42 Amazing Facts About Dogs

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fongleon356/iStock via Getty Images

Does this even need an introduction? It's cool facts about dogs, so you're already sold. Cuddle up with your best friend (or borrow a best friend's best friend) and detox from the world with interesting items about the animal that American humorist Josh Billings called "the only thing on Earth that loves you more than you love yourself."

1. DOGS LICK PEOPLE AND OTHER DOGS FOR A VARIETY OF REASONS.

A small dog licks the nose of a woman while lying in bed.
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Puppies will lick their mothers or owners as a sign of affection or to indicate that they're hungry. As adults, licking becomes a sign of submission to an authority figure. So if your dog licks you, they're probably trying to let you know that they want something—probably food and/or attention.

2. Licking ALSO MAKES dogs FEEL BETTER.

Licking your face releases endorphins that calm and relieve your dog's stress. But if a dog is constantly licking itself, they might be bored or have a skin problem you need to have checked out by a vet.

3. DOGS CIRCLE UP BEFORE LYING DOWN ON INSTINCT.

If we spun around three times before taking a nap it would seem like a waste of time or adherence to ancient superstition, but for dogs it's a matter of old habits dying hard. Dogs do it as a behavior evolved from their wild ancestors. Their nightly routine entailed (ahem) pushing down tall grass which scared off bugs or snakes while forming a small bed. Turns out spinning achieves a lot.

4. YOU SHOULd NEVER LEAVE YOUR DOG ALONE IN A CAR.

According to the American Kennel Club, a dog should never be left alone in a car—with no exceptions. Not only will your dog miss you but, according to Bright Side, the temperature inside cars increases rapidly regardless of whether or not the car is parked directly in sunlight, and dogs overheat extremely easily!

5. PUPPIES ARE FUNCTIONALLY BLIND AND DEAF AT BIRTH.

On day one, a puppy's eyes are firmly shut and their ear canals closed. Why? In brief, it’s part of an evolutionary trade-off. Since pregnancy can hurt a carnivore's ability to chase down food, dogs evolved to have short gestation periods. Brief pregnancies meant that canine mothers wouldn't need to take prolonged breaks from hunting. However, because dog embryos spend such a short time in the womb (only two months or so), puppies aren't born fully developed—and neither are their eyes or ears.

6. dogs understand the power of "puppy eyes."

A black and white dog's head resting on a dining table, its eyes looking up.
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According to a study from 2017, dogs raise their eyebrows (to make “puppy eyes”) and make other dramatic facial expressions when they know humans are watching. Shelter dogs have learned this trick, too; pups who employ the puppy eyes trick tend to get adopted more quickly than dogs that show other behaviors, like wagging their tails.

7. DOGS IMPROVE YOUR ATTITUDE.

That feeling of happiness you get while watching a bunch of puppies fall all over each other is genuine. Studies have found that spending time with dogs, especially in high-stress situations, can ease tension in humans. They can also lower your blood pressure (and they like going on walks, which helps you, too).

8. ONE OF THE MOST EXPENSIVE BREEDS HAS BEEN POPULAR SINCE THE RENAISSANCE.

Löwchens are a petite, long-haired dog that have been a popular breed since the Renaissance, and even showed up in some paintings from that period. As they're rare today, a Löwchen will cost you around $10,000 in some parts of the world.

9. DOGS CAN UNDERSTAND UP TO 250 WORDS AND GESTURES.

Young girl talking to her dog
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The average dog is estimated to be as intelligent as a 2-year-old child.

10. A WET NOSE being a sign of a dog's good health is a myth.

It's a common misconception that your dog’s wet nose is a sign of good health, but the real reason for the moisture on Fido’s nose is a little murkier. One explanation is that dogs repeatedly lick their nose throughout the day to keep it clean. Another is that the moisture helps them cool off. Dogs don’t sweat the way humans do, so they pant and let off extra heat through their noses. A special gland in the nose produces a clear fluid that helps them cool down faster.

11. dogs KNOW HOW YOU FEEL.

A red-haired woman holds a sleepy black Dachshund dog.
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Dogs can read your mood. A 2016 study from the universities of Lincoln and Sao Paolo found that dogs can read and respond to the emotions on human faces, even in photographs.

12. dogs have an amazing sense of smell.

A dog can smell anywhere from 10,000 to 100,000 times better than the average human. Canines have 300 million olfactory receptors, compared to our measly 6 million. Moreover, the part of the brain dedicated to smell is 40 times larger in dogs than in humans.

13. dogs BREATHE DIFFERENTLY than humans.

While people breathe in and out the same way, canines breathe in through their nostrils and out through the slits found on the sides of the nose. This system circulates air so that the animal is always bringing in new smells. Breeds like the bloodhound also have the advantage of floppy ears that push up new smells.

14. DOGS GET JEALOUS.

Anyone with two dogs will probably tell you that dogs definitely feel jealousy—and it’s true! A 2014 study confirmed that your pet gets a little miffed when you start petting other dogs on the side.

15. THEIR FEET MIGHT SMELL LIKE POPCORN.

If you think your dog’s feet smell like popcorn or corn chips, you’re not alone! Dogs have a lot of bacteria and yeast that grow on their paws as a result of moisture that gets caught in the many folds and pockets between their toes. These microorganisms create a variety of smells. The bacteria Proteus or Pseudomonas are the likely parties guilty of giving your hound’s feet that distinct tortilla smell. There’s no need to go wash your pet’s paws just yet, though—a subtle smell is completely normal.

16. GUIDE DOGS DO THEIR BUSINESS ON COMMAND.

A black and red sign that says
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Guide dogs are extremely well trained and only go to the bathroom on command. Usually the owner will have a specific spot for the hound and use a command word like, “go time” or, “do your business,” so they’ll know when and where to clean up.

17. DOG NAMES HAVE CHANGED A LOT THROUGHOUT THE YEARS.

In 2018, the most common dog names were Bella, Coco, Charlie, Lucy, Becks, and Max. If you’re curious about how much dog name trends change, here are some popular ones from Medieval times: Blawnche, Nosewise, Smylfeste, Bragge, Holdfast, Zaphyro, Zalbot, Mopsus, and Mopsulus.

18. DOGS DIG TO BEAT THE HEAT.

A Dalmation dog digs a hole in the san on a beach
iStock/boschettophotography

When stuck on an open lawn with little to no shade, unearthing a fresh layer of dirt untouched by the sun is a quick way to cool down.

19. DOGS ALSO DIG TO HIDE THEIR STUFF.

Imagine your dog gets bored with chewing his favorite bone but knows he wants to come back for it later. Instead of leaving it out in the open where anyone can snatch it up, he decides to bury it in a secret place where only he'll be able to find it. Whether or not he'll actually go back for it is a different story. Note: If your dog Smylfeste's motive for digging is more destructive than practical, he may have an energy problem.

20. DOGS BOW TO SIGNAL ATTACK PRACTICE.

Wondering why dogs bow? In many cases, it serves an important evolutionary function. A prime example is the play bow: If you've ever seen a dog crouch forward with its elbows on the ground and its rear end in the air, wagging tail and all, then you know what it is. The position is the ultimate sign of playfulness, which is important for a species that often uses playtime as practice for attacking prey.

21. SEVERAL dog BREEDS ARE CAT-FRIENDLY.

A grey kitten sleeps in the paws of a Golden Retriever dog.
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If you’re a cat owner looking for a dog that won’t fight with your feline, look for one of these breeds: Japanese Chins, Golden Retrievers, Papillons, Labrador Retrievers, and Beagles. Of course, every dog has its own personality—so just being one of the above breeds doesn't guarantee that Fido and Fluffy will become instant BFFs.

22. LABRADOR RETRIEVERS ARE THE MOST POPULAR PUREBRED DOGS IN AMERICA

According to the American Kennel Club’s official list, labrador retrievers, German shepherds, and golden retrievers have been the most popular purebred dogs, in that order, since at least 2014. Labs have taken the top spot in the organization's rankings of most popular breeds for 24 consecutive years—the longest reign of any breed in AKC history.

Coming in at spots 4 and 5 for 2018 were French bulldogs and bulldogs. Anecdotal evidence suggests that mutts are pretty popular, too.

23. THE NAME BEAGLE could HELP EXPLAIN THEIR LOUD BARK.

The word Beagle most likely comes from the French word begueule, which means “open throat.” The name is pretty accurate: Beagles have impressive vocal cords that are much fuller and louder than those of other dogs. Beagles are so talented at vocalizing, they do so in three different ways: There’s the standard bark for everyday things, like the doorbell or getting a new treat. Then there’s baying, which sounds a lot like doggy yodeling. This throaty yowl is used on the hunt to alert fellow dogs that they've picked up an interesting scent. Finally, there's the forlorn howl. Beagles will howl if they are sad, bored—or if others are howling first.

24. HUNTERS IN THE MIDDLE AGES HAD TINY BEAGLES.

A beagle puppy against a blue background
iStock/Sreborn

Hunters in the 13th century employed pocket beagles, which are exactly as tiny and adorable as they sound. These miniature pups were only about 8 to 9 inches tall. Today, beagles are about 13 to 15 inches tall.

25. FRENCH BULLDOGS CAN'T DOGGY PADDLE.

French bulldogs’ origins are murky, but most sources trace their roots to English bulldogs. Lace makers in England were drawn to the toy version of the dog and would use the smaller pups as lap warmers while they worked. When the lace industry moved to France, they took their dogs with them. There, the English bulldogs probably bred with terriers to create bouledogues français, or French bulldogs.

As a result of their squat frame and bulbous head, French bulldogs can’t swim, so pool owners should keep a watchful eye on their pups.

26. HOT DOGS ARE NAMED AFTER WEINER DOGS, NOT THE OTHER WAY AROUND.

A Dachshund in a hot dog costume.
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The deli product hawked by street vendors was originally known as a dachshund sausage because it resembled the short-legged hound. How the name switched is up for debate, but some believe the name was shortened to hot dog when a befuddled cartoonist could not spell the original name.

27. DOG TAILS HAVE THEIR OWN LANGUAGE.

A dog’s tail can tell you a lot about how they are feeling. A loose wag from side to side means the dog feels relaxed and content. More fervent wagging with hip movements means the dog is happy or saying hello to a loved one. If the tail is straight up, it is a sign of confidence or aggression; down and curled between the legs usually means fear or submission.

28. TESTING DOG INTELLIGENCE IS BASED ON LEARNING NEW COMMANDS QUICKLY.

Border collies, poodle, and German shepherds are considered to be among the smartest breeds of dog. To be placed in the top tier of intelligence, breeds must understand a new command after only five repetitions and follow the first command given to them 95 percent of the time.

29. SOME DOGS WILL LOOK LIKE PUPPIES THEIR WHOLE LIVES.

Although rare, some dogs can have pituitary dwarfism, just like humans. As a result, the dogs are puppy-like forever, keeping their puppy fur and staying small in stature. While this condition makes them look like adorable teddy bears, it comes with a whole slew of health problems.

30. SOME DOGS CAN HOLD EGGS IN THEIR MOUTHS WITHOUT BREAKING THEM.

A yellow Labrador Retriever lying in a field of wheat.
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Golden Retrievers have “soft mouths,” meaning they can carry things in their chops without damaging them—an important skill for canines tasked with retrieving their masters' hunting trophies. They’re so gentle, in fact, that some can be trained to hold a raw egg in their mouths without breaking it.

31. DOGS SMELL Each others' BUTTS TO LEARN ABOUT THEIR NEW ACQUAINTANCES.

Dogs sniff rear ends as their way of asking, “Who are you and how have you been?” Canines can find out a whole slew of information from just a whiff. The secretions released by glands in the rump tell other animals things like the dog’s gender, diet, and mood. It’s sort of like talking with chemicals.

32. LABRADOR RETRIEVERS AREN'T FROM LABRADOR.

They actually come from Newfoundland. In the 18th century, Greater Newfoundland dogs bred with smaller water dogs to produce St. John’s water dogs. These smaller canines looked a lot like modern day Labs, but with white muzzles and paws. The St. John’s water dog eventually went extinct, but it served as the ancestor for the Labrador retriever.

33. YOU CAN GET ALL FLAVORS OF LAB FROM ANY FLAVOR OF LAB PARENTS.

Regardless of the parents’ color, a single litter of Labs can include black, yellow, and chocolate puppies. There are two genes that cause the pigmentation of the coat, so the variation can be just as common as different hair colors in a human family.

34. CORGIS ARE GREAT FOR HERDING CATTLE.

A Corgi runs toward the camera.
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The Welsh used the short dogs as herders as early as the 10th century. In those days, pastures were considered common land, so there were no fences. In order to keep a farmer’s cattle together and separated from other herds, corgis would nip at their legs to herd them. Because of their closeness to the ground, corgis had easy access to the cows’ ankles and were difficult targets of the retaliatory kicks of cattle.

35. DOGS HAVE LEFT- OR RIGHT-DOMINANT PAWS—JUST LIKE HUMANS.

They also have different blood types, and they can get laryngitis from barking continuously.

36. DOG'S MOUTHS AREN'T "CLEAN."

A common myth is that a dog’s mouth is a magically clean place. This is not the case: A canine mouth is brimming with bacteria. Fortunately, a lot of those germs are specific to the species so you don’t have to worry when your pup goes in for a wet kiss. That said, there are some similar bacteria, so make sure your pet has up-to-date shots.

37. DOGS HAVE DREAMS.

Smaller dogs also tend to dream more than larger dogs, and older dogs more than midlife dogs.

38. WE'RE LEAVING A LOT TO OUR DOGS.

An estimated 1 million dogs in the U.S. have been named primary beneficiary in their owner's wills. (Humans are still in charge of the money, though.)

39. THERE IS A DOG WITH SIX TOES.

A Lundehund standing on green grass.
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Meet the Lundehund—which translates literally to puffin dog—has six toes on each foot. They're helpful for climbing the jagged, slippery rocks were puffins like to make their homes.

40. BLOODHOUNDS ARE THE MOST SKILLED SMELLERS.

A bloodhound’s sense of smell is the strongest among any dog breed. In fact, a bloodhound’s sense of smell is so strong and impressive that it's admissible as evidence in a court of law.

41. THE LABRADOODLE'S BREEDER THINKS IT WAS A MISTAKE TO CREATE THEM.

Sad Labradoodle dog.
dmbaker/iStock via Getty Images

In 2019, Wally Conron —the 90-year-old dog breeder who developed the Labradoodle— said that creating the designer dog breed was his "life's regret." "I opened a Pandora's box and released a Frankenstein['s] monster," he added. We'll add: An adorable, playful Frankenstein's monster.

42. RATES OF EUTHANASIA ARE DOWN.

In 2019, The New York Times examined data from shelters in 20 major American cities and discovered that rates of euthanasia—the practice of terminating the life of animals, often by lethal injection—has dropped by an average of 75 percent in recent years. In Houston, for example, 57 percent of animals brought into shelters in 2012 were put down. In 2018, that number dropped to just 15 percent. In Philadelphia, the rate decreased from 36 percent to 13 percent in the same timeframe. Phoenix went from 46 percent to just 4 percent. Other cities, including Los Angeles and New York, demonstrated similar declines.

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11 Things You Might Not Know About Reindeer

Britain's only herd of free-ranging reindeer live in Scotland’s Cairngorms National Park.
Britain's only herd of free-ranging reindeer live in Scotland’s Cairngorms National Park.
Joe Green, Unsplash

Beyond their sled-pulling capabilities and discrimination against those with red noses, what do you really know about reindeer?

1. Reindeer and caribou are the same thing.

Historically, the Eurasian reindeer and American caribou were considered to be different species, but they are actually one and the same: Rangifer tarandus. There are two major groups of reindeer, the tundra and the woodland, which are divided according to the type of habitat the animal lives in, not their global location. The animals are further divided into nine to 13 subspecies, depending on who is doing the classification. One subspecies, the Arctic reindeer of eastern Greenland, is extinct.

2. Reindeer have several names.

Reindeer comes from the Old Norse word hreinin, which means "horned animal.” Caribou comes from Canadian French and is based on the Mi'kmaq word caliboo, meaning “pawer” or "scratcher," in reference to the animal’s habit of digging through the snow for food.

3. Santa’s reindeer are most likely R. tarandus platyrhynchus, a subspecies from Svalbard.

pum_eva/iStock via Getty Images

Clement C. Moore’s poem, "A Visit from Saint Nicholas,” introduced the world to Santa’s reindeer and describes them as "tiny." The only reindeer that could really be considered tiny are the Svalbard subspecies, which weighs about half as much as most reindeer subspecies and are at least a foot shorter in length. That may prove useful when landing on roofs.

Strangely, you’ll almost never see these guys in depictions of Santa. Live-action films usually use full-sized reindeer and animations usually draw the creatures as a cross between a white-tailed deer and a reindeer.

4. It’s not always easy to tell the sex of a reindeer.

In most deer species, only the male grows antlers, but that’s not true for most reindeer. Although the females in certain populations do not have antlers, many do. During certain times of year, you can still tell the sex of a reindeer by checking for antlers. That’s because males lose their antlers in winter or spring, but females shed theirs in the summer.

5. Santa’s reindeer may or may not be female.

Since reindeer shed their antlers at different points of the year based on their sex and age, we know that Santa’s reindeer probably aren't older males, because older male reindeer lose their antlers in December and Christmas reindeer are always depicted with their antlers. Female Svalbard deer begin growing their antlers in summer and keep them all year. That means Santa’s sled either has to be pulled by young reindeer, constantly replaced as they start to age, or Santa’s reindeer are female.

6. Reindeer were originally connected to Santa through poetry.

Before Moore wrote “A Visit from Saint Nicholas” (a.k.a. “The Night Before Christmas”) in 1823, no one thought about reindeer in conjunction with Santa Claus. Moore introduced the world to Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Dunder and Blixem (the last two of which were later changed from Dutch to German, becoming Donner and Blitzen). While the first six names all make sense in English, the last two in German mean “thunder” and “flash,” respectively.

As for little Rudolph, he wasn’t introduced until catalog writer Robert L. May wrote a children’s book in verse for his employer, Montgomery Ward, in 1939 titled “Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer.”

7. Reindeer are the only mammals that can see ultraviolet light.

Humans can see light in a range of wavelengths, from about 700 nanometers (in the red spectrum) to 400 nanometers (in the violet spectrum). Reindeer can see light to 320 nanometers, in the ultraviolet (UV) range. This ability lets reindeer see things in the icy white of the Arctic that they would otherwise miss—kind of like viewing the glow of a white object under a blacklight. Things like white fur and urine are difficult, even impossible, for humans to see in the snow, but for reindeer, they show up in high contrast.

8. Reindeer evolved for life in cold, harsh environments.

Geoffrey Reynaud/iStock via Getty Images

Life in the tundra is hard, but reindeer have it easy-ish thanks to their amazing evolutionary enhancements. Their noses are specially adapted to warm the air they breathe before it enters their lungs and to condense water in the air, which keeps their mucous membranes moist. Their fur traps air, which not only helps provide them with excellent insulation, but also keeps them buoyant in water, which is important for traveling across massive rivers and lakes during migration.

Even their hooves are special. In the summer, when the ground is wet, their foot pads are softened, providing them with extra grip. In the winter, though, the pads tighten, revealing the rim of their hooves, which is used to provide traction in the slippery snow and ice.

9. some reindeer migrate longer distances than any other land mammal.

A few populations of North American reindeer travel up to 3100 miles per year, covering around 23 miles per day. At their top speed, these reindeer can run 50 mph and swim at 6.2 mph. During spring, herd size can range from 50,000 to 500,000 individuals, but during the winter the groups are much smaller, when reindeer enter mating season and competition between the bucks begins to split up the crowds. Like many herd animals, the calves learn to walk fast—within only 90 minutes of being born, a baby reindeer can already run.

10. Reindeer play an important role in Indigenous cultures.

In Scandinavia and Canada, reindeer hunting helped keep Indigenous peoples alive, from the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods all the way through modern times. In Norway, it is still common to find reindeer trapping pits, guiding fences, and bow rests dating from the Stone Age. And in Scandinavia, reindeer is still a popular meat, sold in grocery stores in fresh, canned, and dried forms. Almost all of the animal’s organs are edible and many are crucial ingredients of traditional dishes in the area. In North America, Inuit rely on caribou for traditional food, clothing, shelter, and tools.

11. Reindeer used to live farther south.

Reindeer now live exclusively in the northern points of the globe, but when Earth was cooler and humans were less of a threat, their territory was larger. In fact, reindeer used to range as far south as Nevada, Tennessee, and Spain during the Pleistocene area. Its habitat has shrunk considerably in the last few centuries. The last caribou in the contiguous United States was removed to a Canadian conservation breeding program in 2019.

As for how Santa's nine reindeer manage to fly while pulling a sled carrying presents for every child in the whole world, science still hasn’t worked that out.