15 Astonishing Facts About Bats

CreativeNature-nl/iStock via Getty Images
CreativeNature-nl/iStock via Getty Images

Roughly one in five mammal species is a bat. You may have heard of the famous vampire bats that feed on blood, but some lesser-known species use sonar to catch fish, scurry across the ground like mice, build their own tents, and even stick to sheer walls with suction cups. Let’s get face to face with some of the most bizarre bats in the world.

1. Some bats can stick to vertical walls.

If you want to attach something to a smooth vertical surface—a car window, maybe, or a slippery shower wall—you might use a suction cup. Disk-winged bats use them, too. They have special cups on their ankles and wrists that help them stick to smooth tropical leaves. This gives them a high, safe place to rest in the bustling tropical forest. Sucker-footed bats, meanwhile, hang on using wet adhesion—they ooze a liquid that helps them cling to a surface.

2. Some bats can catch fish.

Bat chasing an insect
Paul Colley/iStock via Gett Images

When bats hunt insects at night, they find their prey with an amazing sonar-like ability called echolocation—they make sounds that bounce off objects, then listen to the echoes for clues about what’s ahead. But the greater bulldog bat, which is named for its dog-like face, uses this sonar to catch fish. Flying above the water, it senses telltale ripples caused by the underwater movements of its prey. It skims the surface with its large feet and swiftly snatches a slippery meal. 

3. One species of bat weighs less than a penny.

Kitti’s hog-nosed bat is the world’s smallest bat—and, in fact, it’s in the running for the world’s smallest mammal. This animal is just a little over an inch (33 millimeters) long and weighs less than a penny. It’s also unique: its ancestors split off from other bats more than 40 million years ago. Kitti’s hog-nosed bat is native to Burma and Thailand, where it’s vulnerable to habitat destruction.

4. A few bats construct tents.

If you take a backwoods survival class, you’ll learn to build a shelter out of the natural material around you. And if you’re like most beginners, your first few shelters might fall down or let in too much rain. Shelter-building is a hard skill to master—but some bats have got it down. They gnaw the veins of a large tropical leaf, making it fold into a tent that protects them from rainfall and predators. One of these tent-making species is the Honduran white bat. A group of these animals snuggling under their tent looks like a pile of marshmallows.

5. Other bats crawl around on the ground.

When a New Zealand lesser short-tailed bat is hungry, it hits the ground. It folds its wings up tight and uses them as forelegs as it scurries, mouse-like, across the forest floor in search of a snack. This bat’s diet is very diverse—it will eat nectar, pollen, berries, insects, and more. 

6. Bats come in amazing patterns.

Bats aren’t just brown. The painted woolly bat of Southeast Asia is orange and black like a jack-o'-lantern. Indonesia’s stripe-faced fruit bat is also ready for Halloween with some spooky makeup. Then there’s the stunning pied bat; an inhabitant of central and western Africa, it has striking white blotches that make it look like a badger or a panda. These are just a few of the world’s many, many beautifully patterned bats.

7. The stylish bat has amazing hair (and ears).

Native to sub-Saharan Africa, Chapin’s free-tailed bat has a wicked hairstyle. Females sport a small tuft of fur that sticks up, but males have much larger crests that play a role in their courtship, and also just look cool.

8. Some bats sing love songs.

Move over, nightingales. The males of several bat species woo their mates with tunes that are every bit as complex as those of songbirds. For instance, to construct a proper song, a Brazilian free-tailed bat needs to follow certain rules and patterns, but like a great improvisational musician, he also adds his own special style that marks him as unique.

How do bats learn these complicated songs? They pick them up from their parents. The greater sac-winged bat of Central and South America hones its singing skills as a baby. Like human kids, young sac-winged bats babble as they try to copy their dads’ sounds.

9. This bat has a horse's head.

Bats have some truly bizarre faces, but one of the all-time weirdest belongs to the male hammer-headed fruit bat of equatorial Africa. Females of this species have a relatively ordinary foxlike head. But males have heads that are almost three times as large as a female’s. Their faces look even weirder from the front. Why that giant face and protruding lips? They help this bat make a unique honking call.

10. Some bats eat scorpions.

A smiling bat with huge ears
Charlotte Roemer, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0 

The desert long-eared bat chows down on scorpions—and doesn’t mind being stung in the face as it pounces on its prey. Native to parts of Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, this bat catches scorpions by attacking their heads. The scorpions vigorously defend themselves by stinging the bat on its face and body. Unperturbed, the bat dispatches its meals and carries them back to a roost. There, it gulps down every bit of a scorpion—even the stinger.

The desert long-eared bat isn’t fussy about which scorpion species it hunts. It’ll even chow down on the deathstalker, one of the few scorpions in the world whose sting is potentially deadly to humans.

11. Many bats pollinate flowers.

Bees are famous for pollinating crops, and they help us grow such familiar foods as apples, pumpkins, and macadamia nuts. But bats are pollinators, too. Those huge Saguaro cacti of the U.S. Southwest, for example, bloom in the evening to attract pollinating bats. And the agaves that give us tequila are also bat-pollinated; they make stinky flowers on tall stalks that open at night. Wild bananas rely on bats, too.

12. One bat's tongue is longer than its body.

The tube-lipped nectar bat’s tongue is 1.5 times the length of its body. This bat uses its monstrous tongue to reach tasty nectar that’s deep inside long-tubed flowers. When the tongue’s not in use, it’s stored in the bat’s chest, next to its heart.

13. Some bats are freakin' huge.

Two fruit bats
BirdHunter591/iStock via Getty Images

Certain fruit-eating bats have a wingspan of over 5 feet. One of the largest is the golden-capped fruit bat of the Philippines. Named for its shock of blond “hair,” it can weigh more than 2.5 pounds. It roosts in large numbers and dines on fruit such as figs. Deforestation and hunting, however, have put serious pressure on this batty behemoth.

14. Moths can jam a bat's sonar.

Many insect-eating bats use echolocation to hunt down their flying prey. But some moths fight back. They rub their genitals together to make sounds that interfere with a bat’s sonar. Confused, the hungry bats zero in on the wrong location and bite at empty air.

This acoustic warfare isn’t just limited to bats vs. moths. Researchers have found that Mexican free-tailed bats seem to jam each other’s signals when they’re competing for prey.

15. This bat's face doesn't even look like a face.

We’ve established that bats have weird faces. Some bats have yellow tube-shaped nostrils. Some look like their faces collapsed inward. Some are mostly made of ears. But let’s end this list with one of the most extraordinary-looking species. Bourret's horseshoe bat, which lives in Southeast Asia, has a face that suggests an origami project gone wrong. Why the long nose? It’s perfectly shaped to help focus the bat’s sonar.

Not-So-Fancy Feast: Your Cat Probably Would Eat Your Rotting Corpse

Tycson1/iStock via Getty Images
Tycson1/iStock via Getty Images

Cat enthusiasts often cite the warmth and companionship offered by their pet as reasons why they’re so enamored with them. Despite these and other positive attributes, cat lovers are often confronted with the spurious claim that, while their beloved furry pal might adore them when they’re alive, it won’t hesitate to devour their corpse if they should drop dead.

Though that’s often dismissed as negative cat propaganda spread by dog people, it turns out that it’s probably true. Fluffy might indeed feast on your flesh if you happened to expire.

A horrifying new case study published in the Journal of Forensic Sciences offers the fresh evidence. The paper, first reported by The Washington Post, documents how two cats reacted in the presence of a corpse at Colorado Mesa University’s Forensic Investigation Research Station, or body farm, where the deceased are used to further forensic science for criminal investigations.

The study’s authors did not orchestrate a meeting between cat and corpse. The finding happened by accident: Student and lead author Sara Garcia was scanning surveillance footage of the grounds when she noticed a pair of cats trespassing. The cats, she found, were interested in the flesh of two corpses; they gnawed on human tissue while it was still in the early stages of decomposition, stopping only when the bodies began leaching fluids.

The cats, which were putting away one corpse each, didn’t appear to have a taste for variety, as they both returned to the same corpse virtually every night. The two seemed to prefer the shoulder and arm over other body parts.

This visual evidence joins a litany of reports over the years from medical examiners, who have observed the damage left by both cats and dogs who were trapped in homes with deceased owners and proceeded to eat them. It’s believed pets do this when no other food source is available, though in some cases, eating their human has occurred even with a full food bowl. It’s something to consider the next time your cat gives you an affectionate lick on the arm. Maybe it loves you. Or maybe it has something else in mind.

[h/t The Washington Post]

7 Animals That Appear to Fly (Besides Birds, Bats, and Insects)

renacal1/iStock via Getty Images
renacal1/iStock via Getty Images

The only animals that can truly fly are birds, insects, and bats. Other animals manage to travel through the air by gliding from great heights or leaping from the depths. Here are a few.

1. Devil Rays

The devil rays, in the genus Mobula, are related to manta rays. Their wingspan can grow up to 17 feet wide, making them the second-largest group of rays after the mantas. These muscular fish can leap several feet out of the water, but no one is quite sure why they do it.

2. Colugos

These tree-dwelling gliders are sometimes called flying lemurs, but they're neither true lemurs nor do they fly. These mammals in the genus Cynocephalus are native to Southeast Asia and are about the size of a house cat. Colugos can glide up to 200 feet between trees using their patagium, or flaps of skin between their front and hind legs that extend to their tail and neck (colugos are even webbed between their toes). In the air, they can soar gracefully through the forest, but on the ground, they look like an animated pancake.

3. Flying Fish

Flying fish

There are about 40 different species of flying fish in the family Exocoetidae, although they don't fly so much as they leap from the water with a push of their powerful pectoral fins. Most of the species live in tropical waters. Fish have been observed skipping over the waves for as long as 45 seconds and 650 feet. Scientists suspect that flying fish leap into the air to escape predators.

4. Paradise Tree Snake

The paradise tree snake (Chrysopelea paradisi) lives in the rain forests of Southeast Asia. It glides from the treetops by flattening its body out to maximize surface area, wiggling from side to side to go in the desired direction. Though the idea of a flying snake may be terrifying, C. paradisi is not harmful to humans.

5. Flying Geckos

Flying geckos, a group of gliding lizards in the genus Gekko, live in the wet forests of Southeast Asia. In addition to patagia that let them parachute from tree branches, the geckos have remarkably mutable skin that camouflages them against tree trunks extremely well.

6. Wallace's Flying Frog

Wallace's flying frog (Rhacophorus nigropalmatus) is found in Malaysia and Indonesia. This frog has long webbed toes and a skin flap between its limbs which allows it to parachute—float downward at a steep angle—from the treetops. Although Wallace's flying frogs prefer to live in the forest canopy, they must descend to ground level to mate and lay eggs.

7. Flying Squirrels

Flying squirrels in the subfamily Sciurinae include dozens of species. They are native to North America and Eurasia. When it leaps from a tall tree, a flying squirrel will spread its patagium until it resembles a kite or parachute. The squirrel can steer by moving its wrists and adjusting the tautness of its skin.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER