13 Facts About Siamese Cats

iStock/chromatos
iStock/chromatos

As their name suggests, Siamese cats are descended from felines born in Siam, or modern-day Thailand. No one quite knows how the sleek feline made its way to American shores during the late 19th century. However, thanks to its sociable nature, lithe body, and dark-tipped creamy coat, the Siamese became one of the country's most beloved cat breeds.

Currently, it is the 12th most popular kitty in the U.S., according to registration statistics compiled by the Cat Fanciers’ Association (CFA). Curious to learn more? Impress ailurophiles with these 13 bits of trivia about the blue-eyed beauties.

1. THE SIAMESE IS AN OLD BREED.

Like most cat breeds, the Siamese’s true origins are cloaked in mystery. Some people say the cats were the pets of royalty, while others believe they were raised by Buddhist monks. However, a Thai manuscript called the Tamra Maew, or 'The Cat Book Poems,' provides an early depiction of the country's dark-pointed cats. The work was produced sometime between the 14th and 18th centuries. This suggests that the Siamese is a very old breed—even if we don't quite know where it came from.

2. A U.S. PRESIDENT OWNED A SIAMESE CAT.

Cat lovers brought the Siamese to America in the late 19th century, but there are mixed reports about when—and how—it traveled across the pond. Some say the Siamese first appeared in the U.S. courtesy of an American naval officer, who picked up two cats while on a tour of duty in Southeast Asia. Others claim an American friend of the King of Siam was given Siamese cats as a gift, or that renowned opera singer Blanche Arral brought them back to America after touring Siam. And from 1889-1890, a Chicago cat club lists several registered Siamese cats, one of which was "imported from Siam" by its founder.

But what really put Siamese cats on the map was when U.S. Consul David Stickles, a diplomat at the consulate in Bangkok, gave President Rutherford B. Hayes's wife Lucy a Siamese cat named Siam in the late 1870s. "I have taken the liberty of forwarding you one of the finest specimens of Siamese cats that I have been able to procure in this country," he wrote to the First Lady. "I am informed that it is the first attempt ever made to send a Siamese cat to America."

Sadly, Siam fell ill and died after less than a year in the White House. According to legend, the president's steward requested that the cat's body be preserved. However, no stuffed kitties were ever discovered, suggesting that the tale might be more fanciful than fact-based.

3. SIAMESE CATS SUPPOSEDLY MADE AN APPEARANCE AT THE WORLD'S FIRST MAJOR CAT SHOW.

According to some sources, Siamese cats were showcased at the world’s first major cat show, a national competition at London’s Crystal Palace in July 1871. The occasion reportedly marked the first time anyone in England had ever seen a Siamese cat. Harper’s Weekly described the exotic animals as “… soft, fawn-colored creatures, with jet-black legs—an unnatural, nightmare kind of cat, singular and elegant in their smooth skins, and ears tipped with black, and blue eyes with red pupils.”

However, other historians argue that the dark-tipped cats described by onlookers weren't true Siamese cats, and that the breed didn't make an appearance in England until much later. All parties, however, agree that British Consul-General Owen Gould brought two Siamese cats, Pho and Mia, from Thailand to London in 1894. The pair gave birth to kittens, and the cat family was displayed at the Crystal Palace cat show of 1895.

4. SIAMESE CATS ONCE HAD CROSSED EYES AND CROOKED TAILS.

Many Siamese cats once had kinked tails and crossed eyes. Cat fanciers viewed these traits as undesirable, and gradually eliminated them via selective breeding. However, these physical quirks were once the stuff of myth. According to legend, a Siamese cat was tasked with guarding a golden goblet for the king. Ever the loyal subject, the feline clutched the cup so hard with her tail that it bent, and stared at it for so long that her pupils lost focus.

Today, you'll occasionally still come across a cross-eyed Siamese, or one with a crooked tail. If you do, make sure to salute it for its honorable service.

5. THEY ALSO HAD STOCKIER BODIES AND ROUNDER FACES.

The Siamese originally had a heavier body, and a face that was more round than triangular. However, mid-20th century cat fanciers favored an exaggerated silhouette, and gradually bred the Siamese into the lean, fine-boned feline it is today. You’ll only see this new variety in cat shows, but some breeders continue to produce Siamese kittens with a more "traditional" look. The International Cat Association also accepts a new breed called the Thai, which looks like an old-school Siamese with its soft cheekbones and stocky frame.

6. THEIR TIPS ARE "TEMPERATURE-CONTROLLED."

Ever wondered why a Siamese cat has a white coat and dark-tipped paws, ears, and facial features? It stems from a temperature-sensitive enzyme, which causes the cat to develop the color on the cooler parts of its body and stay pale on its warmer torso. Siamese kittens are born with all-white fur, and develop their points when they’re several weeks old.

7. THEIR TIPS ALSO VARY IN COLOR.

Originally, cat fanciers' organizations only recognized Siamese cats with dark brown points, called Seal Points. Today, they accept a range of color points, include blue, chocolate, and lilac.

8. A SIAMESE WAS ONCE THE WORLD'S "FATTEST CAT."

The Guinness World Records doesn’t keep tabs on the world’s fattest living animals, since officials don’t want to encourage people to overfeed their pets. But a Siamese cat named Katy could have easily claimed the title in 2003. The five-year-old kitty hailed from Asbest, a Russian city in the Ural mountains. She was given hormones to stop her mating, which caused her to develop a voracious appetite. Katy ended up ballooning to 50 pounds, making her weigh a tad more than a six-year-old human. (The average male Siamese typically weighs between 11 and 15 pounds, and females between 8 and 12 pounds.)

It’s unclear whether Katy is still alive today, but one thing’s for sure: She tipped the scales way more than Elvis, a 7-year-old male cat from Germany that social media labeled “the world’s fattest cat” in 2015.

9. SIAMESE CATS HAVE SHINED ON THE SILVER SCREEN.

The 1965 film That Darn Cat! features Hayley Mills as a suburban teen named Patricia “Patti" Randall, but the movie's real star is Darn Cat, or "DC," a Siamese tomcat that helps Patti foil two robbers’ kidnapping plot.

DC was played by a Seal Point Siamese named Syn. He was left at an animal shelter at the age of two because he was “standoffish,” and an animal trainer adopted him for $5. The orphaned Syn became the first cat to win a PATSY Award, an honor granted to animal performers by the Hollywood office of the American Humane Association. (Due to a lack of funding, the PATSY Awards were discontinued in 1986.)

Siamese cats have also graced the silver screen in The Incredible Journey (1963) and Bell, Book and Candle (1958), and have appeared in animated form in Lady and the Tramp (1955).

10. SIAMESE CATS FOILED AN ESPIONAGE PLOT.

In the 1960s, two Siamese cats at the Dutch Embassy in Moscow, Russia, knew that something wasn't quite right. The pet kitties were asleep in then-ambassador Henri Helb's study when they suddenly woke up and began arching their backs and clawing at a wall. Helb suspected that the agitated felines heard a noise that didn't register with the human ear. He was correct: An investigation revealed 30 tiny microphones hidden behind the wall.

Instead of protesting the Russian government's espionage, Helb and his staff decided to use it to their advantage. They lingered in front of the microphones and strategically complained about delays in embassy repairs, or packages stuck in customs. Within 24 hours, these problems were "mysteriously" resolved.

11. A SIAMESE CAT ONCE GAVE BIRTH TO 19 KITTENS.


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On August 7, 1970, a Burmese/Siamese cat in Oxfordshire, U.K., gave birth to 19 kittens. (Sadly, four were stillborn.) According to Guinness World Records, Siamese cats typically only have four to six babies. The massive brood was recorded as the world's largest litter of domestic cats, and remains so to this day.

12. JAMES DEAN OWNED A SIAMESE CAT.

Shortly before his death in 1955, James Dean met Elizabeth Taylor on the set of the film Giant (1956). The co-stars became friends, and Taylor gave Dean a gift: a Siamese kitten, which Dean named Marcus after his uncle. Dean fed Marcus a strange diet, which Taylor had reportedly developed for her own cats: a liquid mixture that consisted of 1 teaspoon white Karo syrup, one large can of evaporated milk, one egg yolk, and equal parts boiled or distilled water—combined and chilled.

13. SIAMESE CATS HAVE A POETIC NAME IN THEIR NATIVE LAND.

In Thailand, Siamese cats are called the wichien-matt, which is roughly translated to “Moon Diamond.”

Additional Source: The Cat Encyclopedia: The Definitive Visual Guide

This article originally appeared in 2016.

10 of the Most Popular Portable Bluetooth Speakers on Amazon

Altech/Bose/JBL/Amazon
Altech/Bose/JBL/Amazon

As convenient as smartphones and tablets are, they don’t necessarily offer the best sound quality. But a well-built portable speaker can fill that need. And whether you’re looking for a speaker to use in the shower or a device to take on a long camping trip, these bestselling models from Amazon have you covered.

1. OontZ Angle 3 Bluetooth Portable Speaker; $26-$30 (4.4 stars)

Oontz portable bluetooth speaker
Cambridge Soundworks/Amazon

Of the 57,000-plus reviews that users have left for this speaker on Amazon, 72 percent of them are five stars. So it should come as no surprise that this is currently the best-selling portable Bluetooth speaker on the site. It comes in eight different colors and can play for up to 14 hours straight after a full charge. Plus, it’s splash proof, making it a perfect speaker for the shower, beach, or pool.

Buy it: Amazon

2. JBL Charge 3 Waterproof Portable Bluetooth Speaker; $110 (4.6 stars)

JBL portable bluetooth speaker
JBL/Amazon

This nifty speaker can connect with up to three devices at one time, so you and your friends can take turns sharing your favorite music. Its built-in battery can play music for up to 20 hours, and it can even charge smartphones and tablets via USB.

Buy it: Amazon

3. Anker Soundcore Bluetooth Speaker; $25-$28 (4.6 stars)

Anker portable bluetooth speaker
Anker/Amazon

This speaker boasts 24-hour battery life and a strong Bluetooth connection within a 66-foot radius. It also comes with a built-in microphone so you can easily take calls over speakerphone.

Buy it: Amazon

4. Bose SoundLink Color Bluetooth Speaker; $129 (4.4 stars)

Bose portable bluetooth speaker
Bose/Amazon

Bose is well-known for building user-friendly products that offer excellent sound quality. This portable speaker lets you connect to the Bose app, which makes it easier to switch between devices and personalize your settings. It’s also water-resistant, making it durable enough to handle a day at the pool or beach.

Buy it: Amazon

5. DOSS Soundbox Touch Portable Wireless Bluetooth Speaker; $28-$33 (4.4 stars)

DOSS portable bluetooth speaker
DOSS/Amazon

This portable speaker features an elegant system of touch controls that lets you easily switch between three methods of playing audio—Bluetooth, Micro SD, or auxiliary input. It can play for up to 20 hours after a full charge.

Buy it: Amazon

6. Altec Lansing Mini Wireless Bluetooth Speaker; $15-$20 (4.3 stars)

Altec Lansing portable bluetooth speaker
Altec Lansing/Amazon

This lightweight speaker is built for the outdoors. With its certified IP67 rating—meaning that it’s fully waterproof, shockproof, and dust proof—it’s durable enough to withstand harsh environments. Plus, it comes with a carabiner that can attach to a backpack or belt loop.

Buy it: Amazon

7. Tribit XSound Go Bluetooth Speaker; $33-$38 (4.6 stars)

Tribit portable bluetooth speaker
Tribit/Amazon

Tribit’s portable Bluetooth speaker weighs less than a pound and is fully waterproof and resistant to scratches and drops. It also comes with a tear-resistant strap for easy transportation, and the rechargeable battery can handle up to 24 hours of continuous use after a full charge. In 2020, it was Wirecutter's pick as the best budget portable Bluetooth speaker on the market.

Buy it: Amazon

8. VicTsing SoundHot C6 Portable Bluetooth Speaker; $18 (4.3 stars)

VicTsing portable bluetooth speaker
VicTsing/Amazon

The SoundHot portable Bluetooth speaker is designed for convenience wherever you go. It comes with a detachable suction cup and a carabiner so you can keep it secure while you’re showering, kayaking, or hiking, to name just a few.

Buy it: Amazon

9. AOMAIS Sport II Portable Wireless Bluetooth Speaker; $30 (4.4 stars)

AOMAIS portable bluetooth speaker
AOMAIS/Amazon

This portable speaker is certified to handle deep waters and harsh weather, making it perfect for your next big adventure. It can play for up to 15 hours on a full charge and offers a stable Bluetooth connection within a 100-foot radius.

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10. XLEADER SoundAngel Touch Bluetooth Speaker; $19-$23 (4.4 stars)

XLeader portable bluetooth speaker
XLEADER/Amazon

This stylish device is available in black, silver, gold, and rose gold. Plus, it’s equipped with Bluetooth 5.0, a more powerful technology that can pair with devices up to 800 feet away. The SoundAngel speaker itself isn’t water-resistant, but it comes with a waterproof case for protection in less-than-ideal conditions.

Buy it: Amazon

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

10 Facts About Argentine Ants

A pile of genetically-related Argentine ants
A pile of genetically-related Argentine ants
Marc Matteo, Flickr // CC BY-NC 2.0

A supercolony of invasive Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) stretches for 560 miles beneath California, from San Diego to San Francisco. The billions of Argentine ants are unlike other ants in many ways—and they are virtually indestructible. Along with their supercolonies in Europe, Japan, and Australia, L. humile’s global domination is rivaled only by that of human beings. Here’s what you should know about these prolific pests.

1. Argentine ant colonies are ruled by hundreds of queens.

Most ant colonies revolve around a single queen. Growing much larger than the worker drones, she is programmed to mate as quickly as possible, then to leave her nest of origin and establish a new one. In some species, a single queen can lay millions of eggs in a lifetime, producing an army of worker drones and future queens who will go off to build their own nests. But unlike most ants, Argentines are polygynous: Each nest contains multiple queens. In some, they can form up to 30 percent of the population.

2. Argentine ants move their nests frequently.

Nest types vary from ant species to ant species, but those who live in soil commonly dig tunnels and chambers deep into the earth that will protect the colony throughout the life of the queen. L. humile, though, is transient and ever shifting. Argentine ants frequently pack up their eggs and move the entire colony, queen and all, to a new nest, even when there is no apparent threat. Biologist Deborah Gordon told Ars Technica that the ants typically have 20 to 30 shallow nests at any one time, which can be built up in a matter of just weeks.

3. Argentine ants traveled the U.S. before settling down in California.

Argentine ants arrived in the United States from Northern Argentina in the late 19th century, when the first recorded Argentine ant was found in Louisiana in 1891. Researchers believe that the ants hitched a ride to North America in Argentinian shipments of coffee or sugar off-loaded at the Port of New Orleans. From there, they traveled—most likely by train—across the South and into California. Enticed by the Mediterranean climate, one similar to that of its original home in South America, the ants set up shop. By 1907, they’d displaced local native ants and begun their first steps towards total soil domination along 560 miles of California coastline.

4. California’s Argentine ants are more laid-back than their South American cousins.

In side-by-side comparisons of Argentine ants from their South American homeland and California, researchers have found that those from the West Coast are far more mellow than those from Argentina. In studies, it was typical for two ants from different nests to fight when placed in the same vial in Argentina, but in California, ants from different nests rarely fought, even when they were collected from locations several hundred miles apart.

A DNA study of ants from both locations in 2000 revealed a stark difference. In the ants from Argentina, microsatellites—short, uniquely patterned DNA sequences passed down from generation to generation—had more than twice as much variation as the microsatellites of the Californian ants. When two individuals from different nests in California were placed together, they recognized one another as family. The ants from Argentina didn’t, making them more likely to display territorial aggression.

The difference is rooted in the genetic bottleneck the ants encountered on their arrival to the Golden State over a century ago. According to biologist Neil D. Tsutsui, who conducted the DNA study, the ants in California today are all descendants of that founding colony. “It would be as if all of the people in the United States were descended from the Pilgrims who came here in 1620,” he told the Stanford Report in 2004. Instead of competing with one another, generation after generation has worked together to take out native ants and build an immense California colony.

5. Argentine ants protect other insects in exchange for sweet, sweet honeydew.

Argentine ants
Two Argentine ants share a tiny blob of honeydew.
Davefoc, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 4.0

Argentine ants love to feed on sweet nectar, but flowers and suburban kitchens aren’t the only source of such desirable foodstuffs. Insects that feed on plant sap, like mealybugs, scales, and aphids, naturally excrete sugar-rich liquid “honeydew” from their butts. To secure a steady flow of the sticky-sweet substance, Argentine ants will fight off the predators of their insect chefs, including soldier beetles and midges. They’ll even relocate their honeydew producers to better food sources or microclimates to get the most they can out of their anal secretions.

6. The California Argetine ant supercolony is one-sixth the size of Southern Europe’s.

The California supercolony, which scientists have named the “Californian large,” is only the second-biggest conglomeration of Argentine ants in the world. The biggest colony is found along Southern Europe’s Mediterranean coast, where it stretches 3700 miles from northern Italy to the Atlantic coast of Spain. The ants, introduced around 80 years ago, now number in the billions. Smaller supercolonies also exist in Japan and Australia.

7. Argentine ants are second only to humans in their scale of world domination.

In 2009, researchers discovered that Argentine ants from three of the world’s largest supercolonies (Southern Europe, California, and Japan) are so closely related that they actually form a single mega-colony. The study, led by Eriki Sunamura from the University of Tokyo, found that when placed together, ants from the three supercolonies refused to fight. Instead, they rubbed antennae in greeting the way L. humile does when interacting with genetically-related individuals.

The researchers believe that the Argentine ant mega-colony isn’t just the largest insect colony ever identified; it rivals that of human colonization around the globe. Presenting their findings in the journal Insect Sociaux, they wrote, “the enormous extent of this population is paralleled only by human society.”

8. A mass execution of Argentine ant queens takes place every spring.

Each spring, just before mating season begins, worker ants go on a killing rampage and assassinate 90 percent of their queens. Entomologists aren’t sure exactly why the large-scale execution occurs, but one hypothesis, published in the Journal of Evolutionary Biology in 2001, suggests that it is a “spiteful behavior” to kill the queens that are less related, on average, to the workers.

In their study, researchers from the University of Lausanne hypothesized that Argentine ants are regularly separated from direct family members through free exchange among the nests. Before mating season begins each year, those that are genetically related band together to kill more distantly related queens. Doing so decreases the nest’s genetic diversity and allows it to be rebuilt with a queen who is directly related to the greatest majority of workers.

The study’s results were inconclusive and the question remained unanswered, yet researchers learned something unexpected in the process. Instead of finding genetic diversity among worker ants, those belonging to each nest were actually a homogenous population. Only the queens were genetic outliers with relatively few familial relationships in each nest.

9. Climate change is making Argentine ants more of a nuisance to humans.

Argentine ants thrive in a Mediterranean climate where winters are cool and wet and summers are warm and dry. When conditions are ideal, they largely keep to themselves, but when conditions are drought-like or extremely wet, the ants move indoors in search of more hospitable climes. Experts at survival, Argentine ants can find food or water that’s been left unguarded in just minutes.

With the climate crisis, conditions in California are becoming more extreme. Hot days, no longer relegated just to the summer months, are becoming more numerous and prolonged. Droughts are becoming more frequent. While these changes are unlikely to harm much of the California supercolony, they are likely to drive the residents of urban nests more frequently into people's homes, making the ants a major nuisance for residents from San Diego to San Francisco.

10. Argentine ants are almost impossible to eradicate.

Individual Argentine ants are easy enough to kill, but an Argentine ant colony is a different story. The California colony has no natural predators and, thanks to their high levels of cooperation and massive numbers, L. humile has effectively destroyed possible competitors and disrupted the ecological balance of native species in the process. Insecticides, which are unable to penetrate into the underground nests, aren’t particularly effective. And because the ants can pick up and move their entire nest so quickly, neither are household control measures such as ant bait. After just over a century in California, Argentine ants are now virtually invincible.