Doctors Didn't Actually Wear Beaked Masks During the Black Plague

Long ago, European physicians believed that "bad air" caused illnesses—scientists like Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and Joseph Lister hadn’t yet delivered scientific proof of the germ theory of disease. To safeguard themselves against miasma, as they called this harmful air, doctors donned a curious accessory while treating sickly patients: a mask with a long, bird-like beak, which was stuffed with dried flowers, herbs, and spices. (Today, you might recognize it from the “plague doctor” costumes worn during the Carnival of Venice, as it’s associated with Il Medico della Peste, the famous commedia dell’arte character.)

Doctors are said to have embraced this look, thanks in part to the Black Death, which ravaged the Middle East, Asia, and Europe during the 14th century. However, there’s no concrete evidence that physicians of the era wore these face coverings. In fact, medical historians say they weren’t invented until three centuries later, when a 16th century French doctor named Charles de Lorme likely designed what could be described as one of history's earliest hazmat suits during later waves of the plague.

Doctor de Lorme (1584-1678) was the chief physician to Louis XIII, and is credited with the mask’s design. He is also responsible for its typical accompanying outfit, which consisted of a leather overcoat, breeches, a cane, a wide-brimmed hat, gloves, and boots. Here’s an early textual description from the Encyclopedia of Infectious Diseases: Modern Methodologies:

The nose [is] half a foot long, shaped like a beak, filled with perfume with only two holes, one on each side near the nostrils, but that can suffice to breathe and carry along with the air one breathes the impression of the [herbs] enclosed further along in the beak. Under the coat we wear boots made in Moroccan leather (goat leather) from the front of the breeches in smooth skin that are attached to said boots, and a short sleeved blouse in smooth skin, the bottom of which is tucked into the breeches. The hat and gloves are also made of the same skin … with spectacles over the eyes.

The suffocating clothing ensemble was designed to protect the skin from exposure to miasma (the coat was even tucked into the mask), while the hat was simply a common accessory worn by physicians at the time. Meanwhile, the wooden cane was likely used to keep a distance from ill patients, or to instruct caregivers on how to move them during exams.

So, if you see someone wearing a plague doctor costume this Halloween and their history isn’t quite up to snuff, make sure they share their candy with you first, before gently correcting them that their silly-looking mask isn't technically a part of the Black Plague's lasting legacy (even if it is extra-creepy looking).

[h/t Historyanswers.co.uk]

Kodak’s New Cameras Don't Just Take Photos—They Also Print Them

Your Instagram account wishes it had this clout.
Your Instagram account wishes it had this clout.
Kodak

Snapping a photo and immediately sharing it on social media is definitely convenient, but there’s still something so satisfying about having the printed photo—like you’re actually holding the memory in your hands. Kodak’s new STEP cameras now offer the best of both worlds.

As its name implies, the Kodak STEP Instant Print Digital Camera, available for $70 on Amazon, lets you take a picture and print it out on that very same device. Not only do you get to skip the irksome process of uploading photos to your computer and printing them on your bulky, non-portable printer (or worse yet, having to wait for your local pharmacy to print them for you), but you never need to bother with ink cartridges or toner, either. The Kodak STEP comes with special 2-inch-by-3-inch printing paper inlaid with color crystals that bring your image to life. There’s also an adhesive layer on the back, so you can easily stick your photos to laptop covers, scrapbooks, or whatever else could use a little adornment.

There's a 10-second self-timer, so you don't have to ask strangers to take your group photos.Kodak

For those of you who want to give your photos some added flair, you might like the Kodak STEP Touch, available for $130 from Amazon. It’s similar to the regular Kodak STEP, but the LCD touch screen allows you to edit your photos before you print them; you can also shoot short videos and even share your content straight to social media.

If you want to print photos from your smartphone gallery, there's the Kodak STEP Instant Mobile Photo Printer. This portable $80 printer connects to any iOS or Android device with Bluetooth capabilities and can print whatever photos you send to it.

The Kodak STEP Instant Mobile Photo Printer connects to an app that allows you to add filters and other effects to your photos. Kodak

All three Kodak STEP devices come with some of that magical printer paper, but you can order additional refills, too—a 20-sheet set costs $8 on Amazon.

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13 Inventors Killed By Their Own Inventions

Would you fly in this?
Would you fly in this?

As it turns out, being destroyed by the very thing you create is not only applicable to the sentient machines and laboratory monsters of science fiction.

In this episode of The List Show, Mental Floss editor-in-chief Erin McCarthy takes us on a sometimes tragic, always fascinating journey through the history of invention, highlighting 13 unfortunate innovators whose brilliant schemes brought about their own demise. Along the way, you’ll meet Henry Winstanley, who constructed a lighthouse in the English Channel that was swept out to sea during a storm … with its maker inside. You’ll also hear about stuntman Karel Soucek, who was pushed from the roof of the Houston Astrodome in a custom-designed barrel that landed off-target, fatally injuring its occupant.

And by the end of the episode, you just might be second-guessing your secret plan to quit your day job and become the world’s most daredevilish inventor.

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