8 Facts About Carl Jung

Central Press/Getty Images
Central Press/Getty Images

Perhaps second only to Sigmund Freud—though he may have been reticent to admit it—Carl Jung (1875-1961) was a renowned Swiss psychologist who pioneered the idea of exploring a person’s interior life to better understand their behaviors. If you’ve ever been labeled an extrovert or introvert, you can thank Jung for that. Have a look at our analysis of this fascinating thinker.

1. HE WAS A LONER AS A CHILD.

Born to Paul and Emilie Jung on July 26, 1875 in Kesswil, Switzerland, Jung was said to have been a child who largely kept to himself. He had no siblings and his mother was an unreliable presence in the house; she suffered from a mental disorder and was institutionalized briefly when Jung was just 3 years old. Jung tended to internalize his emotions, turning to books on philosophy instead of following in his father’s footsteps by joining the clergy. He graduated from the University of Basel in 1900 and, later, the University of Zurich, earning both his M.D. and Ph.D.

2. HE PIONEERED THE “COMPLEX” THEORY OF PSYCHOLOGY.

While at the University of Zurich, Jung joined the staff at Burghölzli Asylum, where he first noticed patients who expressed different reactions when hearing certain words. Those reactions drove Jung to explore the idea of a “complex,” a condition experienced by people who could be profiled according to their subconscious fears of insecurity, inferiority, or superiority, among others. Jung believed he had both a "father complex" and a "mother complex," harboring feelings of resentment for both his father's passive personality and his mother's unpredictable behavior.

3. HE WAS INTERESTED IN THE OCCULT.

At the turn of the 20th century, Jung was drawn to unusual subjects for a psychologist. Jung looked to witchcraft, alchemy, folklore, and then-exotic yoga to explore his principles. Followers of Sigmund Freud criticized Jung for such activities, believing them to be outside the purview of science. Jung argued that so many people had devoted so much time to thinking about such things that it must make up a portion of the collective conscious and was worth studying.

4. FREUD HELPED BLACKBALL HIM.

Jung and Freud shared a fascination with the unconscious mind, an interest that led to a fruitful five-year working relationship between 1907 and 1912. But Jung raised Freud’s ire when he published a book, Psychology of the Unconscious, that contradicted some of Freud’s theories. (Freud was adamant that psychological issues stemmed from childhood sexual development; Jung agreed but argued humankind had a religious instinct that was just as influential.) The volume so offended Freud that he cut off contact with Jung and encouraged the rest of the psychoanalytic community to do the same. Undaunted, Jung continued to pursue his work.

5. HE WAS A CHRONIC WOMANIZER.

Jung was hardly one to respect the limits of the doctor-patient relationship. Despite his marriage to Emma Rauschenbach, whom he married in 1903 and had five children with, Jung was a notorious womanizer. He carried on with mistresses as well as patients—some during, and some after, their treatment. When Jung had an affair with medical student Sabina Spielrein, Emma told Spielrein's parents of the dalliance. Rather than feel shamed, Jung wrote to them and bluntly offered to stop seeing her if they paid him more for her counseling.

6. HE WROTE A DIARY THAT WAS KEPT HIDDEN FOR DECADES.

Jung’s fascination with peering inside the crevices of the mind led to a personal crisis of his own—one that some Jung scholars believe was flirting with insanity. In 1913, Jung began hearing voices and having visions. Jung later wrote that he would sometimes grip a table for fear he might be coming apart at the seams and even compared it to a drug trip. Instead of fighting it, Jung embraced it, trying to induce hallucinations to acknowledge whatever his unconscious mind might be trying to tell him. He charted his experiences in what he called the Red Book, an unkempt diary of thoughts, illustrations, and theories. The work was so personal that when Jung died in 1961, his family declined to allow anyone to see it. It was finally published in 2009.

7. HE HELPED INSPIRE ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS.

Though Jung has no direct involvement with the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous, the landmark support group for people struggling with substance abuse, he is widely credited with helping launch the idea of self-improvement through affirmations. In the early 1930s, a man named Rowland H. asked Jung for help with his excessive drinking. Jung believed a spiritual rather than behavioral transformation would be helpful in Rowland’s case, and he recommended he seek out the Oxford Group, then a popular religious movement in America. The Oxford Group practiced self-evaluation through acknowledging and correcting wrongs. Rowland then recommended the method to Bill W., a friend who had tried to treat his alcoholism via medicine. Through this baton-passing, Bill W. went on to found AA.

8. HE WROTE A BOOK ABOUT UFOS.

There is no aspect of the mind that failed to fascinate Jung. While his contemporaries were busy with dry volumes of psychoanalytic theory, Jung published a book titled Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies, in 1958. The book was neither a chronicle of Jung’s own sightings (he didn’t have any) nor an investigation into the credibility of such eyewitness testimony. Instead, Jung explored what might drive the psyche to entertain the idea of alien visitations and what those beliefs revealed about the subconscious mind. An editor for the New Republic hoped to quote Jung in advance of publication, but he declined, claiming that “being rather old, I have to economize my energies.” Jung died at the age of 85 in 1961.

7 Historic European Castles Virtually Rebuilt Before Your Very Eyes

A reconstruction of Spiš Castle in eastern Slovakia.
A reconstruction of Spiš Castle in eastern Slovakia.
Budget Direct

While some centuries-old castles are still standing tall, others haven’t withstood the ravages of time, war, or natural disaster quite as well. To give you an idea of what once was, Australia-based insurance company Budget Direct has digitally reconstructed seven of them for its blog, Simply Savvy.

Watch below as ruins across Europe transform back into the formidable forts and turreted castles they used to be, courtesy of a little modern-day magic we call GIF technology.

1. Samobor Castle // Samobor, Croatia

samobor castle
Samobor Castle in Samobor, Croatia
Budget Direct

The only remaining piece of the 13th-century castle built by Bohemia’s King Ottokar II is the base of the guard tower—the rest of the ruins are from an expansion that happened about 300 years later. It’s just a 10-minute walk from the Croatian city of Samobor, which bought the property in 1902.

2. Château Gaillard // Les Andelys, France

Château Gaillard in Les Andelys, France
Château Gaillard in Les Andelys, France
Budget Direct

King Richard I of England built Château Gaillard in just two years during the late 12th century as a fortress to protect the Duchy of Normandy, which belonged to England at the time, from French invasion. It didn’t last very long—France’s King Philip II captured it six years later.

3. Dunnottar Castle // Stonehaven, Scotland

Dunnottar Castle in Stonehaven, Scotland
Dunnottar Castle in Stonehaven, Scotland
Budget Direct

Dunnottar Castle overlooks the North Sea and is perhaps best known as the fortress that William Wallace (portrayed by Mel Gibson in 1995’s Braveheart) and Scottish forces won back from English occupation in 1297. Later, it became the place where the Scottish monarchy stored their crown jewels, which were smuggled to safety when Oliver Cromwell invaded during the 17th century.

4. Menlo Castle // Galway City, Ireland

Menlo Castle in Galway City, Ireland
Menlo Castle in Galway City, Ireland
Budget Direct

This ivy-covered Irish castle was built during the 16th century and all but destroyed in a fire in 1910. For those few centuries, it was home to the Blake family, English nobles who owned property all over the region.

5. Olsztyn Castle // Olsztyn, Poland

Olsztyn Castle in Olsztyn, Poland
Olsztyn Castle in Olsztyn, Poland
Budget Direct

The earliest known mention of Olsztyn Castle was in 1306, so we know it was constructed some time before then and expanded later that century by King Casimir III of Poland. It was severely damaged during wars with Sweden in the 17th and 18th centuries, but its highest tower—once a prison—still stands.

6. Spiš Castle // Spišské Podhradie, Slovakia

Spiš Castle in Spišské Podhradie, Slovakia
Spiš Castle in Spišské Podhradie, Slovakia
Budget Direct

Slovakia’s massive Spiš Castle was built in the 12th century to mark the boundary of the Hungarian kingdom and fell to ruin after a fire in 1780. However, 20th-century restoration efforts helped fortify the remaining rooms, and it was even used as a filming location for parts of 1996’s DragonHeart.

7. Poenari Castle // Valachia, Romania

Poenari Castle in Valachia, Romania
Poenari Castle in Valachia, Romania
Budget Direct

This 13th-century Romanian castle boasts one previous resident of some celebrity: Vlad the Impaler, or Vlad Dracula, who may have been an early influence for Bram Stoker’s vampire, Dracula. It also boasts a staggering 1480 stone steps, which you can still climb today.

[h/t Simply Savvy]

America’s 10 Most Hated Easter Candies

Peeps are all out of cluck when it comes to confectionery popularity contests.
Peeps are all out of cluck when it comes to confectionery popularity contests.
William Thomas Cain/Getty Images

Whether you celebrate Easter as a religious holiday or not, it’s an opportune time to welcome the sunny, flora-filled season of spring with a basket or two of your favorite candy. And when it comes to deciding which Easter-themed confections belong in that basket, people have pretty strong opinions.

This year, CandyStore.com surveyed more than 19,000 customers to find out which sugary treats are widely considered the worst. If you’re a traditionalist, this may come as a shock: Cadbury Creme Eggs, Peeps, and solid chocolate bunnies are the top three on the list, and generic jelly beans landed in the ninth spot. While Peeps have long been polarizing, it’s a little surprising that the other three classics have so few supporters. Based on some comments left by participants, it seems like people are just really particular about the distinctions between certain types of candy.

Generic jelly beans, for example, were deemed old and bland, but people adore gourmet jelly beans, which were the fifth most popular Easter candy. Similarly, people thought Cadbury Creme Eggs were messy and low-quality, while Cadbury Mini Eggs—which topped the list of best candies—were considered inexplicably delicious and even “addictive.” And many candy lovers prefer hollow chocolate bunnies to solid ones, which people explained were simply “too much.” One participant even likened solid bunnies to bricks.

candystore.com's worst easter candies
The pretty pastel shades of bunny corn don't seem to be fooling the large contingent of candy corn haters.
CandyStore.com

If there’s one undeniable takeaway from the list of worst candies, it’s that a large portion of the population isn’t keen on chewy marshmallow treats in general. The eighth spot went to Hot Tamales Peeps, and Brach’s Marshmallow Chicks & Rabbits—which one person christened “the zombie bunny catacomb statue candy”—sits at number six.

Take a look at the full list below, and read more enlightening (and entertaining) survey comments here.

  1. Cadbury Creme Eggs
  1. Peeps
  1. Solid chocolate bunnies
  1. Bunny Corn
  1. Marshmallow Chicks & Rabbits
  1. Chocolate crosses
  1. Twix Eggs
  1. Hot Tamales Peeps
  1. Generic jelly beans
  1. Fluffy Stuff Cotton Tails

[h/t CandyStore.com]

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