Here’s What You Need to Know About the New Coronavirus

jarun011/iStock via Getty Images
jarun011/iStock via Getty Images

This article has been updated.

This morning, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed the fifth case of the recently discovered coronavirus in the U.S. Find out what it is, where it is, how to avoid it, and all the other need-to-know information about the illness below.

What is the new coronavirus?

Coronaviruses are a group of viruses named for the crown-shaped spikes that cover their surfaces (corona is the Latin word for crown). According to the CDC, human coronaviruses can cause upper-respiratory tract illnesses, including the common cold, and can sometimes lead to more severe lower-respiratory tract issues like pneumonia or bronchitis.

Because this latest coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, is so new, health officials are currently trying to figure out how it works and how to treat it. It’s not the first time a potent new coronavirus has caused an international outbreak: SARS-CoV originated in Asia and spread to more than two dozen countries in 2003, and MERS-CoV first infected people in Saudi Arabia before spreading across the globe in 2012.

Where is the coronavirus outbreak happening?

Overall, China has more than 2700 confirmed cases, many of which are in Wuhan, a city in China’s Hubei province where 2019-nCoV was first detected last month. Around 50 additional cases have been reported in South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam.

The CDC has confirmed five U.S. cases—in California, Arizona, Illinois, and Washington—all of whom had recently returned from trips to Wuhan. Right now, the CDC is screening all passengers from Wuhan, and their flights are only allowed to land at one of five U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York, Los Angeles International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, or Chicago O’Hare International Airport.

Chinese officials have shut down transportation to and from Wuhan, and they’re also temporarily closing tourist spots like Beijing’s Forbidden City, Shanghai Disneyland, and a portion of the Great Wall.

What are the symptoms of the new coronavirus?

Symptoms are similar to those caused by a cold or the flu, including fever, dry cough, and breathing difficulty. As of Monday morning, 81 people in China had died from the virus, and The New York Times reported that older people with preexisting conditions like cirrhosis, diabetes, and Parkinson’s disease are most likely to be affected.

How does the new coronavirus spread?

Because most of the early cases of 2019-nCoV were traced back to a seafood and meat market in Wuhan, health officials think the virus originally spread from infected animals to humans, but it’s now being transmitted from person to person.

Though scientists are still studying exactly how that happens, the leading theory is that it travels in tiny droplets of fluid from the respiratory tract when a person coughs or sneezes.

How do you avoid the new coronavirus?

The CDC is warning everyone to avoid any nonessential trips to Wuhan, and to avoid animals or sick people if you’re traveling elsewhere in China. If you’ve been to China in the last two weeks and experience any of the symptoms listed above, you should seek medical attention immediately—and you should call the doctor’s office or emergency room beforehand to let them know you’re coming.

Otherwise, simply stick to the precautions you’d normally take when trying to stay healthy: Wash your hands often with soap and water, cover your nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing, stay away from sick people, and thoroughly cook any meat or eggs before eating them.

Should you be worried about the new coronavirus?

The global health community is taking 2019-nCoV seriously in order to curb the outbreak as quickly as possible, but you definitely shouldn’t panic. The CDC maintains that it’s a low-risk situation in the U.S., and public health officials are echoing that message.

Caitlin Wolfe, a former consultant epidemiologist for the World Health Organization (WHO) and current doctoral student at the University of South Florida’s College of Public Health, tells Mental Floss that it’s too early to tell if the virus will become a nationwide outbreak, but the fact that cases have been detected in the U.S. “means patients and physicians are paying attention to the relevant symptoms and travel history,” and “the public health systems we have here are working.”

“The most important messages to get out to the American public are ones that share the information we know and avoid the alarmist/sensationalist narrative,” Wolfe says. “Early estimates from the Chinese authorities suggest that the R0, or the average number of people each person with the virus infects, is between 1.4 and 2.5. To put this in perspective, the average number of susceptible people infected by someone with the measles virus is between 12 and 18.”

While experts work to understand and fight the virus, keep an eye out for updates from the CDC and WHO and be extra committed to practicing good hygiene habits—which, as Wolfe points out, will also help protect you from the flu or even just a regular cold.

[h/t USA Today]

The 10 Best Memorial Day 2020 Sales

iRobot,GoWise,Funko via Wayfair, Entertainment Earth
iRobot,GoWise,Funko via Wayfair, Entertainment Earth

The Memorial Day sales have started early this year, and it's easy to find yourself drowning in offers for cheap mattresses, appliances, shoes, and grills. To help you cut through the noise and focus on the best deals around, we threw together some of our favorite Memorial Day sales going on right now. Take a look below.

1. Leesa

A Leesa Hybrid mattress.
A Leesa Hybrid mattress.
Leesa

Through May 31, you can save up to $400 on every mattress model Leesa has to offer, from the value-minded Studio by Leesa design to the premium Leesa Legend, which touts a combination of memory foam and micro-coil springs to keep you comfortable in any position you sleep in.

Find it: Leesa

2. Sur La Table

This one is labeled as simply a “summer sale,” but the deals are good only through Memorial Day, so you should get to it quickly. This sale takes up to 20 percent off outdoor grilling and dining essentials, like cast-iron shrimp pans ($32), a stainless steel burger-grilling basket ($16), and, of course, your choice of barbeque sauce to go along with it.

Find it: Sur la Table

3. Wayfair

KitchenAid Stand Mixer on Sale on Wayfair.
Wayfair/KitchenAid

Wayfair is cutting prices on all manner of appliances until May 28. Though you can pretty much find any home appliance imaginable at a low price, the sale is highlighted by $130 off a KitchenAid stand mixer and 62 percent off this eight-in-one GoWise air fryer.

And that’s only part of the brand’s multiple Memorial Day sales, which you can browse here. They’re also taking up to 40 percent off Samsung refrigerators and washing machines, up to 65 percent off living room furniture, and up to 60 percent off mattresses.

Find it: Wayfair

4. Blue Apron

If you sign up for a Blue Apron subscription before May 26, you’ll save $20 on each of your first three box deliveries, totaling $60 in savings. 

Find it: Blue Apron

5. The PBS Store

Score 20 percent off sitewide at Shop.PBS.org when you use the promo code TAKE20. This slashes prices on everything from documentaries like Ken Burns’s The Roosevelt: An Intimate History ($48) and The Civil War ($64) to a Pride & Prejudice tote bag ($27) and this precious heat-changing King Henry VIII mug ($11) that reveals the fates of his many wives when you pour your morning coffee.

Find it: The PBS Store

6. Amazon

eufy robot vacuum.
Amazon/eufy

While Amazon doesn’t have an official Memorial Day sale, the ecommerce giant still has plenty of ever-changing deals to pick from. Right now, you can take $100 off this outdoor grill from Weber, $70 off a eufy robot vacuum, and 22 percent off the ASUS gaming laptop. For more deals, just go to Amazon and have a look around.

7. Backcountry

You can save up to 50 percent on tents, hiking packs, outdoor wear, and more from brands like Patagonia, Marmot, and others during Backcountry's Memorial Day sale.

Find it: Backcountry

8. Entertainment Earth

Funko Pops on Sale on Entertainment Earth.
Entertainment Earth/Funko

From now until June 2, Entertainment Earth is having a buy one, get one half off sale on select Funko Pops. This includes stalwarts like the Star Wars and Batman lines, and more recent additions like the Schitt's Creek Funkos and the pre-orders for the upcoming X-Men movie line.

Find it: Entertainment Earth

9. Moosejaw

With the promo code SUNSCREEN, you can take 20 percent off one full-price item at Moosejaw, along with finding up to 30 percent off select items during the outdoor brand's summer sale. These deals include casual clothing, outdoor wear, trail sneakers, and more. 

Find it: Moosejaw

10. Osprey

Through May 25, you can save 25 percent on select summer items, and 40 percent off products from last season. This can include anything from hiking packs and luggage to outdoorsy socks and hats. So if you're planning on getting acquainted with the great outdoors this summer, now you can do it on the cheap.

Find it: Osprey

At Mental Floss, we only write about the products we love and want to share with our readers, so all products are chosen independently by our editors. Mental Floss has affiliate relationships with certain retailers and may receive a percentage of any sale made from the links on this page. Prices and availability are accurate as of the time of publication.

5 Facts About Kawasaki Disease

Ridofranz, iStock via Getty Images
Ridofranz, iStock via Getty Images

While most pediatric COVID-19 cases are mild, the disease has been tied to a serious new syndrome in kids. In recent weeks, dozens of children who tested positive for COVID-19 antibodies have exhibited symptoms like rash, fever, diarrhea, and swollen hands and feet—all signs similar to a rare condition called Kawasaki disease. Like Kawasaki disease, the mystery illness, officially known as pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome (PIMS), can lead to severe heart issues. In New York, three children have died from it.

Medical experts still aren’t sure how this condition develops, or how it’s related to COVID-19. Here are five things we do know about Kawasaki disease, the syndrome it resembles.

1. Symptoms of Kawasaki disease appear in phases.

When patients first contract Kawasaki disease, the most serious symptom is a high fever that lasts five days or more. Other diagnostic signs that appear in this first stage include chapped lips, bloodshot eyes, sore throat, swollen hands and feet, and a rash covering the back, limbs, belly, and groin. These symptoms are the result of inflammation in the arteries, veins, capillaries, and lymph nodes.

After experiencing a fever for about two weeks, patients may enter the second stage of the disease. This phase is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, joint pain, and temporary hearing loss. Peeling skin on the hands and feet is another symptom, with dead skin sometimes coming off the extremities in layers.

The third phase is known as the convalescent phase, and it comes about four weeks after the fever first develops. During this period, which can last a couple of weeks, patients gradually recover and their symptoms improve.

2. Kawasaki disease can have deadly complications.

Most children who get Kawasaki disease fully recover, and recovery rates are even higher when the disease is caught early. But in some cases, the illness has dangerous effects on the cardiovascular system. The inflammation that characterizes the disease can weaken artery walls, resulting in rare cases of heart disease and heart attacks in children. Heart problems afflict about a quarter of Kawasaki disease patients who didn’t receive early treatment for the condition. Of these untreated cases, roughly 2 to 3 percent are fatal.

3. Kawasaki disease is uncommon.

Kawasaki disease is rare, effecting roughly 4200 children in the U.S. annually. The syndrome is almost exclusive to kids, with most cases occurring in patients younger than 5 years old. It’s 1.5 times more common in boys, so sex may factor into who gets it. Ethnicity is another possible component: Kawasaki disease rates are 10 to 20 times higher in East Asian countries like Korea and Japan than in the U.S.

4. Kawasaki disease is often treated with an over-the-counter drug.

One of the primary treatments for Kawasaki disease is aspirin. The anti-inflammatory drug can help relieve pain, reduce fever, and prevent blood clots in kids with the condition. Aspirin shouldn’t be taken by children for other types of fever or pain, though, due to the risk of a serious condition called Reye's syndrome. Kawasaki disease is the rare instance when aspirin is given to kids, and even in these cases, it should only be taken under the supervision of a doctor.

The other main treatment for the disease is intravenous immunoglobulin, or IVIG. Immunoglobulin is a solution of antibodies from healthy donors that helps boost the patient's immune system to fight disease. It’s administered through the patient’s vein, and if given early enough, it can reduce symptoms within 36 hours.

5. COVID-19 may trigger Kawasaki disease, but it's too soon to tell.

Doctors are unclear on what causes Kawasaki disease. One theory is that antigens found in some viruses can trigger a hyper-inflammatory response in children who are genetically susceptible. This is similar to what's being observed in the new pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome, which is possibly related to COVID-19. "We think patients were exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, they may or may not have had some symptoms, and later on there was a delayed reaction," Michael Portman, pediatric cardiologist and director of the Kawasaki Disease Clinic at Seattle Children’s, says of the recent PIMS cases. "There was a hyper-inflammatory response launched by the body against the viral antigen, so that fits with the main hypothesis for Kawasaki disease."

More research still needs to be done to understand the relationship between PIMS and COVID-19. "It's a little bit early to make a direct link, but it seems plausible that the new coronavirus does trigger an immune response that could result in Kawasaki disease, or a different spectrum of the disease, or even a separate disease that we're calling PIMS," Portman tells Mental Floss.

It's also too early to say definitively that PIMS and Kawasaki disease are the same thing, but to experts who have studied the latter, the new syndrome looks very familiar. "It is very difficult to separate the two," Portman says. "They are very, very similar, and it's going to take quite a bit of research to determine if they're different."