Bees Across America Stopped Buzzing During Last Year's Total Solar Eclipse

iStock.com/mafrmcfa
iStock.com/mafrmcfa

Most bees are diurnal creatures, meaning that they're active during daylight hours. After flying around all day, they start to slow down around dusk and return to their colonies at night to sleep.

Considering that daylight plays an important role in a bee's busy schedule, would a total solar eclipse thwart their plans? Would the bees think it's time to turn in for the night when the Moon passes in front of the Sun and blocks out its light? These are the questions researchers from the University of Missouri set out to answer when they tracked bee activity during the last total solar eclipse on August 21, 2017.

Their findings, published today in the Annals of the Entomological Society of America, yielded some surprises. Lead author Candace Galen said they expected to see bee activity gradually diminish as the sky darkened. "But we had not expected that the change would be so abrupt, that bees would continue flying up until totality [of the eclipse] and only then stop, completely," Galen said in a statement. "It was like 'lights out' at summer camp! That surprised us."

Of the 16 locations they tracked, only one bee was heard flying during the eclipse. This is one of the first studies to analyze how bees respond to a solar eclipse, and few studies like this have looked at similar behavior in other insects or animals. A 1991 study found that desert cicadas in Arizona stopped chirping for about 40 minutes during a partial solar eclipse. Another study from 1973 found that captive squirrels became restless and ran around far more during an eclipse, while other research showed that Blue bulls at a zoo in India altered their feeding and resting periods during a partial solar eclipse.

Before the latest bee study kicked off, researchers used tiny microphones and temperature sensors to track bee pollination by listening to them buzz about. That same method was applied to the solar eclipse experiment, and 16 monitoring stations were set up along the eclipse's path of totality in Oregon, Idaho, and Missouri. More than 400 scientists, citizens, and elementary school teachers and students assisted with the experiment.

The microphones were hung on flowers that bees had pollinated in semi-remote locations away from foot and vehicle traffic. After the eclipse, the recordings were sent off to Galen's lab, where researchers matched up flight activity with the different eclipse periods. In doing so, it was discovered that bees (mostly bumble and honey bees) kept flying during the partial-eclipse phases before and after the total eclipse. Practically no buzzing was recorded during the period of totality, save for one flight picked up by microphones.

Researchers also noticed that bees' flights were longer during those partial-eclipse phases, but they were likely slower flights as a result of the reduced light. They may have been returning to their hives, believing that it was time to rest, researchers suggested.

"The eclipse gave us an opportunity to ask whether the novel environmental context—mid-day, open skies—would alter the bees' behavioral response to dim light and darkness," Galen said. "As we found, complete darkness elicits the same behavior in bees, regardless of timing or context. And that's new information about bee cognition."

The next total solar eclipse in North America will take place on April 8, 2024, at which time Galen's team plans to do a second experiment. The researchers hope to improve their audio-analysis software to determine whether a bee is leaving or returning to its colony. That way, they'll be able to tell whether bees head home during a total eclipse.

Wayfair’s Fourth of July Clearance Sale Takes Up to 60 Percent Off Grills and Outdoor Furniture

Wayfair/Weber
Wayfair/Weber

This Fourth of July, Wayfair is making sure you can turn your backyard into an oasis while keeping your bank account intact with a clearance sale that features savings of up to 60 percent on essentials like chairs, hammocks, games, and grills. Take a look at some of the highlights below.

Outdoor Furniture

Brisbane bench from Wayfair
Brisbane/Wayfair

- Jericho 9-Foot Market Umbrella $92 (Save 15 percent)
- Woodstock Patio Chairs (Set of Two) $310 (Save 54 percent)
- Brisbane Wooden Storage Bench $243 (Save 62 percent)
- Kordell Nine-Piece Rattan Sectional Seating Group with Cushions $1800 (Save 27 percent)
- Nelsonville 12-Piece Multiple Chairs Seating Group $1860 (Save 56 percent)
- Collingswood Three-Piece Seating Group with Cushions $410 (Save 33 percent)

Grills and Accessories

Dyna-Glo electric smoker.
Dyna-Glo/Wayfair

- Spirit® II E-310 Gas Grill $479 (Save 17 percent)
- Portable Three-Burner Propane Gas Grill $104 (Save 20 percent)
- Digital Bluetooth Electric Smoker $224 (Save 25 percent)
- Cuisinart Grilling Tool Set $38 (Save 5 percent)

Outdoor games

American flag cornhole game.
GoSports

- American Flag Cornhole Board $57 (Save 19 percent)
- Giant Four in a Row Game $30 (Save 6 percent)
- Giant Jenga Game $119 (Save 30 percent)

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How the Scientist Who Invented Ibuprofen Accidentally Discovered It Was Great for Hangovers

This man had too many dry martinis at a business lunch.
This man had too many dry martinis at a business lunch.
George Marks/Retrofile/Getty Images

When British pharmacologist Stewart Adams and his colleague John Nicholson began tinkering with various drug compounds in the 1950s, they were hoping to come up with a cure for rheumatoid arthritis—something with the anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin, but without the risk of allergic reaction or internal bleeding.

Though they never exactly cured rheumatoid arthritis, they did succeed in developing a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that greatly reduced pain of all kinds. In 1966, they patented their creation, which was first known as 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid and later renamed ibuprofen. While originally approved as a prescription drug in the UK, it soon became clear ibuprofen was safer and more effective than other pain relievers. It eventually hit the market as an over-the-counter medication.

During that time, Adams conducted one last impromptu experiment with the drug, which took place far outside the lab and involved only a single participant: himself.

In 1971, Adams arrived in Moscow to speak at a pharmacology conference and spent the night before his scheduled appearance tossing back shots of vodka at a reception with the other attendees. When he awoke the next morning, he was greeted with a hammering headache. So, as Smithsonian.com reports, Adams tossed back 600 milligrams of ibuprofen.

“That was testing the drug in anger, if you like,” Adams told The Telegraph in 2007. “But I hoped it really could work magic.”

As anyone who has ever been in that situation can probably predict, the ibuprofen did work magic on Adams’s hangover. After that, according to The Washington Post, the pharmaceutical company Adams worked for began promoting the drug as a general painkiller, and people started to stumble upon its use as a miracle hangover cure.

“It's funny now,” Adams told The Telegraph. “But over the years so many people have told me that ibuprofen really works for them, and did I know it was so good for hangovers? Of course, I had to admit I did.”

[h/t Smithsonian.com]