Daenerys Targaryen is back with the Dothraki this season on Game of Thrones. What better time to brush up on your favorite conlang east of Westeros? Start with these 20 fierce terms and soon you'll be to ready to vasterat with Khaleesi, Khal Moro, and the rest of the horselord gang.
As a nomadic horse people, it makes sense that their name comes from a word that means “to ride a horse." (Dothraki literally means “men who ride.”) A related term is addothralat, which means to transport someone by horse. (Dothrlalat, by the way, also means “to have an erection.”
Hrazef is Dothraki for “horse.” A hrazef chafi is a feral horse that was once tame, while hrazefeser refers to a herd of wild horses, the Dothraki version of “traffic.”
Fredri is a great Dothraki “untranslatable” that means the sound of a horse’s hooves on dirt. It probably comes from fredrilat, “to run."
A fredrik is an overly talkative person, imitative of the sound of horse’s hooves.
Slang for an annoying woman, vikeesi might be related to vik, “chin,” perhaps with the idea of too much chin-wagging.
Chiftik is another gibe that means “cricket man”—in other words, someone who's small, weak, and noisy. Chifti, which might be imitative in origin, is a cricket, while a chiftikh is a lame blow with a sword.
While translated as “a respectful person” when used to refer to another Dothraki, chomak is considered an insult. Not surprising for a language in which there’s no word for “thank you.”
Oh, those crazy Dothrakis. Dozgosor is used to refer to an enemy khalasar, but can jokingly mean one’s own horde. Dozgo means “enemy” and dozgikh means “animal carcass.”
Vezhof, or the Great Stallion, is the horse god that’s central to Dothraki religion. The Vezhof's khalasar is believed to be the stars in the night sky.
While the Vezhof is the horse god, a veshak is a horse lord, another term for a Dothraki warrior. Vezh translates as “stallion” and might also give us vezhven, “great”; athvezhvenar, an exclamation expressing greatness; ivezh, “wild”; ivezho, “beast”; and ivezholat, “to grow fierce.”
11., 12., AND 13. HOSH, SOROH, AND AFFA
Hosh, soroh, and affa are all horse commands. Hosh is the equivalent of "giddyup" while soroh means “halt.” Affa means “whoa!” but is also used to calm a fitful horse or a fitful child.
To javrathat a horse means to rein it in. Javrath translates as “reins.”
To break a horse or domesticate an animal is vishaferat. The word also refers to making a first kill with a new weapon.
16., 17., 18., AND 19. ONQOTHAT, IRVOSAT, CHETIRAT, KARLINAT
These terms describe horse gaits of varying speeds, with each gait corresponding to a degree of distance. Onqothat means to walk while an onqotha equals approximately one-eighth of a mile. Irvosat is to trot while irvosa is a quarter of a mile.
To canter is chetirat. A chetira is half a mile. Finally, karlinat means to gallop. A karilna is one mile, or the distance traveled in a leshitof, which is about two minutes. So the length of a karlina may differ depending on the speed and size of the horse and rider.
Karlinqoyi means to gallop at lightning speed—fast enough to kill a horse.
Reference: The Dothraki Language Dictionary