizard communities. Those in Oklahoma had clearly evolved to handle the weather there, while specimens from further south couldn't take the cold.

Satisfied with his data and findings, Campbell-Staton prepared to wrap up the project.

Then winter came. You may remember the winter of 2014, when a polar vortex created record-breaking low temperatures and wrought terrible storms across the U.S., including in anole territory. Campbell-Staton couldn't help but wonder how—or if—the cold-intolerant lizards had survived.

The next spring and summer, he and his colleagues made another circuit through anole country and collected more samples. The Oklahoma families hadn't fared too poorly. But down south, things had clearly changed. The genetic code of Texan lizards looked more like their northern cousins, and individuals were far better at handling a chill. 

The research team realized that the brutal winter had killed off most of the cold-intolerant lizards, leaving behind only those who happened to have genes more like their northern cousins'. Those lizards reproduced, creating new generations of cold-ready individuals.

But that's not necessarily a good thing.

"One might think, 'Oh, they responded! They're better now,'" Campbell-Staton said in a statement. "But selection always comes at a cost, which is death, basically. It may be that the animals that did not survive this storm had the genetic variants to survive a heat wave, or a drought, or some other extreme event. And now those lineages are essentially gone." 

Rhode Island Approves Bill to Create an Animal Abuser Registry

iStock/Kerkez
iStock/Kerkez

In what could be a major step toward curbing animal cruelty, Rhode Island just passed a bill requiring convicted abusers to be placed on a statewide registry. The objective? To make sure they don’t adopt another animal.

According to KUTV, the bill was approved by the Rhode Island House of Representatives on Thursday and is awaiting Senate approval. Under the law, anyone convicted of abusing an animal would be required to pay a $125 fee and register with the database. The collection of names will be made available to animal shelters and adoption agencies, which will be required to check the registry before adopting out any pets. If the prospective owner’s name appears, they will not be permitted to adopt the animal.

Convicted abusers have five days to register, either from the time of their conviction if no jail time is mandated or from the time of their release. The prohibition on owning another animal lasts 15 years. If they're convicted a second time, they would be banned for life.

A number of communities across the country have enacted similar laws in recent years, including Hillsborough County in Florida, Cook County in Illinois, and New York City. The state of Louisiana was fielding a bill last week, but the proposal was ultimately pulled from committee consideration after a critical response from the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). The group’s policy statement argues that registries are costly to maintain, not often utilized by adoption centers, and don’t address the potential for abusers to find animals in other ways. The group also asserts that registries may influence potential convictions, as defendants and their legal representation might plea to lesser charges to avoid being placed in the database. The ASPCA instead recommends court-mandated no-contact orders for convicted animal abusers.

[h/t KUTV]

This Inflatable Sloth Pool Float Is the Perfect Accessory for Lazy Summer Days

SwimWays
SwimWays

Summer is the perfect time to channel your inner sloth. Even if you don't plan on sleeping 15 to 20 hours a day, you can take inspiration from the animal's lifestyle and plan to move as little as possible. This supersized sloth pool float from SwimWays, spotted by Romper, will help you achieve that goal.

It's hard not to feel lazy when you're being hugged by a giant inflatable sloth. This floating pool chair is 50 inches long, 40 inches tall, and 36 inches wide, with two "arms" to support you as you lounge in the water.

One of the sloth's paws includes a built-in cup holder, so you don't have to expend any extra energy by getting up in order to stay hydrated. Unlike some pool floats, this accessory allows you to sit upright—which means you can drink, read, or talk to the people around you without straining your neck.

The sloth floatie is available for $35 on Amazon or Walmart. SwimWays also makes the same product in different animal designs, including a panda and a teddy bear. And if you're looking for a pool accessory that gives you even more room to spread out, this inflatable dachshund float may be just what you need.

People sitting in animal pool floats.
SwimWays

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