A Brief History of Félicette, the First Cat in Space

It's a classic zero to hero tale: A stray cat is plucked from the streets of Paris and trained to be an astronaut. This may sound like the plot of a children's book, but the story of Félicette—the first and only cat known to have survived a trip to space—is true.

The black and white cat's unlikely ascent to stardom began in the early '60s, when France's Centre d'Enseignement et de Recherches de Médecine Aéronautique (CERMA) chose more than a dozen cats to complete a rigorous space training program. The French had previously launched three rats into space and apparently decided to upgrade to larger mammals to study their bodily response to weightlessness.

The astrocats-in-training were subjected to compression chambers, small containers, and a centrifuge, all in an effort to find the feline that was the best fit for space. Félicette ultimately proved herself, and in October 1963, she was strapped into a container inside a Véronique rocket and launched from a base in the Sahara desert. She flew about 100 miles above Earth and spent several minutes in zero gravity, all while scientists monitored her progress via the electrodes implanted in her brain.

Then, almost as soon as she arrived, the capsule detached from the rocket and she parachuted safely to the ground, where she was retrieved by scientists. The trip lasted 15 minutes total.

Félicette's journey to outer space was preceded by Laika, the Russian street dog who became the first animal to orbit the Earth aboard Sputnik 2 in 1957. However, unlike Laika, who died in space, Félicette returned to Earth to live out the rest of her days. Those days, sadly, were numbered. Scientists euthanized her a few months later to study the impact of space travel on her brain.

Although Félicette's adventures were short, many people want to preserve her legacy. In the 1990s, commemorative postage stamps were issued in her memory in some former French colonies. (However, those stamps incorrectly identified her as a male cat named Félix.)

More recently, a Kickstarter campaign was launched last year to raise funds for the construction of a bronze statue of Félicette in Paris. Nearly $55,000 was raised, and according to an update posted in October 2018, the organizers are still looking for a suitable location for that statue.

"It's Félicette's contributions to spaceflight research that will one day allow us to take our cats to the Martian colonies and beyond," a video on the Kickstarter page states. "For that, she deserves her rightful recognition."

10 of the Most Popular Portable Bluetooth Speakers on Amazon

Altech/Bose/JBL/Amazon
Altech/Bose/JBL/Amazon

As convenient as smartphones and tablets are, they don’t necessarily offer the best sound quality. But a well-built portable speaker can fill that need. And whether you’re looking for a speaker to use in the shower or a device to take on a long camping trip, these bestselling models from Amazon have you covered.

1. OontZ Angle 3 Bluetooth Portable Speaker; $26-$30 (4.4 stars)

Oontz portable bluetooth speaker
Cambridge Soundworks/Amazon

Of the 57,000-plus reviews that users have left for this speaker on Amazon, 72 percent of them are five stars. So it should come as no surprise that this is currently the best-selling portable Bluetooth speaker on the site. It comes in eight different colors and can play for up to 14 hours straight after a full charge. Plus, it’s splash proof, making it a perfect speaker for the shower, beach, or pool.

Buy it: Amazon

2. JBL Charge 3 Waterproof Portable Bluetooth Speaker; $110 (4.6 stars)

JBL portable bluetooth speaker
JBL/Amazon

This nifty speaker can connect with up to three devices at one time, so you and your friends can take turns sharing your favorite music. Its built-in battery can play music for up to 20 hours, and it can even charge smartphones and tablets via USB.

Buy it: Amazon

3. Anker Soundcore Bluetooth Speaker; $25-$28 (4.6 stars)

Anker portable bluetooth speaker
Anker/Amazon

This speaker boasts 24-hour battery life and a strong Bluetooth connection within a 66-foot radius. It also comes with a built-in microphone so you can easily take calls over speakerphone.

Buy it: Amazon

4. Bose SoundLink Color Bluetooth Speaker; $129 (4.4 stars)

Bose portable bluetooth speaker
Bose/Amazon

Bose is well-known for building user-friendly products that offer excellent sound quality. This portable speaker lets you connect to the Bose app, which makes it easier to switch between devices and personalize your settings. It’s also water-resistant, making it durable enough to handle a day at the pool or beach.

Buy it: Amazon

5. DOSS Soundbox Touch Portable Wireless Bluetooth Speaker; $28-$33 (4.4 stars)

DOSS portable bluetooth speaker
DOSS/Amazon

This portable speaker features an elegant system of touch controls that lets you easily switch between three methods of playing audio—Bluetooth, Micro SD, or auxiliary input. It can play for up to 20 hours after a full charge.

Buy it: Amazon

6. Altec Lansing Mini Wireless Bluetooth Speaker; $15-$20 (4.3 stars)

Altec Lansing portable bluetooth speaker
Altec Lansing/Amazon

This lightweight speaker is built for the outdoors. With its certified IP67 rating—meaning that it’s fully waterproof, shockproof, and dust proof—it’s durable enough to withstand harsh environments. Plus, it comes with a carabiner that can attach to a backpack or belt loop.

Buy it: Amazon

7. Tribit XSound Go Bluetooth Speaker; $33-$38 (4.6 stars)

Tribit portable bluetooth speaker
Tribit/Amazon

Tribit’s portable Bluetooth speaker weighs less than a pound and is fully waterproof and resistant to scratches and drops. It also comes with a tear-resistant strap for easy transportation, and the rechargeable battery can handle up to 24 hours of continuous use after a full charge. In 2020, it was Wirecutter's pick as the best budget portable Bluetooth speaker on the market.

Buy it: Amazon

8. VicTsing SoundHot C6 Portable Bluetooth Speaker; $18 (4.3 stars)

VicTsing portable bluetooth speaker
VicTsing/Amazon

The SoundHot portable Bluetooth speaker is designed for convenience wherever you go. It comes with a detachable suction cup and a carabiner so you can keep it secure while you’re showering, kayaking, or hiking, to name just a few.

Buy it: Amazon

9. AOMAIS Sport II Portable Wireless Bluetooth Speaker; $30 (4.4 stars)

AOMAIS portable bluetooth speaker
AOMAIS/Amazon

This portable speaker is certified to handle deep waters and harsh weather, making it perfect for your next big adventure. It can play for up to 15 hours on a full charge and offers a stable Bluetooth connection within a 100-foot radius.

Buy it: Amazon

10. XLEADER SoundAngel Touch Bluetooth Speaker; $19-$23 (4.4 stars)

XLeader portable bluetooth speaker
XLEADER/Amazon

This stylish device is available in black, silver, gold, and rose gold. Plus, it’s equipped with Bluetooth 5.0, a more powerful technology that can pair with devices up to 800 feet away. The SoundAngel speaker itself isn’t water-resistant, but it comes with a waterproof case for protection in less-than-ideal conditions.

Buy it: Amazon

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

The Oldest Restaurant in Every Country, Mapped

So which one are you visiting first?
So which one are you visiting first?
NetCredit

New trendy restaurants pop up all the time, but there’s something extra-special about sitting down in a place that’s been around for a century or two. St. Peter Stiftskulinarium in Salzburg, Austria, has been around for more than 12.

Founded in 803, it’s the oldest operating restaurant in the world, according to a survey by online lender NetCredit. The second oldest, Wurtskuchl (or Sausage Kitchen) in Regensburg, Germany, didn’t enter the global eatery scene until a few hundred years later, in 1146. Of the top 10, Europe boasts an impressive eight entries, including Scotland’s Sheep Heid Inn, France’s La Couronne, and Wales’s aptly named The Old House. The fourth-place finisher, Ma Yu Ching’s Bucket Chicken House in Kaifeng, China, opened its doors in 1153; and Japan’s Honke Owariya, which began as a confectionery shop in 1465 before shifting its focus to soba, is in the ninth spot.

oldest restaurants in europe
The founders of Wales's "The Old House" must've known they'd end up on this map.
NetCredit

By comparison, North America’s oldest restaurants seem practically new. The longest-standing institution is Newport, Rhode Island’s White Horse Tavern, which a pirate named William Mayes founded in 1673. It quickly became the go-to venue for the city’s local government meetings, and it stayed in the Mayes family for the following two centuries.

Nearly 150 years after Mayes became a business owner, a hole-in-the-wall tamale shop with no name opened in Bogotá, Colombia, which locals began to call “La Puerta Falsa” after “the false door” set in the wall of a nearby cathedral. The name stuck, and the tiny restaurant now has the designation of being South America’s oldest.

map of south america's oldest restaurants
If you go to La Puerta Falsa, you've got to get a tamale.
NetCredit

Since the study is based solely on internet searches, the data isn’t totally comprehensive. If the researchers were unable to find online evidence of a country’s oldest restaurant, they grayed out the country. Tunisia’s El M’Rabet is Africa’s oldest restaurant on this map, for example, but it could easily be younger than an eatery in Libya or Sudan that simply doesn’t have an online presence through websites or social media.

map of africa's oldest restaurants
Chez Wou in Cameroon is best known for its ginger duck.
NetCredit

You can find out more about the survey here.