10 Facts About Rosacea

iStock
iStock

Rosacea, a skin condition characterized by redness and swelling, is incredibly common: A recent study found that an estimated 300 million people worldwide suffer from it. Here’s what you need to know about the condition.

1. IT HAS A LONG HISTORY.

According to the National Rosacea Society (NRS), rosacea was first described in the 14th century by a French surgeon named Dr. Guy de Chauliac; he called it goutterose (“pink drop” in French) or couperose and noted that it was characterized by “red lesions in the face, particularly on the nose and cheeks.”

2. SCIENTISTS AREN’T SURE WHAT CAUSES IT ...

But they have some theories. According to the NRS, “most experts believe it is a vascular disorder that seems to be related to flushing.” Scientists also think that because rosacea seems to run in families, it might be genetic. Other things—like mites that live on the skin, an intestinal bug called H pylori (common in those who have rosacea), and a reaction to a bacterium called bacillus oleronius—could also play a role in causing the condition. One 2015 study suggested an increased risk among smokers.

3. … BUT SOME PEOPLE ARE MORE LIKELY TO HAVE IT THAN OTHERS.

Though people of all ages and skin tones can get rosacea, fair skinned people between the ages of 30 and 50 with Celtic and Scandinavian ancestry and a family history of rosacea are more likely to develop the condition. Women are more likely to have rosacea than men, though their symptoms tend to be less severe than men’s. But men are more likely to suffer from a rare rosacea side effect known as rhinophyma, which causes the skin of the nose to thicken and become bulbous. It’s commonly—and mistakenly—associated with heavy drinking, but what exactly causes rhinophyma is unclear. According to the NRS, “The swelling that often follows a flushing reaction may, over time, lead to the growth of excess tissue (fibroplasia) around the nose as plasma proteins accumulate when the damaged lymphatic system fails to clear them. Leakage of a substance called blood coagulation factor XIII is also believed to be a potential cause of excess tissue.” Thankfully, those who have rhinophyma have options available for treatment, including surgery and laser therapy.

4. THERE ARE FOUR SUBTYPES.

According to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), rosacea “often begins with a tendency to blush or flush more easily than other people.” All rosacea involves redness of some kind (typically on the nose, cheeks, chin, and forehead), but other symptoms allow the condition to be divided into four subtypes: Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea is characterized by persistent redness and sometimes visible blood vessels; Papulopustular rosacea involves swelling and “acne-like breakouts”; Phymatous rosacea is characterized by thick and bumpy skin; and Ocular rosacea involves red eyes (that sometimes burn and itch, or feel like they have sand in them [PDF]), swollen eyelids, and stye-like growths.

5. IT’S NOT THE SAME AS ACNE.

Though rosacea was once considered a form of acne—"acne rosacea" first appeared in medical literature in 1814—today doctors know it’s a different condition altogether. Though there are similarities (like acne, some forms of rosacea are characterized by small, pus-filled bumps) there are key differences: Acne involves blackheads, typically occurs in the teen years, and can appear all over the body; rosacea is a chronic condition that occurs mainly on the face and the chest and typically shows up later in life.

6. YOU CAN FIND IT IN CLASSIC ART AND LITERATURE.

Both Chaucer and Shakespeare likely made references to rosacea. Domenico Ghirlandaio’s 1490 painting An Old Man and His Grandson seems to depict rhinophyma, and some believe that Rembrandt’s 1659 self-portrait shows that the artist had rosacea and rhinophyma.

7. IT MAY BE TRIGGERED BY CERTAIN FOODS AND ACTIVITIES.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) [PDF], people report that everything from the weather to what you eat can cause rosacea to flare up: Heat, cold, sunlight, and wind, strenuous exercise, spicy food, alcohol consumption, menopause, stress, and use of steroids on the skin are all triggers.

8. THERE ARE A NUMBER OF MYTHS ABOUT ROSACEA.

No, it’s not caused by caffeine and coffee (flare ups, if they occur, are due to the heat of your coffee) or by heavy drinking (though alcohol does exacerbate the condition). Rosacea isn’t caused by poor hygiene, and it’s not contagious.

9. THERE ARE SOME PRETTY FAMOUS PEOPLE WITH ROSACEA.

Sophia Bush, Cynthia Nixon, Kristin Chenoweth, Bill Clinton, and Sam Smith all have rosacea. Diana, Princess of Wales had it, too. W.C. Fields had rosacea and rhinophyma, and Andy Warhol may also have suffered from those conditions.

10. IT CAN’T BE CURED—BUT IT CAN BE TREATED.

The NRS reports that “nearly 90 percent of rosacea patients [surveyed by NRS] said this condition had lowered their self-confidence and self-esteem, and 41 percent reported it had caused them to avoid public contact or cancel social engagements.” Dr. Uwe Gieler, a professor of dermatology at the Justus-Liebig-University in Giessen, Germany, and one of the authors of the report Rosacea: Beyond the Visible, said in a press release that "People with rosacea are often judged on their appearance, which impacts them greatly in daily life. If their rosacea is severe, the symptoms are likely to be more significant also, from itching and burning to a permanently red central facial area. However, even people with less severe rosacea report a significant impact on quality of life."

Which makes it all the more unfortunate that there’s not a cure for the condition. Thankfully, though, there are treatments available.

There are no tests that will diagnose rosacea; that’s up to your doctor, who will examine your medical history and go over your symptoms. Doctors advise that those with rosacea pay attention to what triggers flare-ups, which will help them figure out how to treat the condition. Antibiotics might be prescribed; laser therapy might be used. Anyone with rosacea should always wear sunscreen [PDF] and treat their skin very, very gently—don't scrub or exfoliate it. The AAD recommends moisturizing daily and avoiding products that contain things like urea, alcohol, and glycolic and lactic acids.

10 Rad Gifts for Hikers

Greg Rosenke/Unsplash
Greg Rosenke/Unsplash

The popularity of bird-watching, camping, and hiking has skyrocketed this year. Whether your gift recipients are weekend warriors or seasoned dirtbags, they'll appreciate these tools and gear for getting most out of their hiking experience.

1. Stanley Nesting Two-Cup Cookset; $14

Amazon

Stanley’s compact and lightweight cookset includes a 20-ounce stainless steel pot with a locking handle, a vented lid, and two insulated 10-ounce tumblers. It’s the perfect size for brewing hot coffee, rehydrating soup, or boiling water while out on the trail with a buddy. And as some hardcore backpackers note in their Amazon reviews, your favorite hiker can take the tumblers out and stuff the pot with a camp stove, matches, and other necessities to make good use of space in their pack.

Buy it: Amazon

2. Osprey Sirrus and Stratos 24-Liter Hiking Packs; $140

Amazon

Osprey’s packs are designed with trail-tested details to maximize comfort and ease of use. The Sirrus pack (pictured) is sized for women, while the Stratos fits men’s proportions. Both include an internal sleeve for a hydration reservoir, exterior mesh and hipbelt pockets, an attachment for carrying trekking poles, and a built-in rain cover.

Buy them: Amazon, Amazon

3. Yeti Rambler 18-Ounce Bottle; $48

Amazon

Nothing beats ice-cold water after a summer hike or a sip of hot tea during a winter walk. The Yeti Rambler can serve up both: Beverages can stay hot or cold for hours thanks to its insulated construction, and its steel body (in a variety of colors) is basically indestructible. It will add weight to your hiker's pack, though—for a lighter-weight, non-insulated option, the tried-and-true Camelbak Chute water bottle is incredibly sturdy and leakproof.

Buy it: Amazon

4. Mappinners Greatest 100 Hikes of the National Parks Scratch-Off Poster; $30

Amazon

The perfect gift for park baggers in your life (or yourself), this 16-inch-by-20-inch poster features epic hikes like Angel’s Landing in Zion National Park and Half Dome in Yosemite National Park. Once the hike is complete, you can scratch off the gold foil to reveal an illustration of the park.

Buy it: Amazon

5. National Geographic Adventure Edition Road Atlas; $19

Amazon

Hikers can use this brand-new, updated road atlas to plan their next adventure. In addition to comprehensive maps of all 50 states, Puerto Rico, Canada, and Mexico, they'll get National Geographic’s top 100 outdoor destinations, useful details about the most popular national parks, and points on the maps noting off-the-beaten-path places to explore.  

Buy it: Amazon

6. Adventure Medical Kits Hiker First-Aid Kit; $25

Amazon

This handy 67-piece kit is stuffed with all the things you hope your hiker will never need in the wilderness. Not only does it contain supplies for pain, cuts and scrapes, burns, and blisters (every hiker’s nemesis!), the items are organized clearly in the bag to make it easy to find tweezers or an alcohol wipe in an emergency.

Buy it: Amazon

7. Hiker Hunger Ultralight Trekking Poles; $70

Amazon

Trekking poles will help increase your hiker's balance and stability and reduce strain on their lower body by distributing it to their arms and shoulders. This pair is made of carbon fiber, a super-strong and lightweight material. From the sweat-absorbing cork handles to the selection of pole tips for different terrain, these poles answer every need on the trail. 

Buy it: Amazon

8. Leatherman Signal Camping Multitool; $120

Amazon

What can’t this multitool do? This gadget contains 19 hiking-friendly tools in a 4.5-inch package, including pliers, screwdrivers, bottle opener, saw, knife, hammer, wire cutter, and even an emergency whistle.

Buy it: Amazon

9. RAVPower Power Bank; $24

Amazon

Don’t let your hiker get caught off the grid with a dead phone. They can charge RAVPower’s compact power bank before they head out on the trail, and then use it to quickly juice up a phone or tablet when the batteries get low. Its 3-inch-by-5-inch profile won’t take up much room in a pack or purse.

Buy it: Amazon

10. Pack of Four Indestructible Field Books; $14

Amazon

Neither rain, nor snow, nor hail will be a match for these waterproof, tearproof 3.5-inch-by-5.5-inch notebooks. Your hiker can stick one in their pocket along with a regular pen or pencil to record details of their hike or brainstorm their next viral Tweet.

Buy it: Amazon

Sign Up Today: Get exclusive deals, product news, reviews, and more with the Mental Floss Smart Shopping newsletter!

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

Why Do Some Vaccines Hurt More Than Others?

Whether you experience pain with a vaccine shot may depend on what type you're getting.
Whether you experience pain with a vaccine shot may depend on what type you're getting.
Gustavo Fring, Pexels // Public Domain

Whether you’re planning a trip abroad, have poked yourself with a dirty thorn, or want to prepare for flu season, sitting down for a vaccine shot is not usually a big deal. Barring any fear or apprehension about needles, it’s one quick alcohol swab, a jab into your deltoid, and a bandage.

Some people, however, report that some vaccine shots feel more like a harpoon, with pain upon injection and residual soreness. Does the level of discomfort have anything to do with the vaccine being administered, the patient, or the health care provider?

According to Nancy Messonnier, director of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, injection pain is a normal consequence of a shot designed to provoke an immune system response. Dr. Messonnier told The Wall Street Journal that inflammation around the injection site is an indication the vaccine is working.

When a vaccine is injected, antigens are introduced into the body. These proteins allow white blood cells to battle against viruses. When they’re jabbed into your arm, your body mounts a defense at the injection site, leading to inflammation.

Some vaccines tend to hurt a little more than others, like ones targeting hepatitis A and B and DTaP (for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis). It’s not totally clear why, but it’s possible that additives designed to strengthen the immune system, like aluminum salts or monophosphoryl lipid A, are the culprit. “These are safe ingredients added to the vaccine specifically to create a stronger immune response,” Messonnier told the paper, adding that some people might be more sensitive to them than others.

These additives aren’t the only reason vaccines can sting. The pH level of the solution (which can be acidic), the volume, and the temperature can also affect whether there’s discomfort.

If you or your child are needle-averse, you can try distraction techniques like music, request a numbing cream, or take an over-the-counter pain reliever to combat any post-injection soreness.

Incidentally, the shot probably won’t hurt any more or less if it’s delivered into your buttocks, as was the practice at one time. While some vaccines work well in fatty tissue, like MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella, which gets directed to the fat near your triceps), many do not. And because flu vaccines are often administered in public places like pharmacies, it’s probably best that they stick to your upper extremities.

[h/t The Wall Street Journal]