10 Body-Snatching Parasites

Hans Hillewaert, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 4.03
Hans Hillewaert, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 4.03

There are a lot of parasites out there. Some estimates suggest that as many as half of all the species on earth live inside—and feed off—other species. One new study published online (which hasn't been peer reviewed yet) argues that the parasitoid wasps might be the largest single group of animals—a title generally thought to be held by beetles.

Practically every species has its own set of parasites, and even parasites have parasites. In many cases, a parasite's host is little more than a habitat where it can eat and breed. But some parasites have gone a step further, evolving ways to manipulate their hosts in ways that give the parasite a better shot at growing up and spreading its young far and wide. Their methods can be as deliciously gross as the worst imaginings of horror movie screenwriters. Here are 10 examples to inspire new terrors of the silver screen.

1. JEWEL WASP // AUSTRALIA, PACIFIC ISLANDS


The jewel wasp Ampulex compressa is iridescently beautiful, but it's a nightmare for the American cockroach. When a pregnant female wasp gets hold of a roach, she temporarily paralyzes its muscles with a sting, then threads her stinger up into the roach's brain, injecting a cocktail of chemicals that turn the roach into a zombie. The roach could move when the paralysis wears off, but now it doesn't want to. Instead, it allows the wasp to gently lead it by one antenna to her burrow, where she walls it in with one of her eggs. That egg will soon become a larvae that spends its first week on earth eating the living roach bit by bit before pupating and emerging as a wasp to continue the cycle.

2. NEMATOMORPH HAIRWORM // EUROPE

Everything seems normal for weeks after a long-horned grasshopper has drunk water containing the microscopic larvae of the hairworm Spinochordodes tellinii, but that changes as soon as the worm grows big enough to start yearning for a mate. That's when it secretes chemicals that change its host's brain chemistry, making deep water seem enticing to the insect. The grasshopper suddenly has a suicidal urge to take a long hop off a short pier, and as it drowns, the worm—now as much as three times as long as the insect it lived in—squeezes out of its host and swims off to find a mate. Other hairworm species prefer praying mantises or spiders as hosts, but it's the same endgame for them all.

3. PARASITIC BARNACLE // MARINE COASTS

Sacculina carcini
John Aplessed, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

A female Sacculina carcini starts its life like any other barnacle—as a tiny planktonic baby floating free in the ocean. But unlike your average barnacle, when she drifts onto a crab she doesn't just settle down and become a warty bump riding on its shell. Instead, she burrows into the crab and grows until she infiltrates every crevice of the crab's body. This can take years, but eventually she's big enough to inflate her bulbous reproductive structures through the crab's abdomen so microscopic males of her species can fertilize her eggs. Once that happens, her crabby host stops molting and growing; all it does is eat and take care of its parasite. Her babies are incubated inside the crab's abdomen, and since part of her is inside the crab's brain by now, she also hijacks its egg-caring behaviors—even male crabs nurture them—to aerate and disperse thousands of her own future mind-controlling brood.

4. ICHNEUMOID WASP // NORTH AMERICA

ichneumoid wasp
MirandaKate, Flickr // CC BY-NC 2.0

A female ichneumoid wasp Campoletis sonorensis sneaking up on a grazing caterpillar isn't looking for a meal for herself—she's shopping for a nose-to-tail larder for her young. The wasp injects one or two fertilized eggs under the caterpillar's skin, and just for good measure, squirts in a virus that will keep the caterpillar's immune system from attacking the invaders. When she flies away, the caterpillar goes right back to eating, but it's a dead grub walking: In a few days, the wormlike wasp larvae hatch inside the caterpillar. They'll spend a couple of weeks munching away at its guts until they grow large enough to burst through its body wall. Then, they spin cocoons—often beside or on the dead body of their host—and pupate into another generation of chest-busting parasitoids (which, unlike most parasites, always kill their hosts).

5. GREEN-BANDED BROODSAC FLATWORM // EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA

A land snail's eyestalks are normally a pretty drab affair, but that all changes if the snail licks up bird droppings infected with larvae from the flatworm Leucochloridium paradoxum. The baby worms move into the snail's digestive gland, forming an asexual colony that can eventually make up a quarter of the snail's mass. As the colony matures, it starts packing members into bright green, squirming brood sacs that writhe up into the snail's eyestalks, swelling them into fat approximations of wriggling caterpillars. If that's not enough to grab a hungry bird's attention, those pulsing, writhing brood sacs can also break through the snail's body wall and crawl off to mimic a juicy grub on their own.

6. PHRONIMA AMPHIPOD // DEEP OCEAN WORLDWIDE


Freshwater and Marine Image Bank, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

The deep-sea amphipod genus Phronima is a literal body-snatcher. This parasitoid captures gelatinous salps—jet-propelled, filter-feeding planktonic animals that are closely related to vertebrates—and hollows them out with jaws and claws, consuming the salp's brain, gills, stomach, and muscles, and scraping its inner walls smooth. The salp body—technically still living—becomes a barrel-shaped, ocean-going home that the amphipod can maneuver like a miniature submarine. It might eventually be a full house, too—female Phronima keep their young in the barrel and care for them until they've grown.

7. RIBEIROIAN TREMATODE FLATWORM // NORTH AMERICA

deformed pacific chorus frog infected with ribeiroia ondatrae parasite
Brett A. Goodman, Pieter T. J. Johnson, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 2.5

The horror starts when larvae of the parasitic flatworm Ribeiroia ondatrae leave the snail they used as a nursery and burrow into the tail of a bullfrog tadpole. When the tadpole metamorphoses into an adult frog—a period of time that varies between species—the flatworms form cysts around its developing legs, disrupting their growth in ways that damage or double them. The crippled, flatworm-infested frog can't jump away from predatory birds like herons, which gobble them up. The flatworm then spreads to new waterways wherever the bird poops.

8. GALL WASP // WORLDWIDE

gall wasp eggs
Justin 0 of 0, Flickr // CC BY-NC 2.0

Not even plants are safe from parasitism. Females of Cynipidae, the family of gall wasps, lay their eggs inside leaves or under bark, and their larvae make the plant cells surrounding them grow faster than they would normally, effectively forcing the plant to grow them a house. Weird, nonleafy shapes rise up out of the plant, filled with juicy nutritious tissues that feed the wasp larvae and surrounded by tough woody walls that protect it until it becomes an adult (more than a year in some species) and chews its way out of its safe space.

9. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS // NORTH AMERICA

goldenrod beetle infected by mind-controlling E. lampyridarum fungus
Steinkraus et al. in Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 2017

Goldenrod soldier beetles depend on the family of flowering plants commonly known as asters, which includes goldenrods and daisies. The beetles eat the plants' pollen and mate in their shade. But if a beetle gets infected with the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum, it climbs up an aster's stem, clenches the base of a flower with its mandibles, and dies. Within a day, the fungus forces the dead beetle's wings open to expose its spores, which rain down on the hapless beetles below.

10. OPECOELID TREMATODE FLATWORM // PACIFIC MARINE REEFS

Coral colony infected by trematode Podocotyloides stenometra
Alamy

The tiny polyps that build stony corals are usually an inconspicuous brown. But that changes whenever a polyp inadvertently grabs a young Podocotyloides stenometra flatworm for a meal. Somehow, the trematode worm doesn't get digested—instead, it invades the polyp's tentacles, swelling them and turning them bright pink. The color is a bright billboard advertising deliciousness to butterflyfish on the reef, who eat the flashy polyps and spread the worm to other corals across the reef.

New Cross-Bred Cosmic Crisp Apples Can Stay Fresh for Up to a Year

Cosmic Crisp
Cosmic Crisp

Healthy snackers know only too well the disappointment that comes with biting into what looks like a deliciously crisp apple and getting a mouthful of mealy mush instead. It’s just one of the pome fruit’s many potential issues—they also brown quickly, bruise easily, and don’t last as long as whatever bag of chips you might be tempted to reach for instead.

Enter the Cosmic Crisp, a Washington-grown patented hybrid apple that could be the answer to all your apple-related complaints. According to New Atlas, researchers at Washington State University began breeding the new variety as a cross between Enterprise and Honeycrisp apples in 1997, and it’s officially hitting stores now.

cosmic crisp apple on tree
Cosmic Crisp

Not only does a Cosmic Crisp apple resist bruising and browning better than other kinds of apples, it also boasts an exceptionally long storage life. In a controlled atmosphere, it should stay fresh for a full year—meaning you’ll soon be able to enjoy a crisp, satisfying snack in the middle of March, when out-of-season apples usually leave much to be desired. In your own refrigerator, Cosmic Crisp apples are good for about six months, and they’ll even last for several weeks if you leave them out at room temperature. The long shelf life might cut down on the number of apples that you end up tossing in the trash because they went bad before you got around to eating them.

In a 2012 report published in the American Society for Horticultural Science journal HortScience, the Washington State University researchers found that a group of 114 consumers rated the Cosmic Crisp apple, or WA 38, higher than Fuji apples in sweetness, sourness, flavor intensity, crispness, firmness, juiciness, and overall acceptance. The apple's website even suggests that bakers can reduce the amount of added sugar in recipes that contain Cosmic Crisps.

The Cosmic part of its name comes from the whitish specks on the apple’s skin, which reminded taste testers of a starry sky. In reality, those specks are lenticels—porous openings that allow the apple to exchange gases with its environment.

If you don’t see Cosmic Crisp apples in your grocery store yet, here’s a simple trick for keeping any apples fresh for longer.

[h/t New Atlas]

The Reason So Many Babies Are Conceived in Winter

yurizhuravov/iStock via Getty Images
yurizhuravov/iStock via Getty Images

Does it feel like many friends and family members announce the pending arrival of a baby during the fall and winter months? That’s not exactly a coincidence. It turns out the cold season is associated with more reproductive activity than any other time of the year. The month of December alone accounts for 9 percent of conceptions in the United States. Science is gaining a better understanding of why.

All living creatures heed an evolutionary instinct to target seasonal births. If conception happens during colder months, babies will be born during warmer months, when resources will be bountiful. Northern states have births peaking in June and July, while southern states come a bit later in October and November. The farther south, the later the birth peak, since people in these warm climates are less influenced by frigid temperatures.

What are frisky humans responding to in colder months? Research suggests that the cooler temperatures and shortened days signal that it's time to get busy. Other theories suggest that men may be more fertile in colder months, or that a woman’s ovum receptivity might change with decreased daylight. Not only are couples potentially more sexually active, but that activity might wind up being more (re)productive.

Are there benefits to conceiving at other times? Possibly. One 2013 study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences gathered data from nearly 1.5 million births and found that average birth weight in the first five months of the year decreased by 10 grams. Babies born during the summer months were 20 grams heavier. Mothers who conceived in summer tended to gain more weight than those who conceived at other times.

If you have a disproportionate amount of friends with a September birthday, it’s likely that their parents consciously or unconsciously followed their evolutionary instinct nine months earlier.

[h/t Smithsonian]

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