Testosterone May Protect Against Asthma

iStock
iStock

Asthma, a disease of the lungs that causes inflammation, swelling, wheezing and shortness of breath, affects both sexes, but with one notable difference: Boys tend to grow out of asthma after puberty, and men are far less likely to develop it in adulthood than women are. Australian researchers explored the idea that testosterone may have a protective effect against asthma—and they believe it does, pinpointing some of the mechanisms by which it occurs. Their study results are published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

To understand testosterone’s effects, says co-lead author Gabrielle Belz, a professor of molecular immunology at the University of Melbourne, you must first understand a family of immune cells known as innate lymphoid cells, or ILC2s. These cells are found on various surfaces in the body: the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and the skin, to name a few. “Their job is to sense what’s happening in the external environment and make adjustments based on that,” Belz tells Mental Floss. In asthma, these cells proliferate in high numbers and accumulate in the airways where they trigger chemicals, such as cytokines and leukocytes, “that promote that inflammatory response that results in the airways swelling [and] narrowing, and shortness of breath occurs,” she says.

Males have fewer of these cells than females, Belz says, “because the testosterone receptor regulates the generation of these cells.” Plus, the androgen receptors, whose job it is to sense testosterone, become activated in the presence of testosterone. This suppresses the generation of these ILC2 cells, though Belz and her team are still exploring the mechanism by which it does so. With fewer cells present, there are fewer pro-inflammatory signals—which explains why men are less likely to develop asthma.

To test these effects in mouse models, the researchers ran a number of different experiments, beginning with a baseline analysis of the tissues of healthy male and female mice. They found a significantly increased presence of ILC2s in female mice compared to males, specifically in the lungs of the female mice, where the frequencies and total numbers of ILC2s were “twofold higher” than in males.

In another experiment, the researchers tested the tissue of mice that had been genetically modified not to have the testosterone-sensing androgen receptors—essentially, these mice lacked the ability to suppress the ILC2 cells, making them more likely to have asthma symptoms. These mice showed ILC2 numbers comparable to female mice, as did castrated male mice. The castrated male mice “responded as intact females, indicating that endogenous male sex hormones act as critical regulators [of ILC2s],” the authors write in their paper.

They also took tissue from male and female mice that had been given ovalbumin-induced asthma, and found that there were higher numbers of inflammatory leukocytes in the female mice than in the males.

The mouse models suggest that testosterone is protective against asthma, so the next steps are to study human immune cells from blood samples in a dish. Scientists could expose the human cells to different mediators to stimulate the testosterone pathway. They can also implant the human cells into mouse models to get a more accurate understanding of how the human cells might function. “Our preclinical animal modes are surrogates for the situations that might occur in humans,” Belz says.

This is all well and good if you’re male, but if you’re female, or a prepubescent child, further research is needed to come up with a treatment for asthma. Hormones are crucial for the development and growth of the body, so they can’t simply give testosterone to women and children with asthma “because that could disrupt a whole heap of things in the body,” Belz says. What they hope to do next is to discover receptors in women and children that they can target, and to create synthetic molecules that function in the same way as testosterone—without the impact of a hormone.

If they can achieve a synthetic testosterone, they would ideally be able to formulate an inhaled drug that can be taken through an inhaler, similar to other drugs for lung-related diseases.

Delving into these kinds of differences in how the sexes respond to disease is part of a "big push in the field to have a personalized approach to medicine," says Belz. "So you’d have a slightly different approach to males or females to get on top of these diseases."

Looking to Downsize? You Can Buy a 5-Room DIY Cabin on Amazon for Less Than $33,000

Five rooms of one's own.
Five rooms of one's own.
Allwood/Amazon

If you’ve already mastered DIY houses for birds and dogs, maybe it’s time you built one for yourself.

As Simplemost reports, there are a number of house kits that you can order on Amazon, and the Allwood Avalon Cabin Kit is one of the quaintest—and, at $32,990, most affordable—options. The 540-square-foot structure has enough space for a kitchen, a bathroom, a bedroom, and a sitting room—and there’s an additional 218-square-foot loft with the potential to be the coziest reading nook of all time.

You can opt for three larger rooms if you're willing to skip the kitchen and bathroom.Allwood/Amazon

The construction process might not be a great idea for someone who’s never picked up a hammer, but you don’t need an architectural degree to tackle it. Step-by-step instructions and all materials are included, so it’s a little like a high-level IKEA project. According to the Amazon listing, it takes two adults about a week to complete. Since the Nordic wood walls are reinforced with steel rods, the house can withstand winds up to 120 mph, and you can pay an extra $1000 to upgrade from double-glass windows and doors to triple-glass for added fortification.

Sadly, the cool ceiling lamp is not included.Allwood/Amazon

Though everything you need for the shell of the house comes in the kit, you will need to purchase whatever goes inside it: toilet, shower, sink, stove, insulation, and all other furnishings. You can also customize the blueprint to fit your own plans for the space; maybe, for example, you’re going to use the house as a small event venue, and you’d rather have two or three large, airy rooms and no kitchen or bedroom.

Intrigued? Find out more here.

[h/t Simplemost]

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The Psychological Tricks Disney Parks Use to Make Long Wait Times More Bearable

© Jorge Royan, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0
© Jorge Royan, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

No one goes to Disneyland or Disney World to spend the day waiting in line, but when a queue is well-designed, waiting can be part of the experience. Disney knows this better than anyone, and the parks' Imagineers have developed several tricks over the years to make long wait times as painless as possible.

According to Popular Science, hacking the layout of the line itself is a simple way to influence the rider's perspective. When a queue consists of 200 people zig-zagging around ropes in a large, open room, it's easy for waiting guests to feel overwhelmed. This design allows riders to see exactly how many people are in line in front of them—which isn't necessarily a good thing when the line is long.

Imagineers prevent this by keeping riders in the dark when they enter the queue. In Space Mountain, for example, walls are built around the twisting path, so riders have no idea how much farther they have to go until they're deeper into the building. This stops people from giving up when they first get in line.

Another example of deception ride designers use is the "Machiavellian twist." If you've ever been pleasantly surprised by a line that moved faster than you expected, that was intentional. The signs listing wait times at the beginning of ride queues purposefully inflate the numbers. That way, when a wait that was supposed to be 120 minutes goes by in 90, you feel like you have more time than you did before.

The final trick is something Disney parks are famous for: By incorporating the same level of production design found on the ride into the queue, Imagineers make waiting in line an engaging experience that has entertainment value of its own. The Tower of Terror queue in Disney World, which is modeled after a decrepit 1930s hotel lobby down to the cobwebs and the abandoned coffee cups, feels like it could be a movie set. Some ride lines even use special effects. While waiting to ride Star Wars: Ride of the Resistance in Galaxy's Edge, guests get to watch holograms and animatronics that set up the story of the ride. This strategy exploits the so-called dual-task paradigm, which makes the line feel as if it's going by faster by giving riders mental stimulation as they wait.

Tricky ride design is just one of Disney's secrets. Here are more behind-the-scenes facts about the beloved theme parks.

[h/t Popular Science]