If They Build It: 9 Other Sports Facilities by the Architects of Camden Yards

The Orioles celebrate a win at Oriole Park.
The Orioles celebrate a win at Oriole Park.
Mitchell Layton, Getty Images

In 1983, Chris Carver, Ron Labinski, Joe Spear, and Dennis Wellner founded the first architecture firm dedicated exclusively to the design of sports facilities. HOK Sports Venue Event operated under the St. Louis-based HOK Group, an established leader in the field that was launched in 1955 by Washington University in St. Louis School of Architecture graduates George Hellmuth, Gyo Obata, and George Kassabaum.

After 25 years as an HOK subsidiary, HOK Sports Venue Event principals, including Spear, exchanged their HOK stock for ownership of HOK SVE and rebranded their independently owned, 500-person practice with the name Populous. While its title has changed, the firm formerly referred to as HOK Sport remains synonymous with excellence in sports architecture. It has designed nearly 1,000 projects and events since its inception and has played a role in the creation of some of the world's premier sports facilities. Here's a closer look at 10 of them, including the baseball stadium that launched many more.

Oriole Park at Camden Yards

In the firm's early years, Populous architects created Miami's Joe Robbie Stadium and the Hoosier Dome in Indianapolis. They also renovated more than a dozen baseball stadiums, with most of those projects involving the addition of luxury boxes. The firm's first original major league baseball stadium, new Comiskey Park in Chicago, opened in 1991, but it was the opening of Oriole Park at Camden Yards in downtown Baltimore one year later that established a trend in ballpark design. The stadium, with its asymmetrical playing field, steel trusses, brick facade, and iconic B&O Warehouse, was a throwback and a gem. "Like the Green Monster at Fenway or the ivy-colored walls at Wrigley, the wall of the warehouse will become instantly recognizable as part of the Baltimore stadium," said Spear, the principal design architect of the ballpark. Camden Yards became the model upon which future ballparks were designed and measured. The firm has since played a role in the development of AT&T Park, Busch Stadium, Citi Field, Great American Ballpark, Nationals Park, PETCO Park, PNC Park, and Yankee Stadium.

Dubai Autodrome

dubai.jpgBaseball stadiums aren't the only facilities on Populous' resume. The Dubai Autodrome, the Middle East's first fully integrated motorsports facility, features one of the most challenging tracks in the world. The venue was officially inaugurated on April 1, 2004. One thousand VIPs, including UAE dignitaries and motorsports celebrities, attended the black-tie ceremony, which was capped with a fireworks and laser show. The venue's 5.39 km track hosts international events and is home to the Racing Academy, which is dedicated to cultivating racing talent in UAE. For a fee, amateurs may take a spin around the track in one of a number of different racecars. According to Populous, the marketing building it created in the adjacent business park was "designed to create a feeling of motion and balance with the surrounding track and infrastructure. With almost no vertical line on the building, the structure defines the DNA of all buildings on the site."

Wembley Stadium

wembley.jpgThe defining feature of London's new Wembley Stadium, which opened in 2007 and is used primarily for soccer, is the 440-foot arch that rises above the venue's roof. In addition to the aesthetic value that the arch adds to the stadium's design, it also functions to support the stadium's enormous steel roof, eliminating the need for pillars and improving the sightlines from the 90,000 seats inside. When closed, the roof's retractable panels cover every seat in the stadium, but not the entire pitch. The stadium's design, which was a joint effort of Populous and Foster & Partners, bears a striking resemblance to a 1941 sketch by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer, but Niemeyer said that any similarities between his design for a national stadium in Rio de Janeiro, which was never built, and Wembley were pure coincidence. The stadium, which cost nearly $2 billion to build, opened 4 years behind schedule and 8 years after the old Wembley Stadium, which Pele dubbed "the church of football," was closed.

Taipei Arena

taipei.jpgTaipei Arena opened on Dec. 12, 2005, on the site of the former Taipei municipal baseball stadium and was the first major entertainment building to be built in Taipei in more than 20 years. While the multi-purpose building was designed primarily for sports "“ its natatorium, 20,000-seat arena, Olympic-size ice rink, and tennis center can accommodate a variety of athletic events "“ its high-quality acoustics have made it a popular venue for musical acts as well. According to Populous, the basement of the arena is used to house two gas turbine power generators, which could be used in the event of an emergency. The arena was used for the inauguration of President Ma-Ying Jeou in 2008.

Oval Lingotto

ice.jpg

The speed skating venue was the last major construction project of the 2006 Turin Winter Olympics. Populous collaborated with Studio Zoppini on the design, which received a 2007 Gold Award from the International Association for Sports and Leisure Facilities (IAKS) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC). While the building was designed to facilitate fast times, no records were set in Turin. That was in part due to the quality of the ice, which was installed under a tight deadline and can take years to perfect. Since the Olympics, the 6,600-seat venue has hosted the 2006 World Fencing Championships and the 2009 European Indoor Championships in Athletics, as well as numerous fairs and exhibitions.

Nanjing Sports Park

china.jpgAt a cost of $287 million, the Nanjing Sports Park was built in China's Jiangsu province for the China National Games in 2005 and served as a showcase for the Chinese government leading up to the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. The park includes a 60,000-seat stadium, an 11,000-seat arena, a natatorium that resembles a partially submerged cylinder, a 17-court tennis center, a media center, and outdoor facilities for baseball, softball, hockey, and basketball. According to Populous, "the primary concept of the sports park was to create a "˜people's palace', a multifunctional environment, a combination of world standard sporting facilities with the main stadium as the centerpiece within parkland."

Ascot Racecourse

ascot.jpgEngland's most famous racecourse was founded in 1711 by Queen Anne and closed for 20 months of redevelopment beginning in September 2004. When it reopened in time for the Royal Meeting in June 2006, the venue featured a new grandstand with a 400-yard-long, multi-tiered galleria, 40 internal bridges, and 270 private boxes. The design was driven by Populous' idea that Ascot was more than a place to watch horseracing. "Horseracing attracts a very mobile crowd," designer Rod Sheard told reporters. "The race itself lasts only a couple of minutes, but this is a place for promenading, to see and be seen." Unfortunately, the view from parts of the ground level of the grandstand for those who were there to see the races was obstructed. While this initially drew harsh criticism, Sheard and his colleagues rectified the problem one year later by installing terracing units to improve sightlines.

Wimbledon Centre Court

wimbledon.jpgFor the past three years, Populous has been busy renovating the facilities for the Wimbledon Championships. The firm has increased the seating capacity at Centre Court from 13,800 to 15,000, widening each seat in the process. The hydraulically operated retractable roof, made of steel trusses that support translucent fabric, will be operational when the 2009 championships begin next week. Sheard, who refers to the roof as "the umbrella," came up with the idea for a folding fabric roof out of necessity; the Centre Court stadium is hemmed in and was never designed to support a roof, so there's no place to roll a non-folding roof when open.

University of Phoenix Stadium

phoenix.jpgPopulous teamed with architect Peter Eisenman to design University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona, home of the NFL's Arizona Cardinals. The stadium, which opened in 2006 and hosted Super Bowl XLII in February 2008, was the first in North America to feature a retractable, natural grass playing surface. This innovative design enables non-football events to be held in the stadium while the grass field, which can be rolled outside, receives the sunlight it needs to grow. The 63,000-seat venue has a retractable roof covered with translucent fabric and was the only stadium in North America to make Business Week's list of world-class sports stadiums.

2012 Summer Olympics

london-olympics.jpgPopulous' work will be on prominent display at the 2012 Olympic Games in London. The firm was chosen to lead the design effort for the facilities, including the main stadium. London Games organizers communicated their desire to create facilities that will continue to be used after the Olympics, leading Populous to propose a plan that represents a significant departure from the Bird's Nest built for the Beijing Games. "This is not a stadium that's going to be screaming from the rooftops that it's bigger and more spectacular," Sheard said at the unveiling of the design in 2007. "This is just a cleverer building. This is a cleverer solution." The plan for the main stadium calls for 55,000 temporary seats to be installed on top of 25,000 permanent seats housed in a sunken bowl. The steel structure that supports the temporary seats will be concealed by a porous, translucent fabric wrap, or mural, that will be adorned with flags, images of past Olympic champions, and sponsor logos. A cable-supported roof will cover two-thirds of the seats.

7 Massage Guns That Are on Sale Right Now

Jawku/Actigun
Jawku/Actigun

Outdoor exercise is a big focus leading into summer, but as you begin to really tone and strengthen your muscles, you might notice some tough knots and soreness that you just can’t kick. Enter the post-workout massage gun—these bad boys are like having a deep-tissue masseuse by your side whenever you want. If you're looking to pick one up for yourself, check out these brands while they’re on sale.

1. Actigun 2.0: Percussion Massager (Black); $128 (57 percent off)

Actigun massage gun.
Actigun

Don't assume you need a professional masseur to provide relief—this massage gun offers 20 variable speeds and can adjust the output power on its own according to pressure. Can your human massage therapist do that?

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2. JAWKU Muscle Blaster V2 Cordless Percussion Massage Gun; $260 (13 percent off)

Jawku massaging gun.
Jawku

This cordless, five-speed massager uses a design that's aimed to increase blood flow, release stored lactic acid, and relieve sore muscles through various vibrations.

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3. DEEP4s: Percussive Therapy Massage Gun for Athletes; $230 (23 percent off)

Re-Athlete massage gun.
Re-Athlete

Instant relief is an option with this massage tool, featuring five different attachments made to tackle any muscle group. You can squeeze in eight hours of massage time before you have to charge it again.

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4. Handheld Massage Gun for Deep Tissue Percussion; $75 (15 percent off)

Massage gun from Stackcommerce.
Stackcommerce

With five replaceable heads and six speed settings, this massage gun can easily adapt to the location and intensity of your soreness. And since it lasts up to three hours per charge, you won't have to worry about constantly plugging it in.

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5. The Backmate Power Massager; $120 (19 percent off)

Backmate massage gun.
Backmate

Speed is the name of the game here. The Backmate Power Massager is designed for fast, effective relief through its ergonomic design. Fast doesn’t need to mean short, either. After the instant relief, you can stimulate and distract your nervous system for lasting pain relief.

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6. ZTECH Percussion Massage Gun (Red); $80 (46 percent off)

ZTech massage gun.
ZTech

This massage gun looks a lot like a power drill, and, similarly, you can adjust its design for the perfect fit with six interchangeable heads that target different muscle areas.

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7. Aduro Sport Elite Recovery Massage Gun (Maroon); $80 (60 percent off)

Aduro massage gun.
Aduro

Tackle large muscle groups, the neck, Achilles tendon, joints, and small muscle areas with this single massage gun. Four massage heads and six intensity levels allow this tool to provide a highly customizable experience.

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This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links. If you haven't received your voucher or have a question about your order, contact the Mental Floss shop here.


8 Surprising Facts About Chuck Norris

Chuck Norris.
Chuck Norris.
Jason Merritt, Getty Images

For decades, martial artist and actor Carlos Ray Norris Jr. has been kicking his way into the hearts of action film fans. In addition to his competitive karate career, Norris has starred in a string of successful movies as well as the long-running CBS drama Walker, Texas Ranger. With Norris having reached the milestone age of 80 years old back in March 2020, we’re taking a look at some of the more interesting facts about his life and career.

1. Chuck Norris is a military veteran.

Chuck Norris in Lone Wolf McQuade (1983)
Chuck Norris stars in Lone Wolf McQuade (1983).
MGM Home Entertainment

Born on March 10, 1940 in Ryan, Oklahoma, Norris was the oldest of three boys and a self-described “shy” child. After a move to California, Norris attended North Torrance High School. After graduating, he joined the U.S. Air Force, where he became a member of the military police in the hopes of pursuing a career in law enforcement. It was in the service, while being stationed at Osan Air Base in South Korea, that Norris first discovered the martial arts. When he once found himself unable to control a rowdy drunk in a bar while on patrol duty, Norris realized he needed combat skills. He studied Tang Soo Do and Tae Kwon Do before returning to California. When he was discharged from the Air Force in 1962, Norris began teaching the skills he had acquired to students.

2. Steve McQueen got Chuck Norris into acting.

Norris became a world champion in karate contests, which lent credence to his abilities as a martial arts instructor. He taught several celebrities the finer points of self-defense, including the Osmonds, Priscilla Presley, and Steve McQueen. Norris even trained Price Is Right host Bob Barker. But not all his schools were doing well, and after retiring from competition in 1974, Norris was looking for other opportunities. McQueen suggested that Norris try his hand at acting. McQueen was right—eventually. It took several years and nine films, but Norris had a breakthrough with 1982’s Lone Wolf McQuade.

3. Chuck Norris needed to obey a producer’s request in order to face off against Bruce Lee.

While Norris didn’t become a household name until the 1980s, his turn as a villain in 1972’s Return of the Dragon (also known as Way of the Dragon) opposite Bruce Lee wound up being a seminal meeting of two onscreen martial arts legends. When Lee was looking for an adversary for the climactic fight, he called Norris, whom he knew and was friends with. But the film’s producer insisted that Norris gain 20 pounds so that he would appear to be much larger than Lee on camera. “That’s why I don’t do jump kicks [in the movie],” Norris told Empire in 2007. “I couldn’t get off the ground!”

4. Chuck Norris founded his own martial arts system.

Taking the knowledge he had acquired over many years of training in Tang Soo Do and Tae Kwon Do, Norris developed his own unique martial arts system and philosophy that he eventually dubbed Chun Kuk Do. In addition to combat techniques, the system encourages students to develop themselves to their maximum potential and look for the good in other people. It was renamed the Chuck Norris System in 2015.

5. Chuck Norris once marketed Chuck Norris Action Jeans.

Thanks to his fame in the martial arts world, Norris was sought after to endorse athletic products. In 1982, martial arts equipment company Century recruited Norris to be a spokesperson for their Karate Jeans, which featured flexible fabric sewn into the crotch that would presumably allow the wearer to deliver a bone-crunching kick while looking fashionable. Eventually renamed Action Jeans, Norris promoted them for years.

6. Chuck Norris had his own cartoon series.

At the height of his popularity in the 1980s, Norris teamed with animation company Ruby-Spears for an animated series, Chuck Norris: Karate Kommandos. The show featured Norris and a team of martial artists fighting villains like Superninja and The Claw. Although 65 shows were planned, just a few aired. “We only did six of them, and then a woman at CBS said, ‘Those are too violent,’” Norris told MTV News in 2009.

7. Chuck Norris is a real Texas Ranger.

For eight seasons, Norris pummeled bad guys as the star of the 1990s CBS television series Walker, Texas Ranger, which became the first primetime show shot on location in Texas at Norris’s insistence. In 2010, Norris was named an honorary member of the Texas Rangers by state governor Rick Perry in acknowledgment of Norris’s work in raising awareness for the elite unit and for his work helping underprivileged youths via martial arts programs. Norris’s brother, Aaron Norris, who was an executive producer on the show, also received the designation.

8. Chuck Norris’s role in Dodgeball was a surprise to Chuck Norris.

Norris is generally good-humored about his persona and is often willing to poke fun at himself. But when he was asked to do a cameo in the 2004 comedy Dodgeball: A True Underdog Story, he passed because he didn’t feel like driving three hours to the movie’s set in Long Beach, California. When star Ben Stiller called to ask personally, Norris agreed, but didn’t read the script. He simply shot his scene where he offers a thumbs-up to the dodgeball competitors.

When Norris saw the movie in theaters, he was surprised at the context. “But in the end, when Ben’s a big fatty and watching TV, the last line of the whole movie is, ‘F***in’ Chuck Norris!,'” Norris told Empire in 2007. “My mouth fell open to here… I said, ‘Holy mackerel!’ That was a shock, Ben didn’t tell me about that!”