Egyptian Priests Buried These Sacred Statues of Gods More Than 2000 Years Ago

CFEETK-CNRS-MoA: J. Maucor / Antiquity 2017
CFEETK-CNRS-MoA: J. Maucor / Antiquity 2017

An Egyptian statue "grave" filled with figurines of deities and mythical creatures ranging from sphinxes to monkeys is providing archaeologists with new insights into ancient religious practices, according to the International Business Times. These findings were recently published online in the journal Antiquity.

Archaeologists in Luxor discovered the cache in 2014, while excavating a temple dedicated to Egyptian creator god Ptah. Ptah's temple is situated in the precinct of Amun-Re, a central section of the massive religious complex of Karnak that was devoted to the male god, who was associated with the ancient city of Thebes, as Luxor was known in antiquity. Other sections of the sprawling site celebrate Amun-Re's wife, the Egyptian mother goddess Mut, and the war-god Montu.

Behind an edifice of Thutmosis III—the 18th-dynasty pharaoh who's remembered for conquering all of Syria, giving ancient Egypt unprecedented global power—archaeologists discovered an oval pit about three feet deep and wide.

A total of 38 objects—statuettes, figurines, statue fragments—were found inside the pit, which researchers refer to as a favissa, defined by Antiquity as "an intentionally hoarded assemblage of religious objects in a pit." Most were broken, but some had well-preserved details. The sacred objects were crafted at different times, but were all buried during the second half of the Ptolemaic period, which spanned between the 2nd century BCE and the middle of the 1st century BCE.

Along with a large lower piece taken from a seated statue of Ptah—an artwork that had likely sat in the god's Karnak temple for years—the trove included one sphinx; two statuettes of Mut (one complete with hieroglyphic inscriptions); a head and a partial statuette featuring the cat goddess Bastet; 14 statues and figurines of Osiris, the god of rebirth; and three baboon statuettes, which represent Thoth, a deity of the Moon, learning, and writing. (Thoth's sacred animals were the ibis and the baboon.)

Statue bases, slabs, and inlay fragments were also found, the last of which included body parts like an iris, a cornea, and a false beard.

Main artifacts discovered: top left: male head; top right: lower part of the limestone statue of the god Ptah; bottom left: limestone sphinx; bottom right: small statue of Osiris.(© CFEETK-CNRS-MoA: J. Maucor

Egyptian religious statues were considered to be alive, and were regularly washed, clothed, and fed by priests. The artifacts discovered in the pit may have had a shelf life as ritual objects, and were ceremonially buried after they were no longer useful, researchers say.

"We can consider that when a new statue was erected in the temple, this one [of Ptah] was set aside in a pit," said Christophe Thiers, the study's co-author and director of the French-Egyptian Centre for the Study of the Temples of Karnak, according to Live Science. "The other artifacts were also previously damaged during their 'lifetime' in the temple, and then they were buried with the Ptah statue" to symbolically protect it.

The priests likely lowered the fragment of Ptah statue's down into the pit first, before placing down a wooden effigy of Osiris and surrounding it with other objects. The pit was covered with a layer of backfill, and topped with a small limestone sphinx. It then received a second layer of earth, and was topped with a gilded protective statue of a male head—only for researchers to dig up the elaborate arrangement more than 2000 years later.

[h/t International Business Times]

Looking to Downsize? You Can Buy a 5-Room DIY Cabin on Amazon for Less Than $33,000

Five rooms of one's own.
Five rooms of one's own.
Allwood/Amazon

If you’ve already mastered DIY houses for birds and dogs, maybe it’s time you built one for yourself.

As Simplemost reports, there are a number of house kits that you can order on Amazon, and the Allwood Avalon Cabin Kit is one of the quaintest—and, at $32,990, most affordable—options. The 540-square-foot structure has enough space for a kitchen, a bathroom, a bedroom, and a sitting room—and there’s an additional 218-square-foot loft with the potential to be the coziest reading nook of all time.

You can opt for three larger rooms if you're willing to skip the kitchen and bathroom.Allwood/Amazon

The construction process might not be a great idea for someone who’s never picked up a hammer, but you don’t need an architectural degree to tackle it. Step-by-step instructions and all materials are included, so it’s a little like a high-level IKEA project. According to the Amazon listing, it takes two adults about a week to complete. Since the Nordic wood walls are reinforced with steel rods, the house can withstand winds up to 120 mph, and you can pay an extra $1000 to upgrade from double-glass windows and doors to triple-glass for added fortification.

Sadly, the cool ceiling lamp is not included.Allwood/Amazon

Though everything you need for the shell of the house comes in the kit, you will need to purchase whatever goes inside it: toilet, shower, sink, stove, insulation, and all other furnishings. You can also customize the blueprint to fit your own plans for the space; maybe, for example, you’re going to use the house as a small event venue, and you’d rather have two or three large, airy rooms and no kitchen or bedroom.

Intrigued? Find out more here.

[h/t Simplemost]

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Humans First Arrived in North America 30,000 Years Ago, New Studies Suggest

Researcher samples cave sediments for DNA.
Researcher samples cave sediments for DNA.
Devlin A. Gandy

People occupied North America by roughly 11,000 BCE, but the exact timeline of how early humans first arrived on the continent is contested. Two new studies suggest that humans were living in North America as far back as 30,000 years ago—preceding some earlier estimates by more than 15,000 years.

According to the traditional narrative, the first North Americans were big game hunters who crossed a land bridge connecting Asia to North America around 13,000 years ago. They left behind distinct, fluted arrowheads and bone and ivory tools that were dubbed “Clovis” tools. “This narrative, known as ‘Clovis-first,’ was widely accepted for most of the 20th century until new archaeological evidence showed that humans were present in the continent before Clovis,” Lorena Becerra-Valdivia, an archaeological scientist with the Universities of Oxford and New South Wales and co-author of the new studies, tells Mental Floss. “Within academia, an earlier arrival of 16,000-15,000 years ago was generally accepted.”

Her new analysis pushes back that date by several millennia. The study, “The Timing and Effect of the Earliest Human Arrivals in North America,” published in the journal Nature, looks at radiocarbon and luminescence data from Beringia, a region that historically linked Russia and Alaska, and North America. A statistical model built with this data indicates that a significant human population was living on the continent long before the Clovis era. According to the study, these humans were likely present before, during, and after the Last Glacial Maximum—the period when ice sheets covered much of North America 26,000 to 19,000 years ago.

Stone tool found below the Last Glacial Maximum layer.Ciprian Ardelean

These findings also contradict the land bridge theory. Rather than making a straightforward journey from Asia to North America and populating the southern half of the continent as the Clovis people were thought to have done, the first humans may have entered the Americas by traveling down the Pacific Coast. “These are paradigm-shifting results that shape our understanding of the initial dispersal of modern humans into Americas,” Becerra-Valdivia says. “They suggest exciting and interesting possibilities for what likely was a complex and dynamic process.”

The second, related study in Nature, ”Evidence of Human Occupation in Mexico Around the Last Glacial Maximum,” supports this new narrative. In it, researchers from institutes in Mexico, the UK, and other countries share artifacts and environmental DNA uncovered from Chiquihuite Cave—a high-altitude cave in Zacatecas, central Mexico. The tools, plant remains, and environmental DNA collected there paint of picture of human life dating back 13,000 to 30,000 years ago. The evidence shows that the site was more than just a stopping point, and the people living there had adapted to the high altitudes and harsh mountain landscape.

The two studies not only offer insight on when the first North Americans arrived on the continent, but who they were and how they lived. The Americas would have looked a lot different to humans during the Last Glacial Maximum than they did to the Clovis people millennia later. The fact that the first North Americans left behind far fewer artifacts than the Clovis people shows that their populations stayed relatively small. “Humans at Chiquihuite Cave would have faced the harshness of the Last Glacial Maximum, the peak of the last Ice Age, which would have kept their population at a low density,” Becerra-Valdivia says. “Clovis peoples, in contrast, thrived well after the last Ice Age, expanding widely through the continent during a period of globally warmer temperatures. Their life ways and subsistence patterns, therefore, would have been very different.”