11 Notable Presidential Pardons

Getty Images
Getty Images

As George W. Bush's second term winds to a close, he's being inundated with requests for pardons. Article II, Section 2 of the United States Constitution grants the President "power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States." With a stroke of his pen, the man in charge can make legal trouble disappear.

As one might expect, this practice can be a bit controversial, so presidents as far back as George Washington have waited until their final days in office to sign pardons. It's not yet clear who Bush will pardon in his last few hours in the Oval Office, although he's already pardoned 171 people over the course of his presidency. Some high-profile prisoners are asking for consideration, including the "American Taliban" John Walker Lindh and the brother of New York Giants kicker Lawrence Tynes, who's incarcerated on drug trafficking and witness intimidation charges. While we wait to see who Bush pardons, let's take a look at some of history's more notable ones:

1. George Wilson

In 1829, George Wilson and an accomplice received death sentences for murder and robbing mail trains. His accomplice quickly took a trip to the gallows, but Wilson had influential friends in Washington. These friends beseeched Andrew Jackson for leniency on behalf of their friend, and Old Hickory relented. In 1830, he pardoned Wilson for his capital crimes; the mail robber would only have to serve a twenty-year term for his other misdeeds. It sounds like great news for Wilson, but when authorities presented him with the pardon, Wilson perplexingly refused to accept it.

After much legal back-and-forth, Wilson's case came before the Supreme Court, which ruled that since the pardon was a bit of property, there was no legal way to force Wilson to accept it. Like his accomplice, Wilson was hanged.

2. Richard Nixon

Nixon resigned in the wake of the Watergate scandal on August 9, 1974, and just under a month later newly installed President Gerald Ford gave his predecessor a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes he may have committed while in office. While many observers decried the pardon as evidence of some backdoor dealing between Ford and Nixon, Ford went on national television to explain that he felt the pardon provided the best way for the country to move on and close the discussion of Nixon's antics. Many Americans didn't buy this explanation, though; even Ford's own press secretary resigned in disgust. Ford conceded that the unpopular pardon probably hurt his chances for reelection in the 1976 presidential race.

3. Peter Yarrow

This name may not be immediately familiar, but you'd probably recognize Yarrow's voice if he sang "Puff, the Magic Dragon." As one-third of the folk outfit Peter, Paul and Mary, Yarrow dominated the music and protest scenes of the 1960s. Yarrow had legions of young fans, but unfortunately, some were a bit too young. In 1970 he was convicted of taking "improper liberties" with a 14-year-old fan, an error for which he spent three months in jail. On his last day in office, though, Jimmy Carter granted Yarrow a pardon. Yarrow, for his part, admitted he made a huge mistake and later contritely said, "It was an era of real indiscretion and mistakes by categorically male performers. I was one of them. I got nailed. I was wrong. I'm sorry for it."

4. George Steinbrenner

Many modern fans may know Steinbrenner solely as the big-mouthed, big-spending owner of the Yankees, but in 1974 "the Boss" was also in a spot of legal trouble due to his shadowy connection with Richard Nixon's reelection campaign. After receiving 14 criminal indictments, Steinbrenner pleaded guilty to making illegal campaign contributions and obstructing justice. The plea resulted in Steinbrenner coughing up a $15,000 fine, and Major League Baseball suspended him for a total of 15 months. In the closing days of his second term, though, Ronald Reagan pardoned Steinbrenner for these offenses.

5. Junior Johnson

Johnson was one of NASCAR's first stars in the 1950s and 1960s, and he later became a wildly successful team owner in the sport. However, despite all of his triumphs at the track, Johnson had old legal problems hanging over his head. In 1956, federal agents caught the rising NASCAR star working a moonshine still in North Carolina; the arrest was particularly galling to Johnson because he was a legendary moonshine-running driver. He received a two-year sentence for the crime and spent 11 months in federal prison. Once Johnson got out of jail, he resumed his dominance of the NASCAR circuit, but he was bothered by the loss of his voting rights as a convicted felon. In late 1986, Ronald Reagan pardoned Johnson for his moonshining past.

6. Rick Hendrick

Johnson's not the only racing figure who has received a pardon, though. Hendrick, the owner of the Hendrick Motorsports team that's included such famed drivers as Jeff Gordon, is also the owner of a giant chain of auto dealerships. During the import-crazed 1980s, getting Hondas in your inventory often meant bribing Honda execs to send you a larger allocation of the popular cars. Hendrick played this game for his dealerships, and in the process gave execs thousands of dollars in cars, cash, and even houses. In 1997, he pleaded guilty to mail fraud in connection with these shenanigans. His sentence included a $250,000 fine, a year of home confinement, three years of probation, and an order to stay away from his racing team. In December 2000, Bill Clinton pardoned Hendrick.

Other Notable Pardons...

7. Patty Hearst: The heiress-turned-militant spent almost two years in prison for her part in a 1974 bank robbery before Jimmy Carter commuted her sentence in 1979. Bill Clinton later gave Hearst a full pardon on the final day of his presidency in 2001.

8. Every Confederate Soldier: On Christmas Day 1868, President Andrew Johnson declared a general amnesty that unconditionally pardoned everyone who'd fought for the Confederacy during the Civil War.

9. Roger Clinton: Bill Clinton's half-brother spent a year in prison after pleading guilty to cocaine distribution charges in 1984. When Clinton issued a flurry of 140 pardons on his last day in office, his little brother was on the list. Roger didn't seem to appreciate his second chance, though; less than a month later he was arrested for drunk driving and disturbing the peace.

10. Samuel Mudd, Edmund Spangler, and Samuel Arnold: These three convicted conspirators in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln served time for their crime, but all three received pardons from Andrew Johnson in 1869.

11. Brigham Young: Young doggedly fought against U.S. troops during an armed conflict as federal forces tried to install non-Mormon officials in the state. According to some accounts, Young considered burning Salt Lake City to the ground and taking off for Mexico, but he eventually decided to peacefully step down as governor instead. President James Buchanan later pardoned Young for his role in the fracas.

Swear Off Toilet Paper With This Bidet Toilet Seat That's Easy to Install and Costs Less Than $100

Tushy
Tushy

The recent coronavirus-related toilet paper shortage has put the spotlight on the TP-less alternative that Americans have yet to truly embrace: the bidet.

It's not exactly a secret that toilet paper is wasteful—it's estimated to cost 437 billion gallons of water and 15 million trees to produce our yearly supply of the stuff. But while the numbers are plain to see, bidets still aren't common in the United States.

Well, if price was ever the biggest barrier standing in the way of swearing off toilet paper for good, there's now a cost-effective way to make the switch. Right now, you can get the space-saving Tushy bidet for less than $100. And you'll be able to install it yourself in just 10 minutes.

What is a Bidet?

Before we go any further, let’s just go ahead and get the awkward technical details out of the way. Instead of using toilet paper after going to the bathroom, bidets get you clean by using a stream of concentrated water that comes out of a faucet or nozzle. Traditional bidets look like weird toilets without tanks or lids, and while they’re pretty uncommon in the United States, you’ve definitely seen one if you’ve ever been to Europe or Asia.

That said, bidets aren’t just good for your butt. When you reduce toilet paper usage, you also reduce the amount of chemicals and emissions required to produce it, which is good for the environment. At the same time, you’re also saving money. So this is a huge win-win.

Unfortunately, traditional bidets are not an option for most Americans because they take up a lot of bathroom space and require extra plumbing. That’s where Tushy comes in.

The Tushy Classic Bidet Toilet Seat.

Unlike traditional bidets, the Tushy bidet doesn’t take up any extra space in your bathroom. It’s an attachment for your existing toilet that places an adjustable self-cleaning nozzle at the back of the bowl, just underneath the seat. But it doesn’t require any additional plumbing or electricity. All you have to do is remove the seat from your toilet, connect the Tushy to the clean water supply behind the toilet, and replace the seat on top of the Tushy attachment.

The Tushy has a control panel that lets you adjust the angle and pressure of the water stream for a perfect custom clean. The nozzle lowers when the Tushy is activated and retracts into its housing when not in use, keeping it clean and sanitary.

Like all bidets, the Tushy system takes a little getting used to. But once you get the hang of it, you’ll never want to use toilet paper again. In fact, Tushy is so sure you’ll love their product, they offer customers a 60-day risk-free guarantee. If you don’t love your Tushy, you can send it back for a full refund, minus shipping and handling.

Normally, the Tushy Classic retails for $109, but right now you can get the Tushy Classic for just $89. So if you’ve been thinking about going TP-free, now is definitely the time to do it.

At Mental Floss, we only write about the products we love and want to share with our readers, so all products are chosen independently by our editors. Mental Floss has affiliate relationships with certain retailers and may receive a percentage of any sale made from the links on this page. Prices and availability are accurate as of the time of publication.

The Arlington National Cemetery Just Opened Its Time Capsule from 1915—See What’s Inside

That red ribbon is the literal "red tape" that we now use as an idiom to describe bureaucratic processes.
That red ribbon is the literal "red tape" that we now use as an idiom to describe bureaucratic processes.
Arlington National Cemetery, YouTube

In the decades following the Civil War, thousands of people assembled in Arlington National Cemetery’s James R. Tanner Amphitheater to honor the fallen soldiers each May on Decoration Day (which we now call Memorial Day). By the early 20th century, the event had grown so popular that Congress agreed to build a new, larger arena in its place: the Memorial Amphitheater.

When President Woodrow Wilson laid the cornerstone on October 13, 1915, it contained a copper box with documents and mementos that captured the spirit of the era. Though the contents weren’t kept a secret, you can now actually see them for yourself—on May 15, 2020, Arlington National Cemetery celebrated the centennial of the amphitheater’s dedication ceremony by opening the time capsule and displaying them in a virtual exhibit.

Inside the box was one of each coin used in 1915; uncirculated stamps bearing images of George Washington and Benjamin Franklin; an autographed photo of Wilson; a Bible signed by amphitheater architect Thomas Hastings; the dedication ceremony program; directories of both Congress and Washington D.C. residents; Civil War veterans’ pamphlets; four issues of local newspapers, including The Washington Post and The Washington Times; copies of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution; an American flag; and a map of Pierre Charles L’Enfant’s blueprints for building the city.

As Smithsonian.com reports, a few of those documents became outdated soon after being sealed in the box. The 1915 version of the Constitution had 17 amendments, but two new ones had been passed by the end of 1920: the 18th, prohibiting alcohol, and the 19th, giving women the right to vote. The American flag, on the other hand, was already inaccurate when it went into the time capsule. Though Arizona and New Mexico had both been annexed in 1912, bringing the state total to 48, the flag only included 46 stars.

Some of the items were wrapped in red tape, a seemingly insignificant detail that Archivist of the United States David S. Ferriero found especially exciting.

“All of the records in the National Archives, when they were moved into that building, were carefully protected with wrappings that were held together with this red tape,” he said in a statement. “This is where the saying comes (from) about cutting through the red tape. It is actually—literally—the red tape.”

For the last few decades, the copper box shared its hollow cornerstone abode with another, less official time capsule: A Peter Pan-brand peanut butter jar, stuffed with business cards and other notes. The box had been relocated to the National Archives while the amphitheater underwent repairs in 1974, and the workers snuck the jar into the hollow when replacing it during the 1990s.

“It was sort of a rush job,” conservator Caitlin Smith told The Washington Post. “But you can understand the impulse to add your name to history.”

You can learn more about the history of the Memorial Amphitheater and discover more about the exhibit here.

[h/t Smithsonian.com]