12 Facts About the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

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iStock.com/claudiodivizia

There are about 5000 species of stink bugs, shield-shaped insects that belong to the family Pentatomidae. One of the most notorious stink bugs is the brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stål), a.k.a. BMSB, which The New Yorker called “the most destructive, the most annoying, and possibly the ugliest” of all the stink bugs, an invasive species that’s taking North America by storm … and not in a good way. Here’s what you should know.

1. IT MADE ITS WESTERN HEMISPHERE DEBUT IN PENNSYLVANIA.

A stink bug
iStock.com/sdominick

Native to East Asia, the first BMSB specimens in the U.S. were collected in Allentown, Pennsylvania in 1998, but the bugs likely arrived a few years prior to that. (They may have come to the states in a shipping container, but no one’s sure.) Since then, they’ve spread to 43 states and will probably be continent-wide soon.

“It’s an incredible hitchhiker,” Dr. Tracy Leskey, an entomologist with the Agriculture Department’s Appalachian Fruit Research Laboratory, told The New York Times of the BMSB. Less than 10 years after it was identified in the States, it was in Switzerland and other parts of Europe, too.

2. IT TOOK YEARS TO IDENTIFY IT.

A magnifying glass on a yellow background.
iStock.com/solidcolours

When the bugs were delivered to Karen Bernhard, an entomologist at Pennsylvania State University’s Extension Service, she had no idea what they were—and neither did anyone else. (Many assumed it was the native Euschistus servus.) It wasn’t until 2001, when Bernhard sent specimens to Richard Hoebeke, an entomologist specializing in invasive species who was then working at Cornell, that they were identified as brown marmorated stink bugs.

3. IT’S NOT CUTE.

Brown marmorated stink bug eggs hatching on a leaf.
iStock.com/flowerino

After they hatch, the black-and-red nymphs go through five molts, growing into mottled, dull-brown bugs—up to .66 inches long—with white banded antennae and legs, alternating dark and light bands on the abdomen, and smooth, rounded shoulders. All of these features distinguish them from lookalikes like the brown, rough, and one-spotted stink bugs. BMSBs can live for up to eight months.

4. THEIR SPRAY HAS SOMETHING IN COMMON WITH CILANTRO.

A bunch of cilantro tied together with a string
iStock.com/MmeEmil

Skunk. Old socks. Coriander. These are just some of the things the stink of the brown marmorated stink bug has been compared to. The two main chemicals responsible for the BMSB’s stinky spray are trans-2-octenal and trans-2-decenal. The latter is what gives cilantro its smell.

The chemicals in the spray might have a purpose besides scaring away predators: According to a 2016 study, they “inhibit the growth of bacteria”; the results of the study “suggest that brown marmorated stink bug aldehydes are indeed antibacterial agents and serve a multifunctional role for this insect.”

5. THEY EAT YOUR APPLES …

Brown marmorated stink bug feeding on an apple
iStock.com/saraTM

Brown marmorated stink bugs chow down on more than 100 types of crops. According to StopBMSB.org, apples, Asian pears, green beans, sweet corn, peaches, tomatoes, peppers, and Swiss chard are among the crops BMSBs pose the most risk to. Apricots, blueberries, broccoli, cauliflower, sweet potatoes, and turnips are also on the menu (though they’re less at risk).

To feed, the bugs pierce the skin of the plants with their mouthparts and drink the fluids, which in fruits like apples “results in a characteristic distortion referred to as ‘cat facing,’ that renders the fruit unmarketable as a fresh product,” according to a Penn State Extension article on the bugs. In 2010, mid-Atlantic farmers estimated that BMSBs caused $37 million in damage to apple crops alone. Some farmers of apples and other crops reported total losses that year.  

6. … AND COULD INVADE YOUR HOME BY THE THOUSANDS.

A stink bug on a model of white house
iStock.com/ibunt

Come winter, BMSBs are looking for a warm place to shack up so they can enter diapause, a hibernation-like state that lasts until spring (a.k.a. mating season). Outdoors, they’ll overwinter in dead trees—but often, they find their way into peoples' homes through open windows and doorways, in the gaps around window air conditioning units, down chimneys, and basically any crack they can find.

According to The New Yorker, “Studies have shown that, despite their relative heft, stink bugs can crawl through any crevice larger than 7 millimeters, which means that, no matter how much caulk and weather-stripping and patience you possess, it is virtually impossible to stink bug-proof a home.” But that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t try; experts recommend placing screens over windows and vents and making liberal use of caulk to patch cracks.

Once a stink bug has found a warm spot it likes, it will release an aggregation pheromone (which can linger for up to a year) that draws other BMSBs to the same area, where they’ll gather in sometimes staggering numbers: One study found more than 26,000 of them living in a Maryland home.

The good news is, beyond being a smelly nuisance, they won’t mate in your home or cause structural damage (though they might clog chimneys ... or your pipes).

7. ONCE INSIDE, THEY’RE HARD TO GET RID OF.

A stink bug on a piece of wood.
iStock.com/drnadig

Some suggested stink bug removal approaches include knocking the bugs into soapy water, placing fly traps or double-sided tape in entryways, and spraying various concoctions (like garlic water) around your house. Vacuuming them up is also an option, though as the Penn State Extension article notes, “the vacuum may acquire the smell of stink bugs for a period of time,” so it might be best to avoid that tactic if your vacuum doesn’t have a bag you can easily toss.

A study showed that traps baited with the aggregation pheromone are only effective half of the year. And though foggers will kill stink bugs around your house, “it will not prevent more of the insects from emerging shortly after the room is aerated” and therefore “is not considered a good solution to long-term management of the problem.” Even expensive professional extermination efforts can be for naught.

Research by Virginia Tech has suggested that the most effective method of removal is to line a roasting pan with foil, fill it with soapy water, and place it in a dark room with a light above it to attract the bugs. According to a press release, this method—which was tested in 16 homes over a period of two years—“eliminated 14 times more stink bugs than store-bought traps that cost up to $50.”

8. THEY’RE PRETTY GREAT FLIERS.

In the home, stink bugs are lethargic, buzzing around clumsily thanks to diapause. But in the wild, they’re good fliers: Research has shown that, in flight mill tests, the bugs can fly 1.2 miles in a 24-hour period, and in field observations, they fly in a straight line at 6.7 mph. You can see one flying in slow motion here.

9. THEY’RE GENERALLY NOT HARMFUL.

A puppy with a leash in its mouth.
iStock.com/sawiemander

BMSBs don’t sting or bite—their main defensive mechanism is their stinky spray. But some people can have allergic reactions, including rhinitis, conjunctivitis, or dermatitis, to the spray. The bugs aren’t toxic, so they won’t hurt your pets—though the chemicals in their spray might make your pets vomit or drool.

10. THEY MIGHT BE MESSING WITH YOUR RED WINE.

Pouring red wine into a glass.
iStock.com/debyaho

Not only do these pests feed on grapes, but they can end up in the mix as grapes are turned into wine, where the bugs give off stress compounds that affect the quality of the vino. Researchers at Oregon State University placed live and dead stink bugs on wine grapes and measured the stress compounds the insects released as they and the grapes were squeezed during the winemaking process. According to a press release, “They found that pressing was a key step in the release of two of the most common stress compounds—tridecane, which is odorless, and (E)-2-decenal, which produces an undesirable musty-like, coriander or cilantro aroma.” Red wine was more affected than white, maybe because the grapes are pressed at different points in the production process. The researchers found that more than three stink bugs per grape cluster resulted in contaminated wine.

11. THEY LEAVE TRACES OF THEIR PRESENCE ON PLANTS.

Brown marmorated stink bug on a plant.
iStock.com/ibunt

Scientists at Rutgers University recently discovered that they could detect the eDNA (or environmental DNA—things like skin flakes, scales, exoskeletons, or fecal matter) of brown marmorated stink bugs in the water farmers used to wash their produce before the crops go to market. They visited two farms—one in New Jersey with a known stink bug infestation and another that was just outside the bugs’ range in New Hampshire—where they both tested water and set traps for the bugs. As expected, they found stink bug DNA at the Jersey farm … and they found it at the New Hampshire farm, too. There, on the last day of testing, an immature stink bug ended up in a trap—visual confirmation of what their data was telling them. They hope that farmers can use the test to detect stink bugs before there’s a full-fledged infestation.

12. ONE OF ITS NATURAL PREDATORS IS A PARASITIC WASP THAT JUST MADE ITS WAY TO THE STATES.

A samurai wasp lays an egg in a brown marmorated stink bug egg
Oregon State University, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 2.0

In the U.S. the BMSB has few predators—so when scientists were looking for a way to combat the pests, they went to Asia. There, the stink bugs are kept in check by samurai wasps (Trissolcus japonicus), a tiny, stingerless parasite that lays its eggs in the stink bugs’ eggs, where its larvae eat the contents before emerging as wasps to continue the cycle. Sixty to 90 percent of BMSB eggs in Asia are parasitized by the wasps.

Scientists brought some of the wasps back and began testing to see if they would be a good candidate for release in the states. But before they could release any, the wasps showed up on their own, in Maryland in 2014. (Genetic testing showed that they weren’t escaped wasps that the scientists had been studying.) According to Science, “Although in laboratory tests it has parasitized some eggs laid by native species, [the wasp] has shown a strong preference for brown marmorated stink bug eggs.” Still, scientists are proceeding with caution: Though they can release the wasps in states where they’ve already been found, there are rules and regulations to follow and permissions to get before they can be released anywhere new.

10 Rad Gifts for Hikers

Greg Rosenke/Unsplash
Greg Rosenke/Unsplash

The popularity of bird-watching, camping, and hiking has skyrocketed this year. Whether your gift recipients are weekend warriors or seasoned dirtbags, they'll appreciate these tools and gear for getting most out of their hiking experience.

1. Stanley Nesting Two-Cup Cookset; $14

Amazon

Stanley’s compact and lightweight cookset includes a 20-ounce stainless steel pot with a locking handle, a vented lid, and two insulated 10-ounce tumblers. It’s the perfect size for brewing hot coffee, rehydrating soup, or boiling water while out on the trail with a buddy. And as some hardcore backpackers note in their Amazon reviews, your favorite hiker can take the tumblers out and stuff the pot with a camp stove, matches, and other necessities to make good use of space in their pack.

Buy it: Amazon

2. Osprey Sirrus and Stratos 24-Liter Hiking Packs; $140

Amazon

Osprey’s packs are designed with trail-tested details to maximize comfort and ease of use. The Sirrus pack (pictured) is sized for women, while the Stratos fits men’s proportions. Both include an internal sleeve for a hydration reservoir, exterior mesh and hipbelt pockets, an attachment for carrying trekking poles, and a built-in rain cover.

Buy them: Amazon, Amazon

3. Yeti Rambler 18-Ounce Bottle; $48

Amazon

Nothing beats ice-cold water after a summer hike or a sip of hot tea during a winter walk. The Yeti Rambler can serve up both: Beverages can stay hot or cold for hours thanks to its insulated construction, and its steel body (in a variety of colors) is basically indestructible. It will add weight to your hiker's pack, though—for a lighter-weight, non-insulated option, the tried-and-true Camelbak Chute water bottle is incredibly sturdy and leakproof.

Buy it: Amazon

4. Mappinners Greatest 100 Hikes of the National Parks Scratch-Off Poster; $30

Amazon

The perfect gift for park baggers in your life (or yourself), this 16-inch-by-20-inch poster features epic hikes like Angel’s Landing in Zion National Park and Half Dome in Yosemite National Park. Once the hike is complete, you can scratch off the gold foil to reveal an illustration of the park.

Buy it: Amazon

5. National Geographic Adventure Edition Road Atlas; $19

Amazon

Hikers can use this brand-new, updated road atlas to plan their next adventure. In addition to comprehensive maps of all 50 states, Puerto Rico, Canada, and Mexico, they'll get National Geographic’s top 100 outdoor destinations, useful details about the most popular national parks, and points on the maps noting off-the-beaten-path places to explore.  

Buy it: Amazon

6. Adventure Medical Kits Hiker First-Aid Kit; $25

Amazon

This handy 67-piece kit is stuffed with all the things you hope your hiker will never need in the wilderness. Not only does it contain supplies for pain, cuts and scrapes, burns, and blisters (every hiker’s nemesis!), the items are organized clearly in the bag to make it easy to find tweezers or an alcohol wipe in an emergency.

Buy it: Amazon

7. Hiker Hunger Ultralight Trekking Poles; $70

Amazon

Trekking poles will help increase your hiker's balance and stability and reduce strain on their lower body by distributing it to their arms and shoulders. This pair is made of carbon fiber, a super-strong and lightweight material. From the sweat-absorbing cork handles to the selection of pole tips for different terrain, these poles answer every need on the trail. 

Buy it: Amazon

8. Leatherman Signal Camping Multitool; $120

Amazon

What can’t this multitool do? This gadget contains 19 hiking-friendly tools in a 4.5-inch package, including pliers, screwdrivers, bottle opener, saw, knife, hammer, wire cutter, and even an emergency whistle.

Buy it: Amazon

9. RAVPower Power Bank; $24

Amazon

Don’t let your hiker get caught off the grid with a dead phone. They can charge RAVPower’s compact power bank before they head out on the trail, and then use it to quickly juice up a phone or tablet when the batteries get low. Its 3-inch-by-5-inch profile won’t take up much room in a pack or purse.

Buy it: Amazon

10. Pack of Four Indestructible Field Books; $14

Amazon

Neither rain, nor snow, nor hail will be a match for these waterproof, tearproof 3.5-inch-by-5.5-inch notebooks. Your hiker can stick one in their pocket along with a regular pen or pencil to record details of their hike or brainstorm their next viral Tweet.

Buy it: Amazon

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Adorable Products You Can Buy for International Sloth Day

Amazon
Amazon

It’s that time of the year again, folks—the time when we all collectively lose our chill over a slow-moving, two- or three-toed mammal with an adorable squeak and poop that defies physics. That’s right: International Sloth Day is on October 20. Here’s a list of must-have coloring books, onesies, and Christmas sweaters that you can pick up to showcase your love of one of the internet's favorite animals.

1. Cuddly Microwaveable Sloth; $20

Intelex/Amazon

Warm your heart and your body with a plush sloth that doubles as a soothing heating pad. The toy is filled with millet grains and dried French lavender, a combination intended to help you get to sleep easier.

Buy it: Amazon

2. Hanging Ceramic Sloth Planter; $18

FattyBee/Amazon

This flower planter pulls double duty, communicating both your love of sloths and your appreciation for plants. And it makes a tasteful piece of hanging home decor, too.

Buy it: Amazon

3. Sloth Coloring Book; $7

CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform/Amazon

Sloths themselves are already works of art, but you’d be forgiven for wanting a few more sloth-related crafts in your life. Now you can make your own masterpiece with this detailed coloring book. All you'll need are some colored pencils and you'll be ready to go.

Buy it: Amazon

4. Farting Sloth Coloring Book; $7

M & L Coloring Books/Amazon

But maybe traditional coloring books aren’t your thing. You’re in luck: Amazon sells a coloring book for the crowd that both loves sloths and laughs a little too much at farts.

Buy it: Amazon

5. Sloth Socks; $14

Good Luck Socks/Amazon

These socks are ideal for people who might not want to wear their love of sloths out in the open but are very comfortable showing it off on their ankles.

Buy it: Amazon

6. Sloth Onesie; $40

Tipsy Elves/Amazon

No list of sloth-related products would be complete without a cozy onesie, and this one from Tipsy Elves is perfect for either pajamas or a last-minute Halloween costume. This onesie even comes with zippered pockets and cuddly sloth claws!

Buy it: Amazon

7. Sloth-Themed Ugly Christmas Sweater; $69

Tipsy Elves/Amazon

Why not celebrate the upcoming holiday season with this sloth-themed ugly Christmas sweater? You’re sure to be the hit of any holiday pub crawl or office Christmas party.

Buy it: Amazon

8. Sloth Mug; $10

LOZACH/Amazon

Embrace your inner sloth and declare your lazy feelings along with your morning cup of coffee.

Buy it: Amazon

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This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.