11 of the Richest People in History

Coming up with a definitive list of the richest people of all time is almost impossible, thanks to the difficulties that arise with comparing different currencies and adjusting for inflation over thousands of years. But these 11 men were up there in the 0.001 percent of their time—and they were all just a little bit bonkers.

1. Jakob Fugger, March 6, 1459 – December 30, 1525

When a guy goes down in history with the nickname “The Rich,” you know he was the wealthiest person on the block. Jakob the Rich was a German merchant who made his fortune through textiles, mercury, and cinnamon. He was so minted that he loaned money to the Vatican, and held considerable control over the Holy Roman Empire. And Jakob’s business methods were so controversial that Martin Luther himself spoke out against him.

2. Marcus Licinius Crassus, ca. 115 BC – 53 BC

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Years before he ruled Rome with Julius Caesar as part of the first Triumvirate, Marcus Licinius Crassus found himself in political hot water, and his fortune was seized. Eventually he got a bit of his power back, but not his money—so he took to seizing the property of criminals who had been put to death. If no rich criminals were up for execution any time soon, he would accuse random rich guys—just to confiscate their stuff. Crassus believed in laws, but not when they applied to him; he is even reported to have seduced a Vestal Virgin, an act so taboo he should have been put to death. But Crassus managed to talk his way out of it.

3. Musa I, c. 1280 - c. 1337

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Musa, king of Mali in the early 1300s, decided one year to make the Islamic Hajj to Mecca. His journey required a retinue of 60,000 people in addition to 12,000 slaves. Everything that wasn’t actually covered in gold was transporting gold, and the entire group was reportedly carrying items worth over $400 billion in today’s money. Musa spent so much of his cash during his stopover in Egypt that it affected the national economy, and the country took years to recover.

4. Mir Osman Ali Khan, April 6, 1886 – February 24, 1967

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Ruler of an Indian state from 1911-48, the Khan was loaded. Time even put him on their cover in 1937, proclaiming him the richest man in the world. It wasn’t hard to see why: The Khan owned his own mint, where he literally printed himself money. But he also had access to more solid forms of wealth. He was a great collector of jewelry and precious stones, amassing a collection that make Elizabeth Taylor’s famous gems look like Cracker Jack prizes. One notable stone was the Jacob diamond, believed to be the seventh largest in the word, and recently valued at $150 million. The Khan used it as a paperweight.

5. Heshen, 1746 – February 22, 1799

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Heshen has the dubious honor of being remembered as the Chinese court's most corrupt official. Noticed by the Emperor at age 25, within a few years Heshen was given control of all of the country’s finances, and he used them to make himself rich: he amassed a huge art collection, thousands of priceless jewels and literally thousands of barrels full of gold and silver pieces. He stored all of this stuff in his numerous houses; between them, he had more than 3000 rooms.

6. Alan Rufus, c. 1040 – 1093

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When a Norman named William was getting ready to launch an attack on England, he needed some good men to help him. It must not have been easy to get people to risk their lives and fortunes when you have a nickname like the Bastard. But Alan Rufus did sign up to follow William, and it worked out very well for both of them. The Bastard became the Conqueror and Rufus became the richest man in British history. In return for helping him win the throne and putting down a rebellion in the north of the country, William gave Rufus some 250,000 acres of land around England. And all he had to do was decimate the population of Yorkshire to get it.

7. Cornelius Vanderbilt, May 27, 1794 – January 4, 1877

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A true American success story, the first of the Vanderbilt tycoons left school at 11 to work on a ferry. By middle age, Cornelius Vanderbilt owned most of the ferries in the northeast—he even loaned boats to the Union Navy during the Civil War. Eventually, Vanderbilt went into railroads, where he made his real money. At its height, his income was more than 1 percent of the entire country’s GDP. But while he may have been one of the richest men in the country, Vanderbilt was not welcome in society. Coming from such a poor background, he was considered very uncouth by Victorian society, and his affairs with prostitutes did not help matters. His sons had to wait until after he died to start building new fashionable mansions and ingratiating themselves with old money families.

8. Andrew Carnegie, November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919

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One of the richest men of all time was also the greatest philanthropist of all time. Andrew Carnegie famously gave away almost all of his wealth, but it was the people who wouldn’t take his money that make him stand out. After the Spanish-American War, the U.S. purchased the Philippines from Spain for $20 million. Incensed at what he saw as unnecessary American imperialism, the shipping magnate offered the Asian country $20 million of his own money so they could buy their country back. Carnegie's offer was declined.

9. Nicholas II, May 18, 1868 – July 17, 1918

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The last of the Romanov rulers doesn’t just go down as possibly the richest monarch of all time, but also as the richest saint of all time, since after his death his family was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church. The Emperor’s wealth was invested in all the standard places when he was alive—palaces, jewelry, art, gold—and after his death, most of his money and possessions were seized by the people who shot him. But some of Romanov’s nicest jewelry is now in the possession of the British royal family. There are rumors that when minor members of the Russian royal family fled the country to save their lives, they were forced to sell off the jewelry they managed to snag to fund their new lives.

10. John D. Rockefeller, July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937

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When your contemporaries include two of the other people on this list, it's really something to be the richest man in America. Rockefeller may have been competing with Vanderbilt and Carnegie, but he was the first man in U.S. history to amass a fortune of $1 billion. Rockefeller made his money by controlling 90% of all the oil and gas in America for decades, until the government decided they better do something about monopolies like Standard Oil. Rockefeller attributed all his success to God, and even when his net worth was more than 1.5 percent of the U.S. GDP, he taught Sunday School at his local church and even acted as its janitor as necessary.

11. Cosimo de' Medici, September 27, 1389 – August 1, 1464

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Cosimo came from one of the most dysfunctional and powerful families in European history, thanks in no small part to their great wealth. While his relatives were busy getting elected Pope, throwing prostitute parties, and marrying into royal families, Cosimo controlled the business end of things. Despite never running for office himself, he was “king in all but name” of Florence. Like the rest of his family, he spent lavishly—his personal obsessions were art and the beautification of his hometown because, as he said, people would always remember him for it. He also said that while he had spent his entire life making and spending money, spending it was much more fun. You have to wonder who was paying for all those prostitute parties.

Celebrate the Holidays With the 2020 Harry Potter Funko Pop Advent Calendar

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Funko

Though the main book series and movie franchise are long over, the Wizarding World of Harry Potter remains in the spotlight as one of the most popular properties in pop-culture. The folks at Funko definitely know this, and every year the company releases a new Advent calendar based on the popular series so fans can count down to the holidays with their favorite characters.

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Right now, you can pre-order the 2020 edition of Funko's popular Harry Potter Advent calendar, and if you do it through Amazon, you'll even get it on sale for 33 percent off, bringing the price down from $60 to just $40.

Funko Pop!/Amazon

Over the course of the holiday season, the Advent calendar allows you to count down the days until Christmas, starting on December 1, by opening one of the tiny, numbered doors on the appropriate day. Each door is filled with a surprise Pocket Pop! figurine—but outside of the trio of Harry, Hermione, and Ron, the company isn't revealing who you'll be getting just yet.

Calendars will start shipping on October 15, but if you want a head start, go to Amazon to pre-order yours at a discount.

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The Surprising History of Apple Cider Doughnuts

Apple cider doughnuts have a surprisingly modern history.
Apple cider doughnuts have a surprisingly modern history.
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Apple cider doughnuts are synonymous with fall, particularly in New England, where apple orchards from Maine to Connecticut use their own cider to flavor the fluffy, golden rings. Both sweet and savory, and often dusted in finger-licking cinnamon sugar, apple cider doughnuts may seem like a quaint tradition inherited from Colonial times—but the tasty treats have a more modern history that may surprise you.

It all started with Russian immigrant and entrepreneur Adolf Levitt. According to Glazed America: A History of the Doughnut, Levitt bought a chain of New York bakeries in 1916. He was impressed by American soldiers’ fondness for the fried loops of flavored dough and began developing a doughnut-making machine to take advantage of troops’ appetites. In one of his early marketing coups, he installed a prototype in the window of his Harlem bakery in 1920. The machine caught the eye—and the cravings—of passersby. Levitt went on to sell his doughnut-making machines and a standardized flour mix to other bakeries.

He spun his marketing prowess into founding the Doughnut Corporation of America. The corporation evangelized doughnuts in marketing campaigns across print media, radio, and TV. A World War II-era party manual the DCA produced noted, “no other food is so heartwarming, so heartily welcomed as the doughnut.” Levitt’s granddaughter Sally L. Steinberg wrote that Levitt, “made doughnuts America's snack, part of office breaks for coffee and doughnuts, of Halloween parties with doughnuts on strings, of doughnut-laden political rallies.”

The DCA launched the first National Doughnut Month in October 1928. In its zeal, the DCA sometimes made dubious recommendations. In 1941, along with surgeon J. Howard Crum, it advocated for the single source “doughnut diet.” Later it marketed “Vitamin Doughnuts” based on an enhanced flour mix it claimed provided more protein and nutrients than made-at-home creations. (The federal government required them to use the name “Enriched Flour Doughnuts,” according to Glazed America.) A skeptical public didn’t gobble up the sales pitch—or the doughnuts.

In 1951, however, the DCA introduced a flavor with staying power. A New York Times article from August 19 of that year observed, “A new type of product, the Sweet Cider Doughnut will be introduced by the Doughnut Corporation of America in its twenty-third annual campaign this fall to increase doughnut sales. The new item is a spicy round cake that is expected to have a natural fall appeal.”

The cider doughnut recipe gives a fall spin to the basic buttermilk doughnut by adding apple cider to the batter, with cinnamon and nutmeg boosting the autumnal flavor. Each orchard typically has its own family recipe and usually serves them paired with mulled apple cider. The doughnuts have caught on well beyond pastoral landscapes and are now seasonal favorites in national chains and home kitchens. Dunkin’ has taken up the mantle, and Smitten Kitchen and The New York Times have recipes for a make-at-home version.

Although the apple cider doughnut has stood the test of time, the DCA didn’t. J. Lyons & Co. bought out Levitt’s DCA in the 1970s, and the entrepreneurs behind Seattle’s Top Pot Doughnuts later bought the DCA trademark. The company distributes its doughnuts nationwide; however, its offerings don’t include a cider doughnut.