8 Collections Featuring Hair as Art and Souvenir

A Victorian mourning brooch made with hair
A Victorian mourning brooch made with hair

Humans have been using hair to create jewelry and artwork for thousands of years. The practice goes back at least as far as ancient Egypt, when tomb paintings show pharaohs and their consorts exchanging hair balls as love tokens. But the practice of turning hair into art reached its zenith during the Victorian era, when locks were clipped from the living to create tokens of esteem and affection, or snipped from the dead to make mementos. During the Victorian era both men and women wore hair jewelry, which often came in the form of complicated braids fashioned into pins, rings, necklaces, bracelets, watch chains, and more. There were hair wreaths and hair paintings, and even hair sculptures; gold, jet, enamel, and seed pearls often adorned the hair to add further ornamentation. Often, hair came from a beloved family member or friend, but there was also a thriving trade in imported hair from strangers—the longer, finer, and more unusually colored the better. (Historic New England and the Massachusetts Historical Society have some great examples in their collections and online.)

The Victorian fascination with hair was part of that era’s preoccupation with death, an ever-present threat in the days when mortality rates were high. Jeweler Karen Bachmann, a professor of Art & Design at the Pratt Institute who teaches how-to classes on hairwork at Brooklyn's Morbid Anatomy Museum, explains that the making of hair into mementos was a way Victorians coped with loss. "What interests me about hairwork is the concept of human anatomical relic as a stand-in for the entire person," she says. "Just as people have worshipped parts (bones, etc.) of saints, the Victorians held on to remnants of their loved ones by retaining pieces of their hair. In this way, the wearer could keep their loved one close—literally and metaphorically."

Today, there are still a few places where you can see Victorian hairwork on display, and an assortment of other spots where history and culture are wound up with famous and not-so-famous tresses:

1. Leila's Hair Museum // Independence, Missouri


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For a crash course in Victorian hair work, visit Leila's Hair Museum. The brainchild of hairdresser Leila Cohoon, the museum includes a collection of more than 600 hair wreaths and 2,000 pieces of jewelry made with human hair, including bracelets, necklaces, earrings, hat pins, cuff links, buttons, and more. Cohoon says she began collecting hairwork in 1956, after falling in love with a small gold-framed hair wreath at a Kansas City, Missouri antiques dealer’s. She hasn’t looked back, and adds to her ever-growing collection by drawing on garage and estate sales, auctions, personal connections, and donations. The first iteration of Leila's Hair Museum opened in 1986 in the front of her cosmetology school, and moved to its current location in January 2005. Cohoon even gives classes on how to make Victorian-style hairwork yourself, and says she’s reverse-engineered 30 techniques the Victorians once used (she’s still working on another five).

2. Avanos Hair Museum // Goreme, Turkey


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This may the world's only pottery center/guest house/hair museum. In a cave. As Atlas Obscura notes, "calling it a museum may be a bit of a stretch," but it's certainly a remarkable sight—an estimated 16,000 locks of hair dangle from the ceilings and walls, the oldest supposedly hung in 1979. The tendrils vary in color and size, but are all said to come from the heads of female visitors. Supposedly, a local potter started the place when a dear friend was saying goodbye and the potter asked for a souvenir to remember her by. The friend cut off a piece of her hair, which the potter ended up displaying in his pottery shop. He told the story to visitors, some of whom were moved to duplicate the woman's generosity, and the collection took off.

3. Victoria and Albert Museum

The Victoria and Albert Museum has an excellent collection of hair jewelry, much of it stored in a cabinet on the mezzanine level of Room 91. Highlights include a fantastic diamond-and-pink sapphire broach with a locket of blond plaited hair, a beautiful brooch made to commemorate the death of a 16-year-old who died in 1842, and a 17th-century ring with an enameled skeleton on a background of hair, made in memory of a child known only by the initials “I.C.”

4. John Reznikoff’s Collection

Collector John Reznikoff's assortment of celebrity hair isn't usually open to the public—unless the public happens to be a buyer with some seriously deep pockets. Among the strands plucked from George Washington, Beethoven, Napoleon, and John Dillinger is a clump of hair said to come from Abraham Lincoln after his assassination, and still bearing bits of his brain matter. Reznikoff estimates that the clump, kept in a special gold-and-glass case, is worth about $750,000. Not all the samples get the gold box treatment, however; most rest inside a filing cabinet, in plain envelopes alongside documentation proving their origins.

Reznikoff buys from auction houses, small dealers, and the "occasional grandmother," according to The New York Times, but stopped buying hair from living celebrities after a deal with Neil Armstrong's barber led the former astronaut to sue. However, there's still plenty of business where dead celebrities are concerned—in 2008, Reznikoff sold a selection of Beethoven's hair to a company that turned it into a synthetic diamond, which eventually sold for $202,000 on eBay.

5. The Japan Hair Museum // Kyoto

Hair, fashion, and history go hand-in-hand—think of the flappers' bobs or 1960s beehives. At Kyoto's Japan Hair Museum, also known as the Japanese Coiffure Museum, 115 hairpieces provide a history of Japan through its many hairstyles, from the distant past to the product-obsessed present. Hundreds of hair ornaments and combs are also on display, although if hair accessories are more your thing, there's a museum for that too: The museum of Traditional Japanese Hair Ornaments in Tokyo.

6. Bangsbo Museum // Frederikshavn, Denmark

Hairwork has deep roots in Scandinavia, where poor harvests in the 19th century encouraged the rise of a cottage industry in hair art and jewelry made by country women. Known in Sweden as hårkullor, or "hair ladies," these women would often travel Europe creating hair-based handicrafts and sending the funds back home to help keep their villages afloat. They created all kinds of jewelry—brooches, rings, and watch chains—using hair provided (usually) by the customer. Men wore the hair of their wives fashioned into intricately braided watch chains, while women opted for necklaces, rings, and other adornments made from their husbands' tresses. Today, the Bangsbo Museum displays hårkullor handicrafts in a permanent exhibition that forms Northern Europe's largest collection of hair art. You can see necklaces, rings, wreaths, plaques, and most bizarrely, a pair of very hairy mittens.

7. John Varden’s Cabinets

In the early 1850s, John Varden was working for the National Institute for the Promotion of Science at the US Patent Office when he began collecting locks of hair for a display he would later call "Hair of Persons of Distinction." The curious framed collection included small snippets from the heads (presumably) of inventor Samuel Morse, sculptor Clark Mills, General Sam Houston, and Senators Henry Clay and Jefferson Davis, among other notables. Varden later created a second, equally large display featuring the hair of presidents from George Washington to Franklin Pierce. Both displays once belonged to the Patent Office, but now reside at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. The first cabinet is notable for preserving Varden's appeal: “Those having hair of Distinguished Persons, will confere [sic] a Favor by adding to this Collection."

8. Myrans Hemslöjd // Vamhus, Sweden

Vamhus, Sweden may be the only place left in Europe with a thriving hairwork community. In the 19th century, village women made hundreds of trips around Europe to learn and perform the craft, and it never quite died out. If you save up your strands (and your pennies), you can order your own hairwork brooches, earrings, bracelets, necklaces, or watch chains here. You can see hairwork on display at Myrans Hemslöjd, a local handicrafts store that is keeping the tradition alive.

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EvgeniyShkolenko/iStock via Getty Images
EvgeniyShkolenko/iStock via Getty Images

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11 Fascinating Facts About Tamagotchi

Tamagotchi is the toy that launched a thousand digital pet competitors.
Tamagotchi is the toy that launched a thousand digital pet competitors.
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They blooped and beeped and ate, played, and pooped, and, for ‘90s kids, the egg-shaped Tamagotchi toys were magic. They taught the responsibility of tending to a “pet,” even though their shrill sounds were annoying to parents and teachers and school administrators. Nearly-real funerals were held for expired Tamagotchi, and they’ve even been immortalized in a museum (of sorts). Here are 11 things you should know about the keychain toy that was once stashed in every kid’s backpack.

1. The idea for the Tamagotchi came from a female office worker at Bandai.

Aki Maita was a 30-year-old “office lady” at the Japanese toy company Bandai when inspiration struck. She wanted to create a pet for kids—one that wouldn't bark or meow, make a mess in the house, or lead to large vet bills, according to Culture Trip. Maita took her idea to Akihiro Yokoi, a toy designer at another company, and the duo came up with a name and backstory for their toy: Tamagotchis were aliens, and their egg served as protection from the Earth’s atmosphere. They gave prototype Tamagotchis to high school girls in Shibuya, and tweaked and honed the design of the toy based on their feedback.

2. The name Tamagotchi is a blend of two Japanese words.

The name Tamagotchi is a mashup between the Japanese words tamago and tomodachi, or egg and friend, according to Culture Trip. (Other sources have the name meaning "cute little egg" or "loveable egg.")

3. Tamagotchis were released in Japan in 1996.

A picture of a tamagotchi toy.
Tamagotchis came from a faraway planet called "Planet Tamagotchi."
Museum Rotterdam, Wikimedia Commons//CC BY-SA 3.0

Bandai released the Tamagotchi in Japan in November 1996. The tiny plastic keychain egg was equipped with a monochrome LCD screen that contained a “digital pet,” which hatched from an egg and grew quickly from there—one day for a Tamagotchi was equivalent to one year for a human. Their owners used three buttons to feed, discipline, play with, give medicine to, and clean up after their digital pet. It would make its demands known at all hours of the day through bloops and bleeps, and owners would have to feed it or bathe it or entertain it.

Owners that successfully raised their Tamagotchi to adulthood would get one of seven characters, depending on how they'd raised it; owners that were less attentive faced a sadder scenario. “Leave one unattended for a few hours and you'll return to find that it has pooped on the floor or, worse, died,” Wired wrote. The digital pets would eventually die of old age at around the 28-day mark, and owners could start fresh with a new Tamagotchi.

4. Tamagotchis were an immediate hit.

The toys were a huge success—4 million units were reportedly sold in Japan during their first four months on shelves. By 1997, Tamagotchis had made their way to the United States. They sold for $17.99, or around $29 in today's dollars. One (adult) reviewer noted that while he was "drawn in by [the Tamagotchi's] cleverness," after several days with the toy, "the thrill faded quickly. I'm betting the Tamagotchi will be the Pet Rock of the 1990s—overwhelmingly popular for a few months, and then abandoned in the fickle rush to some even cuter toy."

The toy was, in fact, overwhelmingly popular: By June 1997, 10 million of the toys had been shipped around the world. And according to a 2017 NME article, a whopping 82 million Tamagotchi had been sold since their release into the market in 1997.

5. Aki Maita and Akihiro Yokoi won an award for inventing the Tamagotchi.

In 1997, the duo won an Ig Nobel Prize in economics, a satiric prize that’s nonetheless presented by Nobel laureates at Harvard, for "diverting millions of person-hours of work into the husbandry of virtual pets" by creating the Tamagotchi.

6. Tamagotchis weren't popular with teachers.

Some who grew up with Tamagotchi remember sneaking the toys into school in their book bags. The toys were eventually banned in some schools because they were too distracting and, in some cases, upsetting for students. In a 1997 Baltimore Sun article titled “The Tamagotchi Generation,” Andrew Ratner wrote that the principal at his son’s elementary school sent out a memo forbidding the toys “because some pupils got so despondent after their Tamagotchis died that they needed consoling, even care from the school nurse.”

7. One pet cemetery served as a burial ground for expired Tamagotchi.

Terry Squires set aside a small portion of his pet cemetery in southern England for dead Tamagotchi. He told CNN in 1998 that he had performed burials for Tamagotchi owners from Germany, Switzerland, France, the United States, and Canada, all of whom ostensibly shipped their dead by postal mail. CNN noted that "After the Tamagotchis are placed in their coffins, they are buried as mourners look on, their final resting places topped with flowers."

8. There were many copycat Tamagotchi.

The success of the Tamagotchi resulted in both spin-offs and copycat toys, leading PC Mag to dub the late ’90s “The Golden Age of Virtual Pets.” There was the Digimon, a Tamagotchi spin-off by Bandai that featured monsters and was marketed to boys. (There were also Tamagotchi video games.) And in 1997, Tiger Electronics launched Giga Pets, which featured real animals (and, later, dinosaurs and fictional pets from TV shows). According to PC Mag, Giga Pets were very popular in the United States but “never held the same mystique as the original Tamagotchi units.” Toymaker Playmates's Nano Pets were also a huge success, though PC Mag noted they were “some of the least satisfying to take care of."

9. Rare Tamagotchis can be worth a lot of money.

According to Business Insider, most vintage Tamagotchis won't fetch big bucks on the secondary market. (On eBay, most are priced at around $50.) The exception are rare editions like “Yasashii Blue” and “Tamagotchi Ocean,” which go for $300 to $450 on eBay. As Complex notes, "There were over 40 versions (lines) of Tamagotchi released, and each line featured a variety of colors and variations ... yours would have to be one of the rarest models to be worth the effort of resale."

10. A new generation of Tamagotchis were released in 2017 for the toy's 20th anniversary.

The 2017 re-release of the Tamagotchi in its packaging.
Bandai came to the aid of nostalgic '90s kids when it re-released a version of the original Tamagotchis for the toy's 20th anniversary.
Chesnot/Getty Images

In November 2017, Bandai released a 20th anniversary Tamagotchi that, according to a press release [PDF], was "a first-of-its-kind-anywhere exact replica of the original Tamagotchi handheld digital pet launched ... in 1996." However, as The Verge reported, the toys weren't an exact replica: "They're about half the size, the LCD display is square rather than rectangle, and those helpful icons on the top and bottom of the screen seem to be gone now." In 2019, new Tamagotchis were released; they were larger than the originals, featured full-color displays, and retailed for $60.

11. The original Tamagotchi’s sound has been immortalized in a virtual museum.

The Museum of Endangered Sounds is a website that seeks to immortalize the digital sounds that become extinct as we hurtle through the evolution of technology. “The crackle of a dial-up modem. The metallic clack of a 3.5-inch floppy slotting into a Macintosh disk drive. The squeal of the newborn Tamagotchi. They are vintage sounds that no oldies station is ever going to touch,” The Washington Post wrote in a 2012 profile of the museum. So, yes, the sound of that little Tamagotchi is forever preserved, should it someday, very sadly, cease to exist completely.