11 Fascinating Facts About the Frilled Shark

Sometimes called a “living fossil” because it has changed so little since prehistoric times, the eel-like frilled shark—which is rarely seen by humans—has been in the news this week after a snake-like one was found off the coast of Portugal. Here’s a quick primer.

1. IT’S NAMED FOR ITS GILLS.

Its scientific name is Chlamydoselachus anguineus, but this creature’s common name comes from its gills: Unlike all other sharks, which have separate gills, C. anguineus’ first pair of gills go all the way across its throat; each pair is lined at the edges with red “fringe.”

2. IT WAS DISCOVERED IN THE 19TH CENTURY.

The sharks were first scientifically described by German ichthyologist Ludwig H.P. Döderlein, who taught at Tokyo University from 1879 to 1881 and brought two specimens captured in Tokyo Bay when he returned to Vienna. His paper describing the sharks was lost, however, so the first description comes from Samuel Garman in the 1884 edition of the Bulletin of Essex Institute. In the remarks after the description, Garman noted that

Such an animal as that described is very likely to unsettle disbelief in what is popularly called the “sea serpent.” Though it could hardly on examination be taken for anything but a shark, its appearance in the forward portion of the body, particularly in the head, brings vividly to mind the triangular heads, deep-cleft mouths, and fierce looks of many of our most dreaded snakes. In view of the possible discoveries of the future, the fact of the existence of such creatures, so recently undiscovered, certainly calls for a suspension of judgment in regard to the non-existence of that oft-appearing but elusive creature, the serpent-like monster of the oceans.

The frilled shark’s species name, anguineus, is Latin for “consisting of snakes” or “snaky.”

Biologist David A. Ebert, director of the Pacific Shark Research Center, described a second frilled shark species—Chlamydoselachus africana, which lives off the coast of Africa and is about half as long as its predecessor—in 2009.

3. IT’S GOT INSANE TEETH.

The frilled shark’s mouth is just as terrifying as the maw of a great white: It’s lined with 25 rows of backward-facing, trident-shaped teeth—300 in all. “The teeth are constructed for grasping and from their peculiar shape and sharpness it would seem as if nothing that once came within their reach could escape them,” Garman wrote. “Even in the dead specimen the formidable three-pronged teeth make the mouth a troublesome one to explore.” 

Ebert can testify to that fact. “I can tell you from snagging my fingers on the teeth, you can only back out one way and that’s in toward the mouth and then out,” he told WIRED. “It didn’t feel good, I can tell you that.” The shark uses the bright white teeth, which sharply contrast against its brown body, to lure in prey: “By the time [the prey] realize, Oh, that’s the teeth of a shark, they’re too close and the shark is able to ambush them at that point,” Ebert said. “It’s almost like when you drive out of a parking lot exit and they have the spikes sticking out that say, ‘Do not back up.’ That’s kind of what happens when these things catch prey items.”

And as if its teeth weren’t freaky enough, the frilled shark has spines, called dermal denticles, lining its mouth. So if you happen to see one of these anywhere, it’s better to look and not touch.

4. IT “HOVERS” IN THE WATER...

Scientists once believed that the frilled shark wriggled through the water like an eel. But according to the ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research, “its body cavity is elongate and packed with a huge liver perfused with low-density oils and hydrocarbons, making the shark almost neutrally buoyant at depth.”

5. … AND IT MAY STRIKE AT ITS PREY LIKE A SNAKE.

No one has ever observed the frilled shark hunting, but scientists believe that it uses its posterior fins as propulsive surfaces to launch itself at its prey. Its long jaws, which terminate at the back of its head, may allow the animal to gape extra wide and take in prey half as long as its body. Analysis of the stomach contents of captured specimens has revealed that the frilled shark’s diet is 61 percent cephalopod, 11 percent teleost fishes, and, occasionally, other sharks.

6. IT’S FOUND ALL OVER THE WORLD—BUT YOU PROBABLY WON’T SEE IT.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations notes that the frilled shark is “wide-ranging but spottily distributed”; you can see where the shark is found on the map above. It typically resides in depths between 390 and 4200 feet, so people rarely see these sharks unless they venture to the surface, which isn’t unheard of (as you’ll see below).

7. FEMALES ARE BIGGER THAN MALES.

On average, males range from 3.2 to 3.6 feet and females from 4.4 to 4.9 feet; the maximum these sharks can reach is 6.4 feet.

8. THEIR GESTATION PERIOD MAY BE 3.5 YEARS LONG.

A study of frilled sharks in Japan revealed that the animals breed year-round; litters typically consist of six pups, which emerge from eggs while still in the mother’s uterus and are then born live. Scientists think the shark may have the longest gestation period ever: Frilled sharks could gestate for as long as 42 months, nearly twice as long as African elephants carry their young. Scientists theorize that the extreme length has something to do with the shark’s cold deep sea habitat.

9. IT WASN’T SEEN IN ITS NATURAL HABITAT UNTIL 2004.

NOAA scientists exploring the “Latitude 31-30 Transect” in the Atlantic Ocean captured a video of a frilled shark “swimming over sea bottom that was covered with tiny sand dunes” during a submersible dive. “This species has been, on rare occasion, caught or taken in bottom trawls,” the site notes. “To the knowledge of everyone on board, however, this was the first time anyone had ever seen the rare species in its natural habitat.”

10. ONE WAS CAPTURED IN JAPAN IN 2007.

In January 2007, a Japanese fisherman spotted a strange, eel-like creature with a mouth full of sharp teeth near the surface; he alerted the staff of the Awashima Marine Park in Shizuoka, who captured the animal and transferred it to a seawater pool, where they filmed it. “We think it may have come close to the surface because it was sick, or else it was weakened because it was in shallow waters,” a park official said. “We believe moving pictures of a live specimen are extremely rare. They live between 600 and 1000 meters under the water, which is deeper than humans can go.” The shark, a female, died a few hours after its capture.

11. IT CALLS ANOTHER FREAKY SHARK ITS COUSIN.

The frilled shark might have rows upon rows of gnarly teeth, but its cousin, the goblin shark, can thrust its jaw out of its face. Which is more terrifying?

You Can Now Turn Your Cat’s Adorable Face Into a Slightly Terrifying Wearable Mask

Seregraff/iStock via Getty Images
Seregraff/iStock via Getty Images

Whatever alternate dimension coughed up the digital fur technology for Cats (2019) almost definitely also blessed (or cursed) us with these eerily realistic cat masks.

shindo rinka cat mask
Shindo Rinka

According to Kotaku, all you have to do is send in a few photos of your cat, and designers will sculpt its likeness—piercing gaze, bristly fur, and all—for you to wear to Sunday brunch or, more wisely, somewhere not populated with people trying to enjoy their weekend. Part of the reason the mask looks so authentic is that it doesn’t just cover your face; it’s attached to a length of fur-covered cloth that hides your entire head. It’s not altogether unlike what Hermione Granger looked like when she accidentally transformed herself into Millicent Bulstrode’s cat with Polyjuice Potion in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets.

NextShark reports that the masks are a joint venture between Japan-based companies Shindo Rinka and Workshop 91, and you can place your order by filling out a contact form on Shindo Rinka’s website. If you don’t read Japanese, you’ll have to translate the page first, and make sure you check the box next to “About ultra-real pet mask ‘My Family.’” Personalized pet merchandise of this ilk doesn’t come cheap—you’d be shelling out about $2700, not including shipping costs.

As for how your cat might react to the mask, it’s difficult to predict. Rui, the Bengal cat from Kyoto shown in the photos, doesn’t seem totally averse to the idea—but it’s been scientifically proven that cats’ facial expressions are hard for humans to read.

[h/t Kotaku]

11 Things You Might Not Know About Reindeer

Mats Lindberg/iStock via Getty Images
Mats Lindberg/iStock via Getty Images

Beyond their sled-pulling capabilities and discrimination against those with red noses, what do you really know about reindeer?

1. Reindeer and caribou are the same thing.

Historically, the Eurasian reindeer and American caribou were considered to be different species, but they are actually one and the same: Rangifer tarandus. There are two major groups of reindeer, the tundra and the woodland, which are divided according to the type of habitat the animal lives in, not their global location. The animals are further divided into nine to 13 subspecies, depending on who is doing the classification. One subspecies, the Arctic reindeer of eastern Greenland, is extinct.

2. Reindeer have several names.

Reindeer comes from the Old Norse word hreinin, which means "horned animal.” Caribou comes from Canadian French and is based on the Mi'kmaq word caliboo, meaning “pawer” or "scratcher," in reference to the animal’s habit of digging through the snow for food.

3. Santa’s reindeer are most likely R. tarandus platyrhynchus, a subspecies from Svalbard.

Svalbard reindeer
pum_eva/iStock via Getty Images

Clement C. Moore’s poem, "A Visit from Saint Nicholas,” introduced the world to Santa’s reindeer and describes them as "tiny." The only reindeer that could really be considered tiny are the Svalbard subspecies, which weighs about half as much as most reindeer subspecies and are at least a foot shorter in length. That may prove useful when landing on roofs.

Strangely, you’ll almost never see these guys in depictions of Santa. Live-action films usually use full-sized reindeer and animations usually draw the creatures as a cross between a white-tailed deer and a reindeer.

4. It’s not always easy to tell the sex of a reindeer.

In most deer species, only the male grows antlers, but that’s not true for most reindeer. Although the females in certain populations do not have antlers, many do. During certain times of year, you can still tell the sex of a reindeer by checking for antlers. That’s because males lose their antlers in winter or spring, but females shed theirs in the summer.

5. Santa’s reindeer may or may not be female.

Since reindeer shed their antlers at different points of the year based on their sex and age, we know that Santa’s reindeer probably aren't older males, because older male reindeer lose their antlers in December and Christmas reindeer are always depicted with their antlers. Female Svalbard deer begin growing their antlers in summer and keep them all year. That means Santa’s sled either has to be pulled by young reindeer, constantly replaced as they start to age, or Santa’s reindeer are female.

6. Reindeer were originally connected to Santa through poetry.

Before Moore wrote “A Visit from Saint Nicholas” (a.k.a. “The Night Before Christmas”) in 1823, no one thought about reindeer in conjunction with Santa Claus. Moore introduced the world to Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Dunder and Blixem (the last two of which were later changed from Dutch to German, becoming Donner and Blitzen). While the first six names all make sense in English, the last two in German mean “thunder” and “flash,” respectively.

As for little Rudolph, he wasn’t introduced until catalog writer Robert L. May wrote a children’s book in verse for his employer, Montgomery Ward, in 1939 titled “Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer.”

7. Reindeer are the only mammals that can see ultraviolet light.

Humans can see light in a range of wavelengths, from about 700 nanometers (in the red spectrum) to 400 nanometers (in the violet spectrum). Reindeer can see light to 320 nanometers, in the ultraviolet (UV) range. This ability lets reindeer see things in the icy white of the Arctic that they would otherwise miss—kind of like viewing the glow of a white object under a blacklight. Things like white fur and urine are difficult, even impossible, for humans to see in the snow, but for reindeer, they show up in high contrast.

8. Reindeer evolved for life in cold, harsh environments.

Migrating caribou
Geoffrey Reynaud/iStock via Getty Images

Life in the tundra is hard, but reindeer have it easy-ish thanks to their amazing evolutionary enhancements. Their noses are specially adapted to warm the air they breathe before it enters their lungs and to condense water in the air, which keeps their mucous membranes moist. Their fur traps air, which not only helps provide them with excellent insulation, but also keeps them buoyant in water, which is important for traveling across massive rivers and lakes during migration.

Even their hooves are special. In the summer, when the ground is wet, their foot pads are softened, providing them with extra grip. In the winter, though, the pads tighten, revealing the rim of their hooves, which is used to provide traction in the slippery snow and ice.

9. some reindeer migrate longer distances than any other land mammal.

A few populations of North American reindeer travel up to 3100 miles per year, covering around 23 miles per day. At their top speed, these reindeer can run 50 miles per hour and swim at 6.2 miles per hour. During spring, herd size can range from 50,000 to 500,000 individuals, but during the winter the groups are much smaller, when reindeer enter mating season and competition between the bucks begins to split up the crowds. Like many herd animals, the calves learn to walk fast—within only 90 minutes of being born, a baby reindeer can already run.

10. Reindeer play an important role in Indigenous cultures.

In Scandinavia and Canada, reindeer hunting helped keep Indigenous peoples alive, from the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods all the way through modern times. In Norway, it is still common to find reindeer trapping pits, guiding fences, and bow rests dating from the Stone Age. And in Scandinavia, reindeer is still a popular meat, sold in grocery stores in fresh, canned, and dried forms. Almost all of the animal’s organs are edible and many are crucial ingredients of traditional dishes in the area. In North America, Inuit rely on caribou for traditional food, clothing, shelter, and tools.

11. Reindeer used to live farther south.

Reindeer now live exclusively in the northern points of the globe, but when Earth was cooler and humans were less of a threat, their territory was larger. In fact, reindeer used to range as far south as Nevada, Tennessee, and Spain during the Pleistocene area. Its habitat has shrunk considerably in the last few centuries. The last caribou in the contiguous United States was removed to a Canadian conservation breeding program in 2019.

As for how Santa's nine reindeer manage to fly while pulling a sled carrying presents for every child in the whole world, science still hasn’t worked that out.

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