U.S. Mobilizes Troops, Vows to Pacify Border

Erik Sass is covering the events of the war exactly 100 years after they happened. This is the 240th installment in the series.

June 18-21, 1916: U.S. Mobilizes Troops, Vows to Pacify Border

Following the murder of dozen of Americans by Pancho Villa’s troops at Santa Ysabel, Mexico in January 1916 and Columbus, New Mexico in March, President Woodrow Wilson dispatched a Punitive Expeditionary Force of around 6,000 U.S. Army troops under General John “Black Jack” Pershing into northern Mexico to hunt down the bandit. The Mexican government, unable to stop Villa itself, reluctantly allowed this violation of its sovereignty with a limited agreement temporarily giving both sides the right of “hot pursuit” across the Mexican border.

By April 8, 1916, elements of the Punitive Expedition had advanced about 300 miles into northern Mexico in pursuit of Villa, killing or capturing a good number of his troops at San Geronimo and Aguascalientes, but never apprehending the elusive bandit leader himself. Meanwhile the Mexican government was having second thoughts, especially following a bloody clash between U.S. cavalry and loyal Mexican forces, perhaps resulting from mistaken identity, at Parral on April 12 (over 500 miles from the U.S. border, Parral marked the furthest advance of the U.S. troops during the Punitive Expedition). 

On April 16, Mexican President Venustiano Carranza, alarmed by the widening scope of the Punitive Expedition, reversed course and demanded that U.S. troops withdraw from the country. The U.S. agreed to withdraw its troops once Villa was captured, but Carranza rejected this idea on May 5, demanding a fixed date for their withdrawal. That same day Villa’s irregulars raided the towns of Glenn Springs and Boquillas, Texas, and on May 9 Villa himself led a raid by around 1,000 rebels on Douglas, Arizona, further inflaming American public opinion. Wilson responded by mobilizing more U.S. Army troops as well as National Guardsmen in Texas, Arizona and New Mexico to guard the border.


The tension between the U.S. and Mexican governments was clearly escalating, but there appeared to be no solution as long as Villa remained at liberty. On May 22, 1916 Carranza repeated his demand that American troops withdraw from northern Mexico, but once again got the brush-off. Then on June 15, 1916, Mexican irregulars (apparently unaffiliated with Villa) ratcheted the tension up a notch with an attack against a border patrol at San Ygnacio, Texas; the following day the Mexican government warned that any further advances by U.S. troops would be resisted by force.


With war looming, on June 18, 1916, Wilson mobilized around 135,000 U.S. Army and National Guard troops from across the U.S. to the Mexican border, to guard the frontier and reinforce Pershing’s hunt for Villa. Two days later, the U.S. stated that the troops in northern Mexico wouldn’t be withdrawn until the border region was pacified, in a clear rebuff to Carranza.

It wasn’t long before U.S. and Mexican forces clashed again: on June 21, 1916, U.S. cavalry searching for Villa at Carrizal, Mexico instead found themselves confronting a larger force of Mexican government cavalry, which forced them into a hasty retreat amid relatively heavy losses on both sides. Additionally dozens of Americans were taken prison (including a number of African-American “Buffalo Soldiers,” below). 


Following Carrizal war seemed very likely, but fortunately reason prevailed, as both national governments realized they had enough on their plates (in Carranza’s case the rebellion, in Wilson’s case diplomatic disputes with the Allies over their naval blockade on one side, and with the Central Powers over mounting evidence of their involvement in sabotage and labor unrest in the U.S. on the other. Wilson also had to prepare for his own reelection campaign). 

On June 28 Carranza ordered the prisoners from Carrizal released as a show of goodwill, and on June 30, 1916 Wilson struck a decidedly moderate tone during a speech to the New York Press Club: 

The easiest thing is to strike. The brutal thing is the impulsive thing. No man has to think before he takes aggressive action… Do you think the glory of America would be enhanced by a war of conquest in Mexico? Do you think that any act of violence by a powerful nation like this against a weak and distracted neighbor would reflect distinction upon the annals of the United States? 

On July 4 Carranza offered another olive branch by calling for direct negotiations with no conditions, and a week later Mexican diplomats proposed creation of a commission that would formulate rules to govern cross-border raids. The prospect of war with Mexico was receding – at least for the time being. 

However the Punitive Expedition continued, now augmented by over a hundred thousand troops guarding the U.S. border with Mexico. Young men from all over the United States, many of whom had never been more than a few hundred miles from home, now found themselves stationed in remote, dusty towns strung out along the southern borders of Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. It was a learning experience to say the least.

Their revelations and travails began with the journey to the Southwest aboard trains chartered by the U.S. Army. They soon met their most consistent adversary – boredom – although the trip was livened by the enthusiastic greeting they received in some small towns (probably as much for their novelty as any sense of patriotism among the townsfolk). One soldier, U.S. Army private Kenneth Gow, wrote home about the trip from New York State across Pennsylvania and Ohio: 

The horses and mules are on the first train, combat wagons and trucks on the second and the men on two twenty-six car trains. We have dragged all the way across Ohio, and it is very wearisome. The men have sung, talked, and slept themselves out already, and we are not one-quarter of the way there... I almost forgot to speak of the reception we received at Harrisburg. Half the city population seemed to be there. Any man could have all the cigarettes, cigars or tobacco he wanted. Baskets of fruit and sandwiches were presented to any man who would take the trouble to carry them on the train. Who paid for it all I do not know. 

These fulsome greetings were the rule, not the exception, according to another letter in which Gow noted (sounding almost like an explorer in a foreign country): “We have been given a great reception all along the route. When we pull into a depot, the whole confounded town makes a rush for the train. Everything is different – the people, their dress and their talk. A great many things are cheaper than in New York, but not as good. Silver dollars are more plentiful than bills.”

The border region itself presented an environment that tested even individuals used to physically challenging farm labor or the tedium of factory work. Writing home from McAllen, Texas, on July 3, Gow painted an unpleasant and alarming picture for his family members:

This afternoon we experienced our first sand and wind storm. It was certainly fierce, and was followed by a violent thunderstorm, which is not over yet as I write, and that is why I have time to write this letter. Sand is in everything. When you close your teeth the sand grits between them. I do not exaggerate; it is a fact. At night and during thunderstorms we have visitors in our tents, – namely, rattlesnakes, chameleons, and one hundred and one varieties of lizards, tarantulas, and scorpions. A rattlesnake he would pay a visit to the band tent yesterday, and got killed for his pains… Oh! this sure is a delightful country. Why anyone will live here passes my comprehension. 

The presence of tens of thousands of relatively well-paid Army and National Guard troops was a boon to McAllen and other small towns languishing in the chaparral, according to Gow, who noted:

McAllen is about seven years old, and has lain in a semi-dormant condition until the arrival of the troops, when it awoke and is growing like magic. Restaurants, lunch-rooms, bottling works, photograph studios, ice-cream parlors, fruit stands, shooting-galleries, etc., have sprung up overnight like mushrooms. Someone told me an undertaker has moved in with a supply of one hundred coffins. Rotten, squalid rooms in rickety one-story frame builds have been fumigated and leased as sleeping-rooms for reporters, camera men and their ilk. 

Of course, as in any boomtown there were plenty of shady characters looking to make a quick buck, and some of these “businesses” were hardly salubrious:

The men who have been bothered the most are the ones who have been drinking pop and the rest of the slop that is sold just outside the picket lines and in town. A place set up near our camp laid forty-two men flat on their backs in one day. The physician, upon investigation, found it was bad milk that did it. They made short work of the fellow who ran that joint. 

For all this, Gow found that there were still moments of unexpected beauty, echoing the sentiments of sensitive individuals across a war-torn world: 

We had religious services, conducted by the chaplain, last night. The whole regiment assembled on the parade-grounds in hollow square… The sun was just setting. I mentioned the beauty of the sunsets before. Our colors were in the centre of the square, with the field music. The chaplain read the Episcopal service. The whole regiment stood ad parade rest, every man carefully uniformed and perfectly aligned. The camp was in the background, and on the horizon the sun setting in ablaze of glory, everything about our equipment, tents, combat wagons, etc., dyed in the same glow. It was one of the most impressive scenes I have ever witnessed. 

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This Smart Accessory Converts Your Instant Pot Into an Air Fryer

Amazon
Amazon

If you can make a recipe in a slow cooker, Dutch oven, or rice cooker, you can likely adapt it for an Instant Pot. Now, this all-in-one cooker can be converted into an air fryer with one handy accessory.

This Instant Pot air fryer lid—currently available on Amazon for $80—adds six new cooking functions to your 6-quart Instant Pot. You can select the air fry setting to get food hot and crispy fast, using as little as 2 tablespoons of oil. Other options include roast, bake, broil, dehydrate, and reheat.

Many dishes you would prepare in the oven or on the stovetop can be made in your Instant Pot when you switch out the lids. Chicken wings, French fries, and onion rings are just a few of the possibilities mentioned in the product description. And if you're used to frying being a hot, arduous process, this lid works without consuming a ton of energy or heating up your kitchen.

The lid comes with a multi-level air fry basket, a broiling and dehydrating tray, and a protective pad and storage cover. Check it out on Amazon.

For more clever ways to use your Instant Pot, take a look at these recipes.

At Mental Floss, we only write about the products we love and want to share with our readers, so all products are chosen independently by our editors. Mental Floss has affiliate relationships with certain retailers and may receive a percentage of any sale made from the links on this page. Prices and availability are accurate as of the time of publication.

Q&A: Kristen Bell Celebrates Diversity In Her New Kid's Book, The World Needs More Purple People

Jim Spellman/Getty Images
Jim Spellman/Getty Images

Kristen Bell is one of those household names that brings to mind a seemingly endless list of outstanding performances in both TV and film. She is Veronica Mars. She is the very memorable Sarah Marshall. She's the voice of Gossip Girl. She just recently wrapped up her NBC series The Good Place. Your nieces and nephews likely know her as Princess Anna from the Frozen films. She also has one of the most uplifting and positive presences on social media.

Now, adding to her long list of accomplishments, Kristen Bell is the published author of a new children’s book called The World Needs More Purple People. Born out of seeing how cultural conversations were skewing more toward the things that divide us, the new picture book—which Bell co-authored with Benjamin Hart—encourages kids to see what unites us all as humans.

We spoke with Kristen Bell about what it means to be a purple person, her new animated series Central Park, and becoming a foster failure. We also put her knowledge of sloths to the test.

How did The World Needs More Purple People book come to be?

Basically my genius buddy, Ben Hart, and I were looking around and sort of seeing how our children were watching us debate healthily at the dinner table, which is fine. But it occurred to us that everything they were seeing was a disagreement. And that’s because that can be fun for adults, but it’s not a good basis for kids to start out on. We realized we were not really giving our kids a ton of examples of us, as adults, talking about the things that bring us together. So The World Needs More Purple People was born.

Book cover of Kristen Bell and Benjamin Hart's 'The World Needs More Purple People'
Random House via Amazon

We decided to create a roadmap of similarities to give kids a jumping off point of how to look for similarities ... [because] if you can see similarities, you’re more likely to walk through the world with an open mind. But if you walk into a conversation seeing only differences, your mind is going to think differently of that person’s opinion and you just never know when you’re going to hear an opinion that might enlighten you. So we wanted to give kids this roadmap to follow to basically say, “Here are some great features that no one can argue with. Have these features and you’ll have similarities with almost everyone on the planet.”

Part of the reason I love the book so much is because it encourages kids to ask questions, even if they're silly. What are some silly questions you’ve had to answer for your kids?

Oh my god. How much time do you have? Once she asked in rapid fire: Is Santa Claus real? Why is Earth? Who made dogs?

How do you even answer that?

It was too much; I had to walk away. Kids have a ton of questions, and as they get older and more verbal, the funny thing that happens is they get more insecure. So we wanted to encourage the question-asking, and also encourage the uniqueness of every child. Which is why Dan Wiseman, who did our illustrations, really captured this middle point between Ben and I. Ben is very sincere, and I am very quirky. And I feel like the illustrations were captured brilliantly because we also wanted a ton of diversity because that is what the book is about.

The book is about seeing different things and finding similarities. Each kid in the book looks a little bit different, but also a little bit the same. The message at the end of the book is with all these features that you can point out and recognize in other people—loving to laugh, working really hard, asking great questions ... also know that being a purple person means being uniquely you in the hopes that kids will recognize that purple people come in every color.

What was it like behind-the-scenes of writing a children’s book with two little girls at home? Were they tough critics?

Shockingly, no. They did not have much interest in the fact that I was writing a children’s book until there were pictures. Then they were like, “Oh now I get it.” But prior to that, when I’d run the ideas by them, they were not as interested. But I did read it to them. They gave me the two thumbs up. Ben has two kids as well, and all our kids are different ages. Once we got the thumbs up from the 5-year-old, the 7-year-old, the 8-year-old, and the 11-year-old, we thought, “OK, this is good to go.”

I hope that people, and kids especially, really do apply this as a concept. We would love to see this as a curriculum going into schools if they wanted to use it to ask: What happened today in your life that was purple? What could you do to make tomorrow more purple? Like as a concept of a way of living.

Weirdly, writing a children’s book was a way of getting to the adults. If it’s a children’s book, there is a high probability an adult is going to either be reading it to you or be there while you’re reading it—which means you’re getting two demographics. If we had just written a novel about this kind of concept, we’d never reach the kids. But by writing a kid's book, we also access the adults.

Your new show Central Park looks so incredible. What can you tell us about the show and your character Molly?

I am so excited for the show to come out. I’ve seen it and it is exceptional. It is so, so, so funny and so much fun. I signed on because I got a phone call from my friend Josh Gad, who said, “I’m going to try to put together a cartoon for us to work on.” And I said, “Yes. Goodbye.” And he and Loren Bochard, who created Bob’s Burgers, took basically all of our friends—Leslie Odom Jr., Stanley Tucci, Kathryn Hahn, Tituss Burgess, Daveed Diggs, and myself—and created a family who lives in the middle of Central Park.

I play a teenager named Molly who is very socially awkward but has this incredible, relentlessly creative, vivacious personality going on only inside her head … and it’s a musical! So, she's awkward on the outside but when she sings her songs she really comes to life. And she's a comic book artist, so the cartoon often switches to what she's seeing in her head.

It's so funny and Josh Gad plays this busker who lives in Central Park, who is the narrator. Stanley Tucci plays this older woman named Bitsy who is trying to build a shopping mall in the center of Central Park, and the family’s job is to basically save Central Park. But the music is so incredible. We’ve got two music writers, Kate Anderson and Elyssa Samsel, who write the majority of the music, but we also have guest writers that come in every episode. So Sara Bareilles wrote some music and Cyndi Lauper wrote some music. It is such a fun show.

My husband, who does not like cartoons or musicals, watched the first couple of episodes, and he looked at me and said, “You’ve got something really special in your hands.” And he doesn’t like anything. It made me so happy. I cannot wait until this show comes out, I am so proud of it.

What was it like to reunite with Josh Gad on another musical animated series that isn't Frozen?

Josh and I talk a lot, and we had a lot of behind-the-scenes conversations about how we can work together again, just because we adore each other. And part of it is because we get along socially, and part of it is because we trust each other comedically. He's a creator and writer more so than I am, so I usually leave it up to him and say, "What’s our next project?" We have other things in the pipeline we would love to do together, but [Central Park] was an immediate yes because I trust how he writes. Josh is at every single one of my recording sessions; he is very hands-on with the shows that he does or produces or creates. I trust him as much as I trust my husband, creatively, and that’s saying a lot.

Given your well-documented love of sloths, we do have to throw out a few true or false questions about sloths and put your knowledge to the test …

Oh my gosh. OK, now I'm nervous. Hit me.

True or false: Sloths fart more than humans.

Fart more than humans?

Yes.

I’m going to say it's true.

It’s actually false. Sloths don’t fart at all. They might be the only mammal on the planet that does not fart.

You’re kidding. Another reason to love them. You know, I was trying to think medically about it. I know they only poop once a week and that if you only go poop once a week ... I thought, “Well in order to keep your GI healthy, perhaps you have to have some sort of flow from the top to the bottom during the seven-day waiting period until you release.”

True or false: Sloths are so slow that algae sometimes grows on them.

One hundred percent true. In the wild, they’re always covered in algae and it helps their fur, all those microorganisms. But in zoos, they don’t have it.

Nice. OK, last one. True or false: Sloths poop from trees.

No way. They go down to the ground, and they rub their little tushies on the ground, and then they go back up.

You are correct.

I know a fair amount about sloths but the farting thing was new. My kids will be excited to hear that.

We heard recently that you are a part of the “foster failure” club. What went wrong? Erright?

Well, what I learned from Veronica Mars is you root for and cherish and uplift the underdog always. And my first foster failure was in 2018; I found the most undesirable dog that existed on the planet. She is made of toothpicks, it is impossible for her to gain weight. She has one eye. She looks like a walking piece of garbage. Her name is Barbara. She's 11 years old. And I saw a picture of her online and I said, “Yes. I just want to bring her over. I don’t even need to know anything else about her other than this picture," which was the most hideous picture. I mean it looks like a Rorschach painting or something. It was so awful. I was like, “She’s mine. I’ll take care of her. I’ve got this.” And it turns out she is quite lovely even though she can be pretty annoying. But she is our Barbara Biscuit, and she is one of the most charismatic dogs I have ever met. She piddles wherever she damn well pleases. So that is a bummer, because she is untrainable, but we love her.

That was our first failure. Then last year, we genuinely attempted to just foster a dog named Frank. And about two weeks in, I realized Frank was in love with me—like in a human way. He thought he was my boyfriend.

Oh no …

I just felt like … I didn’t even want a new dog—well I shouldn’t say that, because I always want all the dogs—but we weren’t planning on getting a new dog. But I had to have a conversation with my family and I said, “I think it’s going to be like child separation if I separate him. We have to keep him.” And sure enough, he can’t be more than two feet from me at any time during the day.

Does he still give you “the eyes”?

Oh my gosh. Bedroom eyes all day long. I can’t sit down without him like … not even just sitting comfortably in my lap. He has to have my arm in his mouth or part of my hair in his mouth. He’s trying to get back in my womb or something.

That’s love.

Yeah, I said, “What am I going to do? The guy is in love with me. He can live here.” So there is foster failure number two.

Wow, so it’s Frank and Barbara.

Frank and Barbara. And we also have Lola, a 17-year-old corgi-chow chow mix. Who I have had since she was one-and-a-half, who was also a pound puppy. She is our queen bee.

Before you go, we do this thing on Twitter called #HappyHour, where we ask our followers some get-to-know-you questions. If you could change one rule in any board game, what would it be?

I am obviously going to Catan ... oh I know exactly what I would do. In Catan, I would allow participants to buy a city without buying a settlement first. In Catan, you have to upgrade from a settlement to a city first, which is a waste of cards. If you have the cards for a city, you should be able to buy a city.

What was your favorite book as a child?

My favorite book as a child was Are You My Mother?

Aw, I love that one. I forgot about Are You My Mother?

It’s a good one.