Doctors Didn't Actually Wear Beaked Masks During the Black Plague

Long ago, European physicians believed that "bad air" caused illnesses—scientists like Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and Joseph Lister hadn’t yet delivered scientific proof of the germ theory of disease. To safeguard themselves against miasma, as they called this harmful air, doctors donned a curious accessory while treating sickly patients: a mask with a long, bird-like beak, which was stuffed with dried flowers, herbs, and spices. (Today, you might recognize it from the “plague doctor” costumes worn during the Carnival of Venice, as it’s associated with Il Medico della Peste, the famous commedia dell’arte character.)

Doctors are said to have embraced this look, thanks in part to the Black Death, which ravaged the Middle East, Asia, and Europe during the 14th century. However, there’s no concrete evidence that physicians of the era wore these face coverings. In fact, medical historians say they weren’t invented until three centuries later, when a 16th century French doctor named Charles de Lorme likely designed what could be described as one of history's earliest hazmat suits during later waves of the plague.

Doctor de Lorme (1584-1678) was the chief physician to Louis XIII, and is credited with the mask’s design. He is also responsible for its typical accompanying outfit, which consisted of a leather overcoat, breeches, a cane, a wide-brimmed hat, gloves, and boots. Here’s an early textual description from the Encyclopedia of Infectious Diseases: Modern Methodologies:

The nose [is] half a foot long, shaped like a beak, filled with perfume with only two holes, one on each side near the nostrils, but that can suffice to breathe and carry along with the air one breathes the impression of the [herbs] enclosed further along in the beak. Under the coat we wear boots made in Moroccan leather (goat leather) from the front of the breeches in smooth skin that are attached to said boots, and a short sleeved blouse in smooth skin, the bottom of which is tucked into the breeches. The hat and gloves are also made of the same skin … with spectacles over the eyes.

The suffocating clothing ensemble was designed to protect the skin from exposure to miasma (the coat was even tucked into the mask), while the hat was simply a common accessory worn by physicians at the time. Meanwhile, the wooden cane was likely used to keep a distance from ill patients, or to instruct caregivers on how to move them during exams.

So, if you see someone wearing a plague doctor costume this Halloween and their history isn’t quite up to snuff, make sure they share their candy with you first, before gently correcting them that their silly-looking mask isn't technically a part of the Black Plague's lasting legacy (even if it is extra-creepy looking).

[h/t Historyanswers.co.uk]

Looking to Downsize? You Can Buy a 5-Room DIY Cabin on Amazon for Less Than $33,000

Five rooms of one's own.
Five rooms of one's own.
Allwood/Amazon

If you’ve already mastered DIY houses for birds and dogs, maybe it’s time you built one for yourself.

As Simplemost reports, there are a number of house kits that you can order on Amazon, and the Allwood Avalon Cabin Kit is one of the quaintest—and, at $32,990, most affordable—options. The 540-square-foot structure has enough space for a kitchen, a bathroom, a bedroom, and a sitting room—and there’s an additional 218-square-foot loft with the potential to be the coziest reading nook of all time.

You can opt for three larger rooms if you're willing to skip the kitchen and bathroom.Allwood/Amazon

The construction process might not be a great idea for someone who’s never picked up a hammer, but you don’t need an architectural degree to tackle it. Step-by-step instructions and all materials are included, so it’s a little like a high-level IKEA project. According to the Amazon listing, it takes two adults about a week to complete. Since the Nordic wood walls are reinforced with steel rods, the house can withstand winds up to 120 mph, and you can pay an extra $1000 to upgrade from double-glass windows and doors to triple-glass for added fortification.

Sadly, the cool ceiling lamp is not included.Allwood/Amazon

Though everything you need for the shell of the house comes in the kit, you will need to purchase whatever goes inside it: toilet, shower, sink, stove, insulation, and all other furnishings. You can also customize the blueprint to fit your own plans for the space; maybe, for example, you’re going to use the house as a small event venue, and you’d rather have two or three large, airy rooms and no kitchen or bedroom.

Intrigued? Find out more here.

[h/t Simplemost]

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Florence’s Plague-Era Wine Windows Are Back in Business

A wine window in Florence's Via Santo Spirito.
A wine window in Florence's Via Santo Spirito.

Many bars and restaurants have started selling takeout cocktails and other alcoholic beverages to stay in business—and keep customers safe—during the coronavirus pandemic. Meanwhile, 17th-century Florentines are surely applauding from their front-row seats in the afterlife.

As Insider reports, a number of buildings in Florence had been constructed with small “wine windows,” or buchette del vino, through which vendors sold wine directly to less affluent customers. When the city suffered an outbreak of plague in the 1630s, business owners recognized the value of these windows as a way to serve people without spreading germs. They even exchanged money on a metal tray that was sanitized with vinegar.

Wine not?sailko, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

Things eventually went back to normal, and the windows slowly fell out of fashion altogether as commerce laws evolved. This year, however, they’ve made a comeback. According to Food & Wine, there are currently at least four in operation around Florence. Osteria delle Brache in Piazza Peruzzi is using its window to deliver wine and cocktails, for example, and the Vivoli ice cream shop, a go-to dessert spot since 1929, is handing out sweet scoops and coffee through its formerly dormant aperture.

Apart from the recent resurgence of interest, the wine windows often go unnoticed by tourists drawn to the grandeur of attractions like the Uffizi Gallery and the Florence Cathedral. So in 2015, locals Matteo Faglia, Diletta Corsini, and Mary Christine Forrest established the Wine Window Association to generate some buzz. In addition to researching the history of the windows, they also keep a running list of all the ones they know of. Florence has roughly 150, and there are another 100 or so in other parts of Tuscany.

They’re hoping to affix a plaque near each window to promote their stories and discourage people from defacing them. And if you want to support their work, you can even become a member of the organization for €25 (about $29).

[h/t Insider]