8 Inspiring Facts About Rosa Parks

Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Flickr
Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Flickr

On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks solidified her place in the history books by refusing to give up her bus seat to a white passenger—an arrestable offense in then-segregated Montgomery, Alabama. That quiet act of defiance helped kick-start the Civil Rights Movement and made Parks a household name. But it isn’t the only thing she should be remembered for. Here are some facts worth knowing about the icon, who was born in Tuskegee, Alabama on February 4, 1913.

1. Rosa Parks finished high school at a time when that was rare.

Though Rosa Parks enjoyed school, she dropped out at age 16 to take care of her dying grandmother. When she was 19 years old, Parks’s husband, Raymond, urged her to complete her high school education. She received her diploma in 1933, making her part of the mere 7 percent of African Americans at the time to earn the distinction.

2. Rosa Parks was active in politics.

Parks's fight for equal rights for African Americans didn’t start with her fateful arrest. In 1943, she joined the Montgomery, Alabama chapter of the NAACP and served as its secretary until 1956. Part of her duties included traveling across the state and interviewing victims of discrimination and witnesses to lynchings. After moving from Alabama to Detroit, Parks worked as an assistant to U.S. Representative John Conyers, where she helped find housing for homeless people.

3. The bus driver who had Rosa Parks arrested in 1955 had given her trouble before.

Parks’s first conflict with James Blake, the bus driver who reported her to the police in 1955, came more than a decade earlier. In 1943, she boarded a bus driven by Blake and, after she paid her fare, he told her to exit and re-enter through the back doors—a rule for black riders using the segregated bus system. Instead of waiting for her to get back in, Blake drove away once Parks was off the bus. She avoided the driver for more than 10 years until one day she boarded his bus without paying attention. When she refused to surrender her seat to a white passenger, Blake was the one who called the police and had her arrested.

4. Rosa Parks helped spark the Civil Rights Movement.

Parks never planned to start a movement, but that’s what happened shortly after her arrest. Civil rights groups used her quiet protest as an opportunity to shine a national spotlight on unconstitutional segregation laws in the Deep South. The Montgomery bus boycott kicked off just days after her arrest, and less than a year later, the Supreme Court deemed the city’s segregated buses illegal. Parks’s arrest and the bus boycott are viewed by many historians as the inciting events of the movement that led to federal civil rights legislation in the 1960s.

5. Rosa Parks wasn’t the first black woman who refused to give up her seat.

Just nine months before Parks made history in Montgomery, a 15-year-old named Claudette Colvin was arrested in the same city for not moving from her bus seat for a white passenger. Colvin was the first person taken in custody for violating Montgomery's bus segregation laws, but her actions were quickly overshadowed when Parks became the face of the Montgomery bus boycotts less than a year later.

6. Rosa Parks was arrested a second time.

Not long after her historic arrest in 1955, Parks got into trouble with the law again on February 22, 1956. This time, she was arrested with close to 100 of her fellow protesters for breaking segregation laws during the Montgomery bus boycott. The famous photograph of Parks being fingerprinted by a police officer came from this second arrest, though it’s often mistakenly thought to show her first.

7. The founder of Little Caesars paid Rosa Parks's rent for years.

After surviving a robbery and assault in her Detroit apartment in 1994, Parks was in need of a new place to live. Mike Ilitch, the founder of Little Caesars, heard of the plan and offered to cover her rent for as long as she needed it. He and his wife Marian ended up paying for Parks to live in a safer apartment until her death in 2005 at the age of 92.

8. Rosa Parks was the first woman lain in state at the U.S. Capitol.

Following her death in 2005, Parks was lain in state under the Capitol rotunda. The honor is reserved for the country’s most distinguished citizens—usually ones who have held public office. Parks remains the only woman and one of just four private citizens to receive the honor.

Keep Your Cat Busy With a Board Game That Doubles as a Scratch Pad

Cheerble
Cheerble

No matter how much you love playing with your cat, waving a feather toy in front of its face can get monotonous after a while (for the both of you). To shake up playtime, the Cheerble three-in-one board game looks to provide your feline housemate with hours of hands-free entertainment.

Cheerble's board game, which is currently raising money on Kickstarter, is designed to keep even the most restless cats stimulated. The first component of the game is the electronic Cheerble ball, which rolls on its own when your cat touches it with their paw or nose—no remote control required. And on days when your cat is especially energetic, you can adjust the ball's settings to roll and bounce in a way that matches their stamina.

Cheerable cat toy on Kickstarter.
Cheerble

The Cheerble balls are meant to pair with the Cheerble game board, which consists of a box that has plenty of room for balls to roll around. The board is also covered on one side with a platform that has holes big enough for your cat to fit their paws through, so they can hunt the balls like a game of Whack-a-Mole. And if your cat ever loses interest in chasing the ball, the board also includes a built-in scratch pad and fluffy wand toy to slap around. A simplified version of the board game includes the scratch pad without the wand or hole maze, so you can tailor your purchase for your cat's interests.

Cheerble cat board game.
Cheerble

Since launching its campaign on Kickstarter on April 23, Cheerble has raised over $128,000, already blowing past its initial goal of $6416. You can back the Kickstarter today to claim a Cheerble product, with $32 getting you a ball and $58 getting you the board game. You can make your pledge here, with shipping estimated for July 2020.

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Victorian Women Worked Out, Too—They Just Did It Wearing Corsets

Opening a door was nearly as taxing as an actual 19th-century workout.
Opening a door was nearly as taxing as an actual 19th-century workout.
ivan-96/iStock via Getty Images

The next time you’re gasping for breath in the middle of a cardio routine, try to imagine doing the same thing while decked out in a flowy dress and corset. That’s what female exercise enthusiasts faced in the 1800s.

According to Atlas Obscura, tailors weren’t churning out loose leggings or stretchy tracksuits for women to don for their daily fitness sessions, and workout guides for Victorian women were mainly written by men. To their credit, they weren’t recommending that ladies undergo high-intensity interval training or heavy lifting; instead, exercises were devised to account for the fact that women’s movements would be greatly constricted by tight bodices and elaborate hairstyles. As such, workouts focused on getting the blood flowing rather than burning calories or toning muscle.

In his 1827 book A Treatise on Calisthenic Exercises, Signor G.P. Voarino detailed dozens of options for women, including skipping, walking in zigzags, marching in place, and bending your arms and legs at specific angles. Some exercises even called for the use of a cane, though they were more geared towards balancing and stretching than weight-lifting.

To Voarino, the light calisthenic exercises were meant for “counteracting every tendency to deformity, and for obviating such defects of figure as are occasioned by confinement within doors, too close an application to sedentary employment, or by those constrained positions which young ladies habitually assume during their hours of study.”

Nearly 30 years later, Catharine Beecher (Harriet Beecher Stowe's sister) published her own workout guide, Physiology and Calisthenics for Schools and Families, which encouraged educators especially to incorporate exercise programs for all children into their curricula. Beecher was against corsets, but the illustrations in her book did still depict young ladies in long dresses—it would be some time before students were expected to change into gym clothes at school. Many of Beecher’s calisthenic exercises were similar to Voarino’s, though she included some beginner ballet positions, arm circles, and other faster-paced movements.

Compared to the fitness regimen of 14th-century knight Jean Le Maingre, however, Victorian calisthenics seem perfectly reasonable. From scaling walls to throwing stones, here’s how he liked to break a sweat.

[h/t Atlas Obscura]