The Origins of 6 Great American Songs

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iStock

Every school-aged kid learns that Francis Scott Key penned the words to "The Star-Spangled Banner" while watching the British navy pound Fort McHenry during the War of 1812. Is there any more to the story, though? What about the other patriotic songs we belt out to honor our country? Here's a look at the stories behind some of America's most flag-waving tunes.

1. "THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER"

Yes, Key wrote the lyrics while watching the bombardment of Fort McHenry in 1814, but your teachers probably didn't tell you the origins of the music. The anthem takes its melody from "To Anacreon in Heaven," a British drinking song sung by members of London's Anacreontic Society. Key originally called his poem "Defence of Fort M'Henry," but the name changed to "The Star-Spangled Banner" when sheet music for the tune became available.

The song didn't immediately catch on as the national anthem, either. Although the patriotic tune was popular, it didn't become the national anthem until Congress gave it the official nod in 1931. Prior that, the U.S. had not had an official national anthem, although "Hail, Columbia" often played the part at ceremonies.

2. "HAIL, COLUMBIA"

Composed by German immigrant Philip Phile, this march was first written in honor of George Washington's 1789 inaugural inauguration. A few years later, in 1798, Joseph Hopkinson added lyrics and the song was debuted anew at a benefit concert in Philadelphia. It quickly caught on and became the country's unofficial national anthem. It is less familiar to modern audiences, but it still makes official appearances—it's played for the Vice President's entrance in the same way "Hail to the Chief" is played for the President.

3. "MY COUNTRY, 'TIS OF THEE"

The words to this old favorite date back to 1831, when Samuel Francis Smith wrote them while he was studying at Andover Theological Seminary. Smith started writing lyrics at the request of his friend Lowell Mason, a well-known organist, who needed some help adapting tunes he'd found in some German music books.

The two friends decided they really liked one of the songs in the German text, so Smith banged out the familiar lyrics to "My Country, 'Tis of Thee." Smith and Mason probably didn't know it since they were working from the German translation, but their new song actually shared its melody with the British national anthem, "God Save the King." Despite the odd British ties, the song was a hit after its 1831 debut at Boston's Park Street Church.

4. "AMERICA THE BEAUTIFUL"

Katharine Lee Bates likely didn't know she was going to write what would become one of the country's most beloved songs when she visited Colorado in 1893 for a lecture tour. Bates, a professor of English at Wellesley, became particularly interested in the Rockies, so she wrote a poem entitled "Pike's Peak." These words are what we now think of as the lyrics of "America the Beautiful." The poem first appeared in print in the weekly newspaper The Congregationalist in 1895, and in 1904 Bates made some slight tweaks for a revised publication in The Boston Evening Transcript.

The poem became so popular that people around the country started singing it to whatever melody they could fit the words, including "Auld Lang Syne." The melody we know actually dates back to 1882, when Newark choirmaster Samuel Augustus Ward wrote it for a song called "Materna." The melody and lyrics first started appearing together in 1910, and by 1926 Ward's music and Bates' words were pretty much permanently joined as "America the Beautiful."

5. "YANKEE DOODLE"

No one's quite sure exactly when "Yankee Doodle" first appeared, but credit for writing the lyrics usually goes to Dr. Richard Shuckburgh, a British army doctor who served in the French and Indian War. According to the story, Shuckburgh watched the ragtag, disheveled colonial militias fight alongside the orderly, dapper British forces and wrote the lyrics to mock the colonists. ("Doodle" is an archaic term for a bumpkin, simpleton, or rube.)

It's not clear when the colonists decided to steal the British troops' derisive ditty and use it as a march of their own, but it's suggested that both sides sang the song at the Battle of Lexington and Concord, the British to mock their foes and the Americans to rally their forces.

6. "HAIL TO THE CHIEF"

The song that means the President's about to arrive can be traced back to a Scottish poem. Sir Walter Scott's "The Lady of the Lake," a narrative poem first published in 1810, contains the words "Hail to the chief who in triumph advances! Honored and blessed be the ever-green pine!" The poem became such a runaway hit that various theater companies started producing Scott's narrative for the stage.

One of these theatrical productions made its debut in Philadelphia in 1812. This version borrowed songs from some of the London adaptations of the poem, including James Sanderson's tune "Hail to the Chief." The song became quite popular, and in 1815 it was played to honor the late George Washington.

In 1829 Andrew Jackson became the first president to be honored with a playing of the song, but we really have John Tyler's wife, Julia, and James K. Polk's wife, Sarah, to thank for the association of the song with the presidency. Mrs. Tyler made the first request that the song be played to herald the chief executive's arrival at events. When Polk succeeded Tyler, Sarah Childress Polk took an even firmer stance, stating that "Hail to the Chief" should accompany her husband to official events, and the tradition took off. (Contrary to popular belief, the song was not written for James Madison, our shortest president, whose arrival—according to legend—often went unnoticed, thus necessitating a theme song of sorts.)

This story originally ran in 2009.

The 10 Best Memorial Day 2020 Sales

iRobot,GoWise,Funko via Wayfair, Entertainment Earth
iRobot,GoWise,Funko via Wayfair, Entertainment Earth

The Memorial Day sales have started early this year, and it's easy to find yourself drowning in offers for cheap mattresses, appliances, shoes, and grills. To help you cut through the noise and focus on the best deals around, we threw together some of our favorite Memorial Day sales going on right now. Take a look below.

1. Leesa

A Leesa Hybrid mattress.
A Leesa Hybrid mattress.
Leesa

Through May 31, you can save up to $400 on every mattress model Leesa has to offer, from the value-minded Studio by Leesa design to the premium Leesa Legend, which touts a combination of memory foam and micro-coil springs to keep you comfortable in any position you sleep in.

Find it: Leesa

2. Sur La Table

This one is labeled as simply a “summer sale,” but the deals are good only through Memorial Day, so you should get to it quickly. This sale takes up to 20 percent off outdoor grilling and dining essentials, like cast-iron shrimp pans ($32), a stainless steel burger-grilling basket ($16), and, of course, your choice of barbeque sauce to go along with it.

Find it: Sur la Table

3. Wayfair

KitchenAid Stand Mixer on Sale on Wayfair.
Wayfair/KitchenAid

Wayfair is cutting prices on all manner of appliances until May 28. Though you can pretty much find any home appliance imaginable at a low price, the sale is highlighted by $130 off a KitchenAid stand mixer and 62 percent off this eight-in-one GoWise air fryer.

And that’s only part of the brand’s multiple Memorial Day sales, which you can browse here. They’re also taking up to 40 percent off Samsung refrigerators and washing machines, up to 65 percent off living room furniture, and up to 60 percent off mattresses.

Find it: Wayfair

4. Blue Apron

If you sign up for a Blue Apron subscription before May 26, you’ll save $20 on each of your first three box deliveries, totaling $60 in savings. 

Find it: Blue Apron

5. The PBS Store

Score 20 percent off sitewide at Shop.PBS.org when you use the promo code TAKE20. This slashes prices on everything from documentaries like Ken Burns’s The Roosevelt: An Intimate History ($48) and The Civil War ($64) to a Pride & Prejudice tote bag ($27) and this precious heat-changing King Henry VIII mug ($11) that reveals the fates of his many wives when you pour your morning coffee.

Find it: The PBS Store

6. Amazon

eufy robot vacuum.
Amazon/eufy

While Amazon doesn’t have an official Memorial Day sale, the ecommerce giant still has plenty of ever-changing deals to pick from. Right now, you can take $100 off this outdoor grill from Weber, $70 off a eufy robot vacuum, and 22 percent off the ASUS gaming laptop. For more deals, just go to Amazon and have a look around.

7. Backcountry

You can save up to 50 percent on tents, hiking packs, outdoor wear, and more from brands like Patagonia, Marmot, and others during Backcountry's Memorial Day sale.

Find it: Backcountry

8. Entertainment Earth

Funko Pops on Sale on Entertainment Earth.
Entertainment Earth/Funko

From now until June 2, Entertainment Earth is having a buy one, get one half off sale on select Funko Pops. This includes stalwarts like the Star Wars and Batman lines, and more recent additions like the Schitt's Creek Funkos and the pre-orders for the upcoming X-Men movie line.

Find it: Entertainment Earth

9. Moosejaw

With the promo code SUNSCREEN, you can take 20 percent off one full-price item at Moosejaw, along with finding up to 30 percent off select items during the outdoor brand's summer sale. These deals include casual clothing, outdoor wear, trail sneakers, and more. 

Find it: Moosejaw

10. Osprey

Through May 25, you can save 25 percent on select summer items, and 40 percent off products from last season. This can include anything from hiking packs and luggage to outdoorsy socks and hats. So if you're planning on getting acquainted with the great outdoors this summer, now you can do it on the cheap.

Find it: Osprey

At Mental Floss, we only write about the products we love and want to share with our readers, so all products are chosen independently by our editors. Mental Floss has affiliate relationships with certain retailers and may receive a percentage of any sale made from the links on this page. Prices and availability are accurate as of the time of publication.

Why Do Brides Carry Bouquets?

Thanks to the ancient Romans, today's brides never have to worry about what to do with their hands in wedding photos.
Thanks to the ancient Romans, today's brides never have to worry about what to do with their hands in wedding photos.
frantic00/iStock via Getty Images

While the bridal bouquet isn’t exactly a wedding necessity—the show could technically go on without it—it’s still a pretty integral part of the ceremony. To put this in perspective, just imagine how odd it would seem for a bride to walk down the aisle empty-handed.

So where did the tradition come from? Though some have suggested wedding flowers were originally used to mask body odor before frequent bathing became the norm, that’s a misconception. In fact, the earliest bridal bouquets didn’t contain very many flowers, if any—instead, they mostly comprised herbs. According to Reader’s Digest, ancient Romans were the first to adopt the practice of sending their brides down the aisle with bundles of herbs, which symbolized things like fidelity and fertility.

Dill, already a known aphrodisiac at the time, was especially common in those bouquets, and it was also often served at wedding receptions to help the bride and groom prepare to consummate their bond. Garlic was sometimes used in the bouquets, too, since it was thought to protect the bride from bad luck or evil spirits.

Over the following centuries, people started to introduce other flora into their wedding bouquets, flowers included. As Snopes reports, marigolds gained popularity in 16th-century England as a symbol of faithfulness and endless love, because marigolds are so faithful to the Sun—blooming in daylight and closing their petals at night. And, like dill, they were considered an aphrodisiac.

Then, during the Victorian era, floriography (the language of flowers) became a prevalent fad, and people began to send each other carefully-assembled bouquets of flowers with specific meanings, which your handy floral dictionary could help you decipher. According to Atlas Obscura, pennyroyal meant “You must leave,” for example, while a pineapple would clearly convey to your lover that you think they’re perfect.

Secret flower messages fell out of fashion as the world shifted focus to World War I, but bridal bouquets never did—though you might want to make sure yours doesn’t contain any pennyroyal, just in case your soon-to-be spouse happens to be a closet floriographer.

[h/t Reader’s Digest]