Hear the First Recording of Volcanic Thunder

Cyrus Read, Alaska Volcano Observatory/U.S. Geological Survey
Cyrus Read, Alaska Volcano Observatory/U.S. Geological Survey

Researchers at the Alaska Volcano Observatory in Anchorage have managed to record the sound of volcanic thunder for the first time, Smithsonian magazine and The Guardian report. It's extremely difficult to differentiate the sound of thunder from the sounds of the eruption itself, which has made conclusively identifying the sonic phenomenon on tape impossible until now.

"It's something that people who've been at eruptions have certainly seen and heard before, but this is the first time we've definitively caught it and identified it in scientific data," Alaska Volcano Observatory seismologist Matt Haney explained in a press release. He and his colleagues published their observations in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

Using a microphone array almost 40 miles away, Haney's team picked up the sounds of volcanic thunder in March and June 2017 in the midst of two explosive eruptions of the Bogoslof volcano, a mostly submarine volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands. (Only about 300 feet of the approximately 6000-foot-tall volcano is above sea level.) The eruptions resulted in huge plumes of ash, a prime environment for volcanic lightning to occur. The volcano continued to generate ash plumes long after the eruptions ended, so the researchers could compare the post-eruption lightning with the timing and volume of the sounds they picked up on the microphones, and positively identified the volcanic thunder. They found that the intensity of the lightning was about the same as the intensity of the thunder's noise.

The technique could allow scientists to study volcanic lightning more easily by using the sound of thunder as an approximation, which may indicate how big the ash plume could grow. That information could reveal dangers for nearby aircraft.

You can hear the thunder for yourself in the audio tracks below. The recordings are sped up, and the thunder sounds clicks and pops. The whirring sounds in the first recording are the eruptions themselves.

[h/t Smithsonian]

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What Really Happens When Food Goes Down the 'Wrong Pipe'?

The dreaded 'wrong pipe' calamity can strike at any time.
The dreaded 'wrong pipe' calamity can strike at any time.
Photo by Adrienn from Pexels

Your average person isn’t expected to be well-versed in the linguistics of human anatomy, which is how we wind up with guns for biceps and noggins for heads. So when swallowing something is followed by throat irritation or coughing, the fleeting bit of discomfort is often described as food “going down the wrong pipe.” But what’s actually happening?

When food is consumed, HuffPost reports, more than 30 muscles activate to facilitate chewing and swallowing. When the food is ready to leave your tongue and head down to your stomach, it’s poised near the ends of two "pipes," the esophagus and the trachea. You want the food to take the esophageal route, which leads to the stomach. Your body knows this, which is why the voice box and epiglottis shift to close off the trachea, the “wrong pipe” of ingestion.

Since we don’t typically hold our breath when we eat, food can occasionally take a wrong turn into the trachea, an unpleasant scenario known as aspiration, which triggers an adrenaline response and provokes coughing and discomfort. Dislodging the food usually eases the sensation, but if it’s enough to become stuck, you have an obstructed airway and can now be officially said to be choking.

The “wrong pipe” can also be a result of eating while tired or otherwise distracted or the result of a mechanical problem owing to illness or injury.

You might also notice that this happens more often with liquids. A sip of water may provoke a coughing attack. That’s because liquids move much more quickly, giving the body less time to react.

In extreme cases, food or liquids headed in the “wrong” direction can wind up in the lungs and cause pneumonia. Fortunately, that’s uncommon, and coughing tends to get the food moving back into the esophagus.

The best way to minimize the chances of getting food stuck is to avoid talking with your mouth full—yes, your parents were right—and thoroughly chew sensible portions.

If you experience repeated bouts of aspiration, it’s possible an underlying swallowing disorder or neurological problem is to blame. An X-ray or other tests can help diagnose the issue.

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