7 Amazing Facts About the Amygdala

We tend to think of our brains as one big organ inside our skulls, but it’s actually comprised of many, small structures that make it possible for us to walk, talk, think, and feel. Of these, one of the more well-known structures, the amygdala, has been found to play a hugely important role in many social and emotional processes—influencing everything from health to addiction.

Mental_floss spoke to Rahul Jandial, a neurosurgeon and neuroscientist at City of Hope Cancer Center in Los Angeles, California, and Brandon Brock, a staff clinician at the Cerebrum Health Centers Brain Initiative Group in Texas, about this fascinating part of the brain.

1. IT'S NOT REALLY ONE STRUCTURE …

One of the more well-known structures, the amygdala is located within the depths of the anterior-inferior temporal lobe. The almond-shaped region is part of the limbic system and is actually a paired structure, with parts in each temporal lobe, according to Jandial.

He says you can survive with only one of the two: “How do I know? I can surgically remove one as part of a brain surgery called selective amygdalohippocampectomy.” In fact, in studies where rats, monkeys, or rabbits have their amygdala removed, the animals live normal lives except for one notable new development: They don’t feel fear.

2. … BECAUSE THE AMYGDALA IS YOUR BRAIN'S FEAR FACTORY.

Your fear of snakes and scary movies is in large part due to the function of your amygdala, which “responds before frontal lobes weigh in,” Jandial says. It’s part of your instinctive brain and serves as your “emotional thermostat.” He adds, “It’s not in charge of just fear, but all deep and visceral emotions—one of those ancient brain regions that can defy the frontal lobe request.”

According to a 2007 study in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, “amygdala activity may represent the generation of emotional experience itself, and/or it may reflect sundry aspects of emotional information processing correlated with emotional experience.”

3. THE AMYGDALA ALSO HAS A TRUE MIND-BODY CONNECTION.

And yet the amygdala has purposes beyond fear. It has been shown to assist in emotional learning, “whereby cues acquire significance through association with rewarding or aversive events,” according to a paper in Current Opinion Neurobiology. More recent research, the authors write, suggest that the amygdala regulates additional cognitive processes, such as memory or attention.

With its ability to interpret sensory stimuli in the world and translate them into physical reactions, the amygdala, as a research paper in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience suggests, “may thus represent embodied attention—the crucial link between central (mental) and peripheral (bodily) resources.”

4. DAMAGE TO THE AMYGDALA CAN LEAVE YOU HORNY AND HUNGRY.

An injured amygdala can leave a person “super hungry, sexually aroused, and fixated with putting things in their mouth,” says Jandial. In other cases, it can lead to a reduced fear of risks, and thus an increase in risky behavior. Researchers found that adult monkeys who were given amygdalectomies “showed more pro-social cues and less avoidance behaviors toward other (healthy) monkeys.” In one extreme case, damage to the amygdala shut down one woman’s ability to feel fear altogether.

5. IT ALSO PLAYS A ROLE IN PAIN.

Fibromyalgia is a disease characterized by "widespread musculoskeletal pain with diffuse tenderness at multiple tender points,” as a study in Clinical Neuroscience describes. Brock says that changes in the amygdala’s volume and function play a role in both fibromyalgia and chronic pain syndromes. This appears to be a consequence of the amygdala becoming hypervigilant and oversensitized to internal sensations of pain or trauma, according to a study in Explore. “This results in exhaustion of the neuro-endocrine and immune systems and chronic physical and mental exhaustion, as well as many secondary symptoms and ongoing complications.”

6. THE AMYGDALA IS KEY TO UNDERSTANDING ADDICTION.

Addiction is considered a brain disease by the medical community rather than a lack of willpower or a character defect. According to a study in Brain Research, a common addiction cycle comprises three stages—“preoccupation/anticipation, binge/intoxication, and withdrawal/negative affect—in which impulsivity often dominates at the early stages and compulsivity dominates at terminal stages.” The amygdala becomes recruited in the final withdrawal stage, where it sends stress signals to the body, driving a person to crave more of their substance.

7. DESPITE ADVANCES IN BRAIN-IMAGING TECHNOLOGY, IT'S STILL DIFFICULT TO STUDY.

Though we know much more about the amygdala since it was first discovered in the 1930s in monkeys, there’s still much to learn. Because of the amygdala’s deep brain location and its entanglement with other neighboring brain structures, it’s difficult to find “exact ways to monitor its function, output and all regions that it has a synaptic influence on. Time and further scientific research will hopefully unveil that,” Brock explains.

14 Retro Gifts for Millennials

Ravi Palwe, Unsplash
Ravi Palwe, Unsplash

Millennials were born between 1981 and 1996, which means the pop culture they grew up with is officially retro. No matter what generation you belong to, consider these gifts when shopping for the Millennials in your life this holiday season.

1. Reptar Funko Pop!; $29

Amazon

This vinyl Reptar figurine from Funko is as cool as anything you’d find in the rugrats’ toy box. The monster dinosaur has been redesigned in classic Pop! style, making it a perfect desk or shelf accessory for the grown-up Nickelodeon fan. It also glows in the dark, which should appeal to anyone’s inner child.

Buy it: Amazon

2. Dragon Ball Z Slippers; $20

Hot Topic

You don’t need to change out of your pajamas to feel like a Super Saiyan. These slippers are emblazoned with the same kanji Goku wears on his gi in Dragon Ball Z: one for training under King Kai and one for training with Master Roshi. And with a soft sherpa lining, the footwear feels as good as it looks.

Buy it: Hot Topic

3. The Pokémon Cookbook; $15

Hop Topic

What do you eat after a long day of training and catching Pokémon? Any dish in The Pokémon Cookbook is a great option. This book features more than 35 recipes inspired by creatures from the Pokémon franchise, including Poké Ball sushi rolls and mashed Meowth potatoes.

Buy it: Hot Topic

4. Lisa Frank Activity Book; $5

Urban Outfitters

Millennials will never be too old for Lisa Frank, especially when the artist’s playful designs come in a relaxing activity book. Watercolor brings the rainbow characters in this collection to life. Just gather some painting supplies and put on a podcast for a relaxing, nostalgia-fueled afternoon.

Buy it: Urban Outfitters

5. Shoebox Tape Recorder with USB; $28

Amazon

The days of recording mix tapes don’t have to be over. This device looks and functions just like tape recorders from the pre-smartphone era. And with a USB port as well as a line-in jack and built-in mic, users can easily import their digital music collection onto retro cassette tapes.

Buy it: Amazon

6. Days of the Week Scrunchie Set; $12

Urban Outfitters

Millennials can be upset that a trend from their youth is old enough to be cool again, or they can embrace it. This scrunchie set is for anyone happy to see the return of the hair accessory. The soft knit ponytail holders come in a set of five—one for each day of the school (or work) week.

Buy it: Urban Outfitters

7. D&D Graphic T-shirt; $38-$48

80s Tees

The perfect gift for the Dungeon Master in your life, this graphic tee is modeled after the cover of the classic Dungeons & Dragons rule book. It’s available in sizes small through 3XL.

Buy it: 80s Tees

8. Chuck E. Cheese T-shirt; $36-$58

80s Tees

Few Millennials survived childhood without experiencing at least one birthday party at Chuck E. Cheese. This retro T-shirt sports the brand’s original name: Chuck E. Cheese’s Pizza Time Theatre. It may be the next-best gift for a Chuck E. Cheese fan behind a decommissioned animatronic.

Buy it: 80s Tees

9. The Nightmare Before Christmas Picnic Blanket Bag; $40

Shop Disney

Fans of Tim Burton’s The Nightmare Before Christmas will recognize the iconic scene on the front of this messenger bag. Unfold it and the bag becomes a blanket fit for a moonlit picnic among the pumpkins. The bottom side is waterproof and the top layer is made of soft fleece.

Buy it: Shop Disney

10. Toy Story Alien Socks; $15

Shop Disney

You don’t need to be skilled at the claw machine to take home a pair of these socks. Decorated with the aliens from Toy Story, they’re made from soft-knit fabric and are big enough to fit adult feet.

Buy it: Shop Disney

11. Goosebumps Board Game; $24

Amazon

Fans that read every book in R.L. Stine’s series growing up can now play the Goosebumps board game. In this game, based on the Goosebumps movie, players take on the role of their favorite monster from the series and race to the typewriter at the end of the trail of manuscripts.

Buy it: Amazon

12. Tamagotchi Mini; $19

Amazon

If you know someone who killed their Tamagotchi in the '90s, give them another chance to show off their digital pet-care skills. This Tamagotchi is a smaller, simplified version of the original game. It doubles as a keychain, so owners have no excuse to forget to feed their pet.

Buy it: Amazon

13. SNES Classic; $275

Amazon

The SNES Classic is much easier to find now than when it first came out, and it's still just as entertaining for retro video game fans. This mini console comes preloaded with 21 Nintendo games, including Super Mario Kart and Street Fighter II.

Buy it: Amazon

14. Planters Cheez Balls; $24

Amazon

Planters revived its Cheez Balls in 2018 after pulling them from shelves nearly a decade earlier. To Millennials unaware of that fact, this gift could be their dream come true. The throwback snack even comes in the classic canister fans remember.

Buy it: Amazon

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30 Pungent Facts About Farts

This man is clearly not trying to hide the fact he just passed gas.
This man is clearly not trying to hide the fact he just passed gas.
BrilliantEye/iStock via Getty Images

Whether you openly admit it or desperately try to hide it, it’s an undeniable fact that every living and breathing human being farts. And while passing what you thought was going to be silent gas only to be wrong in certain situations can definitely be embarrassing, there’s something undeniably humorous about flatulence—no matter your age.

If you do love a good fart joke, you’re in good company. The very first recorded joke, which was written by the Sumerians and dates all the way back to 1900 BCE, was about—you guessed it—breaking wind. And some of the world's great thinkers, from William Shakespeare to J.D. Salinger, have slipped a fart joke (or 10) into their work.

In this episode of The List Show, we're sniffing out 30 fascinating facts about farts—from why humans expel gas to how often the average adult squeezes the cheese. You can watch the full episode below.

For more videos like this one, be sure to head here and subscribe.