10 Amazing Facts About Buckingham Palace

For more than a century, the reigning monarchs of Great Britain have used Buckingham Palace as their administrative headquarters. The fascinating building has survived everything from World War II bomb strikes to a crafty undergarment thief. If you ever decide to visit it in person, here are 10 things you should know about one of Europe’s most iconic and lavish homes.

1. The original Buckingham Palace was built for a duke—not a king or queen.

In 1703, John Sheffield, the first Duke of Buckingham, tore down an existing house in Westminster and built himself a new one on the site. This Buckingham House would be purchased in 1761 by King George III, who wanted to give his wife and children a private home that wasn’t too far away from St. James’s Palace, then the royal family’s official London residence. When Queen Victoria assumed the throne in 1837, she made Buckingham House her official residence. By then, the original building had undergone several renovations and become a palace in its own right.

2. Fossils are entombed in Buckingham Palace's walls.

Oolitic limestone is a sedimentary rock made up of tiny spherical clumps. It was used in the construction of Buckingham Palace and many other landmarks, including the Empire State Building and the Pentagon. In a 2017 paper published by the journal Scientific Reports, researchers found that this kind of rock forms around the mineralized corpses of microscopic organisms rather than around grains of grit or sand, as previously thought. That means Buckingham Palace's walls are loaded with tiny fossils that may be up to 200 million years old.

3. A teenager once broke in to Buckingham Palace and stole Queen Victoria’s underwear.

Edward Jones, also known as “Edward Cotton” or “Boy Jones,” was seemingly obsessed with young Queen Victoria during his teenage years. Nobody knows why. In 1838, Jones was apprehended after he’d snuck into Buckingham Palace and stolen many of Queen Victoria’s belongings, including a few pairs of her underwear. “He gained access to the palace through unlocked doors or unshuttered windows on the ground floors—there was no royal security in those days,” biographer Jan Bondeson told BBC News. Jones was caught entering Buckingham Palace on three separate occasions and admitted to having been inside the palace many more times. Jones was eventually sent overseas, though he temporarily returned to the United Kingdom as an adult.

4. Buckingham Palace hosted a Girl Guide company.

Before becoming queen, Princess Elizabeth and her younger sister Princess Margaret were Girl Guides (the UK equivalent of Girl Scouts) and their troop was organized at their royal home. Active between 1937 and 1939, the 1st Buckingham Palace Girl Guide Company held its meetings at a summerhouse on the palace grounds. Along with the two princesses, its members included more than 30 other girls whose parents were either royals or palace employees. In 1959, the troop was resurrected for Elizabeth’s daughter Princess Anne, and folded when Anne started boarding school in 1963.

5. Woodrow Wilson was the first sitting U.S. president to visit Buckingham Palace.

En route to a conference in Paris, President Woodrow Wilson and First Lady Edith Wilson visited the UK in December 1918. At Buckingham Palace, King George V threw a banquet in their honor, beginning a long tradition of U.S. heads of state visiting the royal residence. In 1977, President Jimmy Carter infamously broke protocol by giving Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother an unexpected kiss on the lips.

6. Buckingham Palace was bombed during World War II.

Although the British government advised them to get out of London during the second World War, King George VI and his family chose to remain in Buckingham Palace. As his wife Queen Elizabeth put it, “The children will not leave unless I do. I shall not leave unless their father does, and the king will not leave the country in any circumstances, whatever.” She honed her pistol-firing skills by shooting at local rats. Before the Axis Powers surrendered, German bombers scored nine direct hits on Buckingham Palace.

7. There’s an ATM inside Buckingham Palace.

Coutts & Co., the royal family’s bank of choice, has installed an automatic teller machine down in Buckingham Palace's basement. Other amenities include a post office, movie theater, a cafeteria, and 78 bathrooms. John Lennon once claimed that the Beatles smoked some pot in a Buckingham Palace men’s room when they dropped by for a visit in 1964, but two of his bandmates denied the story.

8. In 2017, a female officer led Buckingham Palace's changing of the guard.

The British North America Act's passage on July 1, 1867 made Canada a self-governing dominion of the United Kingdom. In recognition of that event’s 150th anniversary, Canadian Armed Forces infantry officer Megan Couto became the first woman to lead the changing of the guard when the unit she commanded was invited to defend Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace.

9. If the Union Jack is flying, it means the queen is away.

When Britain’s sitting monarch is physically present inside one of her royal residences like Buckingham Palace, the building raises the Royal Standard. But when she’s not around, the standard is swapped out for the UK's national flag.

10. Buckingham Palace guests eat a lot of sandwiches.

Queen Elizabeth II hosts at least three garden parties every summer in Buckingham Palace’s 39-acre private garden, where guests consume about 20,000 sandwiches per party. “Guests, of which there are around 30,000 each year in total, are treated with Buckingham Palace-blend tea, cakes, and a chance to talk to members of the royal family informally,” says the British Monarchist Foundation.

10 Facts About the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

qingwa/iStock via Getty Images
qingwa/iStock via Getty Images

On Veterans Day, 1921, President Warren G. Harding presided over an interment ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery for an unknown soldier who died during World War I. Since then, three more soldiers have been added to the Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier) memorial—and one has been disinterred. Below, a few things you might not know about the historic site and the rituals that surround it.

1. THERE WERE FOUR UNKNOWN SOLDIER CANDIDATES FOR THE WWI CRYPT. 


Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

To ensure a truly random selection, four unknown soldiers were exhumed from four different WWI American cemeteries in France. U.S. Army Sgt. Edward F. Younger, who was wounded in combat and received the Distinguished Service Medal, was chosen to select a soldier for burial at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington. After the four identical caskets were lined up for his inspection, Younger chose the third casket from the left by placing a spray of white roses on it. The chosen soldier was transported to the U.S. on the USS Olympia, while the other three were reburied at Meuse Argonne American Cemetery in France.

2. SIMILARLY, TWO UNKNOWN SOLDIERS WERE SELECTED AS POTENTIAL REPRESENTATIVES OF WWII.

One had served in the European Theater and the other served in the Pacific Theater. The Navy’s only active-duty Medal of Honor recipient, Hospitalman 1st Class William R. Charette, chose one of the identical caskets to go on to Arlington. The other was given a burial at sea.

3. THERE WERE FOUR POTENTIAL KOREAN WAR REPRESENTATIVES.


WikimediaCommons // Public Domain

The soldiers were disinterred from the National Cemetery of the Pacific in Hawaii. This time, Army Master Sgt. Ned Lyle was the one to choose the casket. Along with the unknown soldier from WWII, the unknown Korean War soldier lay in the Capitol Rotunda from May 28 to May 30, 1958.

4. THE VIETNAM WAR UNKNOWN WAS SELECTED ON MAY 17, 1984.

Medal of Honor recipient U.S. Marine Corps Sgt. Maj. Allan Jay Kellogg, Jr., selected the Vietnam War representative during a ceremony at Pearl Harbor.

5. BUT THE VIETNAM VETERAN WASN'T UNKNOWN FOR LONG.


Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

Thanks to advances in mitochondrial DNA testing, scientists were eventually able to identify the remains of the Vietnam War soldier. On May 14, 1998, the remains were exhumed and tested, revealing the “unknown” soldier to be Air Force 1st Lt. Michael Joseph Blassie (pictured). Blassie was shot down near An Loc, Vietnam, in 1972. After his identification, Blassie’s family had him moved to Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis. Instead of adding another unknown soldier to the Vietnam War crypt, the crypt cover has been replaced with one bearing the inscription, “Honoring and Keeping Faith with America’s Missing Servicemen, 1958-1975.”

6. THE MARBLE SCULPTORS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MANY OTHER U.S. MONUMENTS. 

The Tomb was designed by architect Lorimer Rich and sculptor Thomas Hudson Jones, but the actual carving was done by the Piccirilli Brothers. Even if you don’t know them, you know their work: The brothers carved the 19-foot statue of Abraham Lincoln for the Lincoln Memorial, the lions outside of the New York Public Library, the Maine Monument in Central Park, the DuPont Circle Fountain in D.C., and much more.

7. THE TOMB HAS BEEN GUARDED 24/7 SINCE 1937. 

Tomb Guards come from the 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment "The Old Guard." Serving the U.S. since 1784, the Old Guard is the oldest active infantry unit in the military. They keep watch over the memorial every minute of every day, including when the cemetery is closed and in inclement weather.

8. BECOMING A TOMB GUARD IS INCREDIBLY DIFFICULT.

Members of the Old Guard must apply for the position. If chosen, the applicant goes through an intense training period, in which they must pass tests on weapons, ceremonial steps, cadence, military bearing, uniform preparation, and orders. Although military members are known for their neat uniforms, it’s said that the Tomb Guards have the highest standards of them all. A knowledge test quizzes applicants on their memorization—including punctuation—of 35 pages on the history of the Tomb. Once they’re selected, Guards “walk the mat” in front of the Tomb for anywhere from 30 minutes to two hours, depending on the time of year and time of day. They work in 24-hour shifts, however, and when they aren’t walking the mat, they’re in the living quarters beneath it. This gives the sentinels time to complete training and prepare their uniforms, which can take up to eight hours.

9. THE HONOR IS ALSO INCREDIBLY RARE.

The Tomb Guard badge is the least awarded badge in the Army, and the second least awarded badge in the overall military. (The first is the astronaut badge.) Tomb Guards are held to the highest standards of behavior, and can have their badge taken away for any action on or off duty that could bring disrespect to the Tomb. And that’s for the entire lifetime of the Tomb Guard, even well after his or her guarding duty is over. For the record, it seems that Tomb Guards are rarely female—only three women have held the post.

10. THE STEPS THE GUARDS PERFORM HAVE SPECIFIC MEANING.

Everything the guards do is a series of 21, which alludes to the 21-gun salute. According to TombGuard.org:

The Sentinel does not execute an about face, rather they stop on the 21st step, then turn and face the Tomb for 21 seconds. They then turn to face back down the mat, change the weapon to the outside shoulder, mentally count off 21 seconds, then step off for another 21 step walk down the mat. They face the Tomb at each end of the 21 step walk for 21 seconds. The Sentinel then repeats this over and over until the Guard Change ceremony begins.

Looking to Move? These Are the 20 Best States to Live In

The skyline of Boston, Massachusetts.
The skyline of Boston, Massachusetts.
Sean Pavone/iStock via Getty Images

To a certain extent, identifying the “best” states to live in is wide open to interpretation. If your happiness is contingent upon the opportunity to shred gnarly waves, for example, chances are low that Kansas would even crack the top 40 on your personal list.

Having said that, some metrics for evaluating the nifty 50 aren’t so subjective—and it’s not only about income, either. To find out which states are “good” to live in, financial news website 24/7 Wall St. devised a rating system based on a few of these universally good qualities: Life expectancy at birth, bachelor’s degree attainment, and poverty rate. After all, a state with a high number of healthy, educated, financially stable people seems like a place you’d want to live, right?

The rating system is based on the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Index, which aims to assess the well-being of a nation’s population through similar statistics: Life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling for adults over 25, and gross national income per capita.

Based on 24/7 Wall St.’s study, Massachusetts took the top spot. Of all residents aged 25 and older, 44.5 percent have at least a bachelor’s degree—the highest rate of any state. Their 10 percent poverty rate is the eighth lowest in the nation, and life expectancy at birth is 80.4 years, which beats the national average (79.1 years) by more than a year.

As far as regional trends go, Massachusetts isn’t alone in its greatness. Almost the entire Northeast ranks in the top 20, including New Jersey, Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, and Rhode Island.

The number-two spot went to Colorado—low on surfing opportunities, perhaps, but plenty of gnarly slopes to shred—which actually edged out Massachusetts in life expectancy (80.5 years) and poverty rate (9.6 percent). Its neighbors in Utah and Nebraska made the top 20, too.

24/7 Wall St. also points out the cyclical nature of these metrics. People with advanced degrees earn more money, which they use to afford better healthcare and establish healthier lifestyles, so they live longer.

Then again, a high number of college graduates means nothing if you’re mainly just looking to settle down near the nation’s best roller coasters or curiosity shops (none of which, by the way, are located in Massachusetts). As for those of you looking for that perfect wave? Hawaii claimed the fourth spot.

Scroll on to see if your home state ranks in the top 20, and read more about 24/7 Wall St.’s study here.

  1. Massachusetts

  1. Colorado

  1. New Jersey

  1. Hawaii

  1. Connecticut

  1. Minnesota

  1. Maryland

  1. New Hampshire

  1. Washington

  1. Virginia

  1. Utah

  1. Vermont

  1. New York

  1. California

  1. Nebraska

  1. Illinois

  1. Rhode Island

  1. Oregon

  1. North Dakota

  1. Wisconsin

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