Felines can be fickle, but a group of scientists from the UK’s University of Lincoln is trying to figure out exactly how to please them best. A study in the journal Applied Animal Behaviour Science examines exactly where cats prefer to be stroked, and where they would rather you keep your paws off.
Do cats even like being petted at all? Science isn’t sure. “While we have come to expect cats to not only tolerate, but also enjoy being touched, there is little empirical research investigating whether this is actually the case,” the paper notes.
To find out, one experiment analyzed the behavior of 34 cats between 6 months and 12 years old in their own homes while being stroked. Either the cat’s owner or the experimenter, a stranger, petted the cat in different regions of the body, including the area around the chin and cheeks, the area around the base of the tail, the top of the head, the back, and the chest. A subsequent trial tested 20 cats between one and 12 years old, this time with only their primary caregivers doing the petting, with stroking limited to the cat’s head, back, or tail.
Base of the tail? Puh-lease. Image Credit: Shaunacy Ferro
All the interactions were filmed, and the researchers kept a long list of cat behaviors, with each kind of movement assigned a positive or negative score. A friendly head butt, a sniff, or a slow blink, for instance, garnered positive points, while any kind of biting, tail swishing, or ear flicking indicated a negative reaction. At the end of the petting session, all the positive behavior scores and all the negative behavior scores were added up for each of the zones of the body to gauge the cats' overall reaction.
Cats were more likely to exhibit negative reactions to being handled by their owner compared to a stranger—an unusual behavior for a domestic animal. (Familiarity breeds cattiness, apparently.) The researchers suggest that cats can feel antagonized by their owners scolding them or petting them too long, so they may not always associate their owner with positive vibes. Or, the cats may have been annoyed that the strict experimental setup—dictating how they were handled and for how long—didn’t follow the normal pattern of how their owner usually interacts with them, causing kitty frustration. (Wouldn’t you get fed up if you expected casual playtime, but became the subject of a science experiment?)
The cats preferred their petting to come in the form of strokes along the cheeks and chin or between the eyes and ears. They liked having the base of their tails touched least. The researchers hypothesize that cats don’t groom each other in this area, and the only time they would touch each other’s tails would be in the form of wrapping their tails around each other, which only happens between the best of cat friends. It’s likely that “the handler is not considered a close enough affiliate for interaction to occur at such a place on the body,” the researchers write. Rejected!
There it is, in plain scientific language: Your cat doesn't love you as much as you thought. Granted, one study with just over 50 cats isn't significant enough to be the final word on feline behavior. But just to be safe, best to stick to the tried-and-true chin scratches, or risk getting swatted.
Though the main book series and movie franchise are long over, the Wizarding World of Harry Potter remains in the spotlight as one of the most popular properties in pop-culture. The folks at Funko definitely know this, and every year the company releases a new Advent calendar based on the popular series so fans can count down to the holidays with their favorite characters.
Right now, you can pre-order the 2020 edition of Funko's popular Harry Potter Advent calendar, and if you do it through Amazon, you'll even get it on sale for 33 percent off, bringing the price down from $60 to just $40.
Over the course of the holiday season, the Advent calendar allows you to count down the days until Christmas, starting on December 1, by opening one of the tiny, numbered doors on the appropriate day. Each door is filled with a surprise Pocket Pop! figurine—but outside of the trio of Harry, Hermione, and Ron, the company isn't revealing who you'll be getting just yet.
Calendars will start shipping on October 15, but if you want a head start, go to Amazon to pre-order yours at a discount.
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Known for their strong family bonds and intelligence, elephants have fascinated humans across time and cultures. As the largest living land mammal, a male African bush elephant typically stands more than 10 feet tall and weighs an incredible 6.6 tons. Although poachers still kill approximately 100 African elephants every day, conservation groups are working to save elephant populations from extinction. Read on for a dozen things you might not know about elephants, from their long history as a political symbol to their legit firefighting skills.
1. Contrary to popular belief, elephants are not exactly scared of mice.
Cartoonists have long depicted the funny juxtaposition of a giant elephant terrified of a tiny mouse. Zoologists and elephant trainers have conducted experiments to test whether elephants are truly afraid of rodents, and it seems to be a myth. Mice themselves don't frighten elephants, but the pachyderms have poor vision and can get extremely startled when anything suddenly scurries by. Elephants are probably more afraid of a mouse's sudden movement than the mouse itself.
2. Wild elephants could have populated the U.S., but abraham Lincoln nixed the idea.
In 1861, President Lincoln received gifts, including elephant tusks and a handmade sword, from Siam's King Somdetch Phra Paramendr Maha Mongkut. The king of present-day Thailand also made an interesting offer: Mongkut proposed that Siam would send pairs of male and female elephants to the U.S. to breed in the forests. Americans could then tame the wild elephants and put them to work for the economic benefit of the country. William Seward, Lincoln's secretary of state, replied to Mongkut in 1862, graciously declining his offer. He told the king that since the U.S. already used steam power to efficiently transport goods within the country, elephants simply wouldn't be practical.
3. Trunk-sucking is the elephant equivalent of thumb-sucking.
When baby elephants want to comfort themselves, they instinctively start sucking their trunks. Trunk-sucking is also a way that a baby elephant can learn how to use her trunk (which contains between 40,000 and 50,000 muscles). Although most elephants, like human babies, grow out of sucking behavior, some adult elephants also suck their trunks when they feel anxious.
4. Elephants have been the symbol of the Republican Party since 1874.
Although elephants had been occasionally used as a symbol for Republicans during the Civil War, cartoonist Thomas Nast, who drew an elephant in an 1874 issue of Harper's Weekly, gets the credit for linking the animal with the political party. In later cartoons, Nast continued to draw an elephant to portray the Republican Party, and other cartoonists adopted it, establishing the animal as the GOP symbol.
5. Barnum & Bailey once trained elephants to play baseball.
Baseball is America's pastime, so why not teach elephants how to play the game? In 1912, thanks to the work of Barnum & Bailey's elephant trainer, Harry L. Mooney, the intelligent animals played their first ballgame. Although playing baseball was just one of many tricks that circus elephants learned, Barnum & Bailey capitalized on the concept of elephant baseball by using the image on posters to sell tickets for shows.
6. Some elephants have been convicted of murder.
Although elephants are typically viewed as gentle giants, they are capable of attacking and killing humans. Male elephants undergo musth, a hormonal change that makes them temporarily produce tons of testosterone, resulting in aggression. But even female elephants can kill. In 1916, a town in Tennessee charged an elephant named Big Mary with first-degree murder for killing her handler. Big Mary, who worked for the Sparks Circus, attacked her handler, possibly after he struck her with a bullhook as she was trying to eat a watermelon rind. Big Mary was convicted and sentenced to execution. Some 2500 residents of the town gathered to watch Big Mary's dramatic hanging, which featured a 100-ton crane and a chain that broke under her weight.
7. Elephants grieve death.
Although we can't know exactly what elephants feel and how they process death, they seem to show signs that they experience grief when a member of their family (or another elephant) dies. When they see a dead elephant, they may vocalize, use their trunks to "hug" the dead animal, or stay with the carcass for hours. Some elephants have also tried to bury the dead body by covering it in leaves and soil.
8. Trained elephants fight fires in Indonesia.
You probably won't see an elephant riding on a fire truck anytime soon, but elephants in Indonesia are a vital part of fighting fires. In 2015, East Sumatra was plagued with multiple fires over a period of several months, so 23 trained elephants from a conservation center went to work. Carrying water pumps and hoses, the elephants helped patrol the land and made sure that new fires weren't ignited.
9. If you're in Zambia, you might see some elephants strolling through your hotel lobby.
Some guests at Mfuwe Lodge in the African country of Zambia get an unusual animal sighting before they even leave the lobby. Each year between October and December, families of elephants walk through the lodge's reception area to eat wild mango from a tree in the courtyard. The elephants' giant size and seeming indifference to their hotel lobby surroundings make for quite a striking sight.
10. In 2015, scientists recorded elephants yawning for the first time.
Although scientists speculated that elephants probably yawn, scientists from the University of California, Davis captured the first video of an elephant yawning. If you enjoy watching sleepy animals stretching and yawning, this is for you. Warning: extreme cuteness ahead.
11. Elephants starred in YouTube's first-ever video.
On April 23, 2005, Jawed Karim made internet history when he uploaded the first video to a certain nascent video-sharing website. Karim, one of YouTube's founders, posted an 18-second scene of himself standing in front of elephants at a zoo. In the video, he speaks about how cool the elephants' long trunks are. As of August 2019, the video has more than 74 million views.
12. Elephants love to snack on old Christmas trees.
Zookeepers at Tierpark Berlin, a zoo in Germany, feed unsold Christmas trees to their elephants in early January. The trees are certified pesticide-free, and the elephants seem to enjoy their special snack. Berlin isn't the only place where elephants eat Christmas trees, though. Zoos in Prague also treat their elephants to the tasty conifers.