New Test Can Differentiate Between Tick-borne Illnesses

iStock
iStock

Time is of the essence in diagnosing and treating Lyme disease and other tick-borne illnesses. Fortunately, one new test may be able to help. A report on the test was published in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

Ticks and the diseases they carry are on the rise. One 2016 study found deer ticks—the species that carries Lyme disease—in more than half of the counties in the United States.

The two most common tick-borne illnesses in the U.S. are Lyme disease and southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI). Although their initial symptoms can be the same, they’re caused by different pathogens; Lyme disease comes from infection with the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. We don’t know what causes STARI.

"It is extremely important to be able to tell a patient they have Lyme disease as early as possible so they can be treated as quickly as possible," microbiologist and first author Claudia Molins of the CDC said in a statement. "Most Lyme disease infections are successfully treated with a two- to three-week course of oral antibiotics." Infections that aren't treated can lead to fevers, facial paralysis, heart palpitations, nerve pain, arthritis, short-term memory loss, and inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.

But to date, scientists have yet to create an accurate, consistent early test for Lyme disease, which means people must often wait until they’re very ill. And it’s hard to test for the STARI pathogen when we don’t know what it is.

One team of researchers led by experts at Colorado State University was determined to find a better way. They realized that, rather than looking for pathogens, they could look at the way a person’s body responded to the pathogens.

They analyzed blood samples from patients with both early-stage Lyme disease and STARI. Their results showed that while all patients’ immune systems had mounted a response, the nature of that response was different.

"We have found that all of these infections and diseases are associated with an inflammatory response, but the alteration of the immune response, and the metabolic profiles aren't all the same," senior author John Belisle of CSU said.

Two distinct profiles emerged. The team had found physical evidence, or biomarkers, for each illness: a way to tell one disease from another.

Belisle notes that there’s still plenty of work to do.

"The focus of our efforts is to develop a test that has a much greater sensitivity, and maintains that same level of specificity," Belisle said. "We don't want people to receive unnecessary treatment if they don't have Lyme disease, but we want to identify those who have the disease as quickly as possible."

The 10 Best Memorial Day 2020 Sales

iRobot,GoWise,Funko via Wayfair, Entertainment Earth
iRobot,GoWise,Funko via Wayfair, Entertainment Earth

The Memorial Day sales have started early this year, and it's easy to find yourself drowning in offers for cheap mattresses, appliances, shoes, and grills. To help you cut through the noise and focus on the best deals around, we threw together some of our favorite Memorial Day sales going on right now. Take a look below.

1. Leesa

A Leesa Hybrid mattress.
A Leesa Hybrid mattress.
Leesa

Through May 31, you can save up to $400 on every mattress model Leesa has to offer, from the value-minded Studio by Leesa design to the premium Leesa Legend, which touts a combination of memory foam and micro-coil springs to keep you comfortable in any position you sleep in.

Find it: Leesa

2. Sur La Table

This one is labeled as simply a “summer sale,” but the deals are good only through Memorial Day, so you should get to it quickly. This sale takes up to 20 percent off outdoor grilling and dining essentials, like cast-iron shrimp pans ($32), a stainless steel burger-grilling basket ($16), and, of course, your choice of barbeque sauce to go along with it.

Find it: Sur la Table

3. Wayfair

KitchenAid Stand Mixer on Sale on Wayfair.
Wayfair/KitchenAid

Wayfair is cutting prices on all manner of appliances until May 28. Though you can pretty much find any home appliance imaginable at a low price, the sale is highlighted by $130 off a KitchenAid stand mixer and 62 percent off this eight-in-one GoWise air fryer.

And that’s only part of the brand’s multiple Memorial Day sales, which you can browse here. They’re also taking up to 40 percent off Samsung refrigerators and washing machines, up to 65 percent off living room furniture, and up to 60 percent off mattresses.

Find it: Wayfair

4. Blue Apron

If you sign up for a Blue Apron subscription before May 26, you’ll save $20 on each of your first three box deliveries, totaling $60 in savings. 

Find it: Blue Apron

5. The PBS Store

Score 20 percent off sitewide at Shop.PBS.org when you use the promo code TAKE20. This slashes prices on everything from documentaries like Ken Burns’s The Roosevelt: An Intimate History ($48) and The Civil War ($64) to a Pride & Prejudice tote bag ($27) and this precious heat-changing King Henry VIII mug ($11) that reveals the fates of his many wives when you pour your morning coffee.

Find it: The PBS Store

6. Amazon

eufy robot vacuum.
Amazon/eufy

While Amazon doesn’t have an official Memorial Day sale, the ecommerce giant still has plenty of ever-changing deals to pick from. Right now, you can take $100 off this outdoor grill from Weber, $70 off a eufy robot vacuum, and 22 percent off the ASUS gaming laptop. For more deals, just go to Amazon and have a look around.

7. Backcountry

You can save up to 50 percent on tents, hiking packs, outdoor wear, and more from brands like Patagonia, Marmot, and others during Backcountry's Memorial Day sale.

Find it: Backcountry

8. Entertainment Earth

Funko Pops on Sale on Entertainment Earth.
Entertainment Earth/Funko

From now until June 2, Entertainment Earth is having a buy one, get one half off sale on select Funko Pops. This includes stalwarts like the Star Wars and Batman lines, and more recent additions like the Schitt's Creek Funkos and the pre-orders for the upcoming X-Men movie line.

Find it: Entertainment Earth

9. Moosejaw

With the promo code SUNSCREEN, you can take 20 percent off one full-price item at Moosejaw, along with finding up to 30 percent off select items during the outdoor brand's summer sale. These deals include casual clothing, outdoor wear, trail sneakers, and more. 

Find it: Moosejaw

10. Osprey

Through May 25, you can save 25 percent on select summer items, and 40 percent off products from last season. This can include anything from hiking packs and luggage to outdoorsy socks and hats. So if you're planning on getting acquainted with the great outdoors this summer, now you can do it on the cheap.

Find it: Osprey

At Mental Floss, we only write about the products we love and want to share with our readers, so all products are chosen independently by our editors. Mental Floss has affiliate relationships with certain retailers and may receive a percentage of any sale made from the links on this page. Prices and availability are accurate as of the time of publication.

5 Facts About Kawasaki Disease

Ridofranz, iStock via Getty Images
Ridofranz, iStock via Getty Images

While most pediatric COVID-19 cases are mild, the disease has been tied to a serious new syndrome in kids. In recent weeks, dozens of children who tested positive for COVID-19 antibodies have exhibited symptoms like rash, fever, diarrhea, and swollen hands and feet—all signs similar to a rare condition called Kawasaki disease. Like Kawasaki disease, the mystery illness, officially known as pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome (PIMS), can lead to severe heart issues. In New York, three children have died from it.

Medical experts still aren’t sure how this condition develops, or how it’s related to COVID-19. Here are five things we do know about Kawasaki disease, the syndrome it resembles.

1. Symptoms of Kawasaki disease appear in phases.

When patients first contract Kawasaki disease, the most serious symptom is a high fever that lasts five days or more. Other diagnostic signs that appear in this first stage include chapped lips, bloodshot eyes, sore throat, swollen hands and feet, and a rash covering the back, limbs, belly, and groin. These symptoms are the result of inflammation in the arteries, veins, capillaries, and lymph nodes.

After experiencing a fever for about two weeks, patients may enter the second stage of the disease. This phase is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, joint pain, and temporary hearing loss. Peeling skin on the hands and feet is another symptom, with dead skin sometimes coming off the extremities in layers.

The third phase is known as the convalescent phase, and it comes about four weeks after the fever first develops. During this period, which can last a couple of weeks, patients gradually recover and their symptoms improve.

2. Kawasaki disease can have deadly complications.

Most children who get Kawasaki disease fully recover, and recovery rates are even higher when the disease is caught early. But in some cases, the illness has dangerous effects on the cardiovascular system. The inflammation that characterizes the disease can weaken artery walls, resulting in rare cases of heart disease and heart attacks in children. Heart problems afflict about a quarter of Kawasaki disease patients who didn’t receive early treatment for the condition. Of these untreated cases, roughly 2 to 3 percent are fatal.

3. Kawasaki disease is uncommon.

Kawasaki disease is rare, effecting roughly 4200 children in the U.S. annually. The syndrome is almost exclusive to kids, with most cases occurring in patients younger than 5 years old. It’s 1.5 times more common in boys, so sex may factor into who gets it. Ethnicity is another possible component: Kawasaki disease rates are 10 to 20 times higher in East Asian countries like Korea and Japan than in the U.S.

4. Kawasaki disease is often treated with an over-the-counter drug.

One of the primary treatments for Kawasaki disease is aspirin. The anti-inflammatory drug can help relieve pain, reduce fever, and prevent blood clots in kids with the condition. Aspirin shouldn’t be taken by children for other types of fever or pain, though, due to the risk of a serious condition called Reye's syndrome. Kawasaki disease is the rare instance when aspirin is given to kids, and even in these cases, it should only be taken under the supervision of a doctor.

The other main treatment for the disease is intravenous immunoglobulin, or IVIG. Immunoglobulin is a solution of antibodies from healthy donors that helps boost the patient's immune system to fight disease. It’s administered through the patient’s vein, and if given early enough, it can reduce symptoms within 36 hours.

5. COVID-19 may trigger Kawasaki disease, but it's too soon to tell.

Doctors are unclear on what causes Kawasaki disease. One theory is that antigens found in some viruses can trigger a hyper-inflammatory response in children who are genetically susceptible. This is similar to what's being observed in the new pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome, which is possibly related to COVID-19. "We think patients were exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, they may or may not have had some symptoms, and later on there was a delayed reaction," Michael Portman, pediatric cardiologist and director of the Kawasaki Disease Clinic at Seattle Children’s, says of the recent PIMS cases. "There was a hyper-inflammatory response launched by the body against the viral antigen, so that fits with the main hypothesis for Kawasaki disease."

More research still needs to be done to understand the relationship between PIMS and COVID-19. "It's a little bit early to make a direct link, but it seems plausible that the new coronavirus does trigger an immune response that could result in Kawasaki disease, or a different spectrum of the disease, or even a separate disease that we're calling PIMS," Portman tells Mental Floss.

It's also too early to say definitively that PIMS and Kawasaki disease are the same thing, but to experts who have studied the latter, the new syndrome looks very familiar. "It is very difficult to separate the two," Portman says. "They are very, very similar, and it's going to take quite a bit of research to determine if they're different."