What's With the Uniforms? The Stories Behind the AFL Throwbacks

The Denver Broncos uniform has remained the same after the shift from its previously defunct uniforms.
The Denver Broncos uniform has remained the same after the shift from its previously defunct uniforms.
Justin Edmonds, Getty Images

The eight charter members of the American Football League are celebrating the 50th anniversary of the league's launch by wearing throwback uniforms for select NFL games this season. At various times before the AFL merged with the NFL in 1970, the Titans played in New York, Tennessee and Kansas City's current franchises were in Houston and Dallas, respectively, and a penny-pinching—and possibly colorblind—general manager in Denver told everyone who would listen that his team's mustard- and brown-colored uniforms were actually gold and copper. Here are the stories behind the nicknames and uniforms of the AFL's Original Eight.

Denver Broncos

All throwbacks are not created equal, as the Denver UPS Deliverymen, er, Broncos can attest. It's a wonder that Kyle Orton and Co. have managed to play so well—they're one of four undefeated teams entering Week 7—while looking so heinous. At their best, the Broncos' throwbacks are charming; at their worst, they are "perhaps the ugliest uniforms of all time," according to New York Times columnist Lynn Zinser.

There's a perfectly good explanation for this. Operating on a tight budget, Denver's first general manager, Dean Griffing, purchased the team's original uniforms from a defunct college football All-Star game, the Copper Bowl. The vertically striped socks, which Griffing claimed made his players look taller, were purchased for cheap from a sporting goods store and only made his players look ridiculous.

"They certainly didn't build confidence," former player Frank Bernardi told former Broncos announcer Larry Zimmer. To make matters worse, the uniforms didn't fit. "I used to cut the armpits of them so I could raise my arm to pass," Denver quarterback Frank Tripucka said. As Ed Gruver recalls in The American Football League, when Denver hired its second coach, Jack Faulkner, the Broncos declared "There's Lots New in '62!" Mercifully, that included the uniforms. Faulkner invited players to burn the vertically striped socks at the intrasquad game and designed the team's new uniforms, which introduced the orange and blue color scheme that Denver has maintained to this day. [Image credit: Eric Lars Bakke/DenverBroncos.com.]

New England Patriots (Boston Patriots)

pats3 The Patriots are celebrating their AFL heritage by sporting the uniforms that they began wearing in 1961, including helmets featuring legendary Pat Patriot. The logo, which was designed by Boston Globe cartoonist Phil Bissell adorned the Patriots' helmets until 1993, when a more modern-looking design, since dubbed Flying Elvis, was introduced.

pats2While Pat Patriot remains an iconic representation of New England's football history, the Patriots wore an entirely different, often forgotten logo on their helmets for their inaugural season in the AFL. After Patriots was selected as the team's nickname from among more than 1,000 entries in a public contest, railroad conductor Walter J. Pingree submitted four designs for the team's logo to owner Billy Sullivan, all of them variations of a three-cornered hat. Sullivan ultimately chose this design and rewarded Pingree with lifetime season tickets and invitations to private team functions. The team switched to Bissell's design at the end of the 1960 season and, rather than purchasing new helmets, scraped off Pingree's original tricorne logo. [Image credit: BuffaloBills.com; Boston Magazine.]

Tennessee Titans (Houston Oilers)

oilHouston, we have a problem, and it's not the Tennessee Titans' throwback digs. The Houston Oilers-turned-Tennessee Titans are winless this season, though they've managed to look pretty sharp in defeat, thanks to owner Bud Adams' decision to make Columbia blue his team's primary color in 1960. Adams, who made his money from oil, said that he selected the nickname Oilers "for sentimental and social reasons." The Oilers' red, white, and blue color scheme and the oil derrick on their helmets were staples of Houston's uniforms until the team left for Tennessee in 1997. The franchise remained the Oilers for two seasons before becoming the Titans. The NFL retired the Oilers nickname after the 1998 season. [Image credit: TitansOnline.com.]

Kansas City Chiefs (Dallas Texans)

KCAny non-football fans who happened upon the game between the Chiefs and Cowboys earlier this month would have assumed that the Cowboys were the team in red. After all, they were the ones with the silhouette of Texas on their helmets. Before they moved to Kansas City and were rebranded in 1963, the Chiefs were the Dallas Texans. Owner Lamar Hunt, who along with Adams was the driving force behind the creation of the AFL, reportedly wanted his team's colors to be Columbia blue and orange. Adams beat him to the punch and claimed Columbia blue for his Oilers. Hunt was forced to settle for red and gold, which remain the Chiefs' colors today.

The Texans enjoyed two successful seasons in Dallas, winning the AFL Championship in 1962, but struggled to compete for fans with the NFL's Cowboys. Hunt began looking for a new home for his team and found a welcoming suitor in Kansas City. The Chiefs nickname is derived from the nickname of Kansas City mayor H. Roe Bartle, who promised Hunt attendance of at least 25,000 fans per game if he moved the Texans to his city. [Image credit: DallasCowboys.com.]

Oakland Raiders

raidChet Soda, Oakland's first general manager, sponsored a name-the-team contest in 1960. Helen A. Davis, an Oakland policewoman, submitted the winning entry, Señors, and was rewarded with a trip to the Bahamas. The nickname, an allusion to the old Spanish settlers of northern California, was ridiculed in the weeks that followed, and fans also claimed that the contest was fixed. It was well known that Soda greeted people as "Señor."

Scotty Stirling, a sportswriter for the Oakland Tribune who would later become the team's general manager, provided another reason to abandon the nickname. "That's no good," Stirling said. "We don't have the accent mark for the n in our headline type." Responding to the backlash, Soda and the team's other investors decided to change the team's nickname to Raiders, which was a finalist in the contest along with Lakers.

There's some dispute over who designed the Raiders' logo, a helmeted pirate with an eye patch and a pair of crossed swords behind him. According to former Raider Jim Otto's autobiography, a high school teacher in Oakland claimed that one of his students designed it, while a man in Hawaii claimed that he modeled the pirate after actor Randolph Scott. [Image credit: Chargers.com.]

New York Jets (New York Titans)

jetsBefore they were the Jets, New York's AFL team was known as the Titans. The nickname was chosen by egomaniacal owner Harry Wismer, because, as he put it, "Titans are larger than Giants." (The New York Giants were already an established team in the NFL.) Wismer, who was a former broadcaster at Notre Dame, reportedly designed the Titans' navy blue and gold uniforms to resemble the Fighting Irish's uniforms.

The Titans' uniforms weren't exactly easy on the eyes, but they were less garish than the Broncos' original threads, which is supposedly why fullback Joe Pagliei signed with New York instead of Denver. Wismer ran the Titans into the ground financially and the team required a $40,000 bailout from the rest of the league to survive the 1962 season. An ownership group led by Sonny Werblin purchased the franchise in 1963, moved home games to Shea Stadium in 1964, and renamed the team the Jets. The team's new colors, green and white, were symbolic of Werblin's birthday—Saint Patrick's Day. [Image credit: NewYorkJets.com.]

San Diego Chargers (Los Angeles Chargers)

chargeTeam owner Barron Hilton sponsored a name-the-team contest and promised a trip to Mexico City to the winner. Gerald Courtney submitted "Chargers" and Hilton reportedly liked the name so much that he didn't open another letter. There are varying accounts as to why Hilton chose Chargers. According to one story, Hilton liked the name, in part, for its affiliation with his new Carte Blanche credit card. The owner also told reporters that he was fond of the "Charge!" bugle cry at the University of Southern California's Coliseum. The Chargers' original logo featured both the jagged lightning bolts that remain on the team's uniforms today and a charging horse. Hilton unveiled the Chargers' uniforms, which his wife Marilyn had approved, at a cocktail party in Santa Monica in 1960. [Image credit: Chargers.com.]

Buffalo Bills

billsOwner Ralph Wilson solicited potential nicknames from fans for his new franchise and chose Bills over several other worthy suggestions, including Nickels and Bison. Bills, a reference to the American frontiersman Buffalo Bill Cody, had been the nickname of Buffalo's football team in the defunct All-America Football Conference. That team began play in 1946 as the Bison and was renamed the Bills in 1947.

Buffalo's original AFL uniforms were silver and blue and styled after the NFL's Detroit Lions. In 1962, the Bills underwent a makeover. The team ditched the silver and blue color scheme, as head coach Lou Saban added red and white shoulder stripes to the uniforms. The team also introduced a new logo, a standing red buffalo on a white helmet. In Rockin' the Rockpile: The Buffalo Bills of the American Football League, authors Jeffrey J. Miller and Billy Shaw describe the logo as "remarkable in its simplicity—a perfect symbol for the no-nonsense, blue-collar city the team represented." [Image credit: BuffaloBills.com.]

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7 Pieces of Reading Advice From History’s Greatest Minds

When it came to books, Albert Einstein subscribed to the "oldie but goodie" mentality. He wasn't the only one.
When it came to books, Albert Einstein subscribed to the "oldie but goodie" mentality. He wasn't the only one.
Lucien Aigner/Three Lions/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

If there’s one thing that unites philosophers, writers, politicians, and scientists across time and distance, it’s the belief that reading can broaden your worldview and strengthen your intellect better than just about any other activity. When it comes to choosing what to read and how to go about it, however, opinions start to diverge. From Virginia Woolf’s affinity for wandering secondhand bookstores to Theodore Roosevelt’s rejection of a definitive “best books” list, here are seven pieces of reading advice to help you build an impressive to-be-read (TBR) pile.

1. Read books from eras past // Albert Einstein

albert einstein at home circa 1925
Albert Einstein poses at home in 1925 with a mix of old and new books.
General Photographic Agency/Getty Images

Keeping up with current events and the latest buzz-worthy book from the bestseller list is no small feat, but Albert Einstein thought it was vital to leave some room for older works, too. Otherwise, you’d be “completely dependent on the prejudices and fashions of [your] times,” he wrote in a 1952 journal article [PDF].

“Somebody who reads only newspapers and at best books of contemporary authors looks to me like an extremely near-sighted person who scorns eyeglasses,” he wrote.

2. Don’t jump too quickly from book to book // Seneca

seneca the younger
Seneca the Younger, ready to turn that unwavering gaze on a new book.
The Print Collector via Getty Images

Seneca the Younger, a first-century Roman Stoic philosopher and trusted advisor of Emperor Nero, believed that reading too wide a variety in too short a time would keep the teachings from leaving a lasting impression on you. “You must linger among a limited number of master thinkers, and digest their works, if you would derive ideas which shall win firm hold in your mind,” he wrote in a letter to Roman writer Lucilius.

If you’re wishing there were a good metaphor to illustrate this concept, take your pick from these gems, courtesy of Seneca himself:

“Food does no good and is not assimilated into the body if it leaves the stomach as soon as it is eaten; nothing hinders a cure so much as frequent change of medicine; no wound will heal when one salve is tried after another; a plant which is often moved can never grow strong. There is nothing so efficacious that it can be helpful while it is being shifted about. And in reading of many books is distraction.”

3. Shop at secondhand bookstores // Virginia Woolf

virginia woolf
Virginia Woolf wishing she were in a bookstore.
Culture Club/Getty Images

In her essay “Street Haunting,” Virginia Woolf described the merits of shopping in secondhand bookstores, where the works “have come together in vast flocks of variegated feather, and have a charm which the domesticated volumes of the library lack.”

According to Woolf, browsing through used books gives you the chance to stumble upon something that wouldn’t have risen to the attention of librarians and booksellers, who are often much more selective in curating their collections than secondhand bookstore owners. To give us an example, she imagined coming across the shabby, self-published account of “a man who set out on horseback over a hundred years ago to explore the woollen market in the Midlands and Wales; an unknown traveller, who stayed at inns, drank his pint, noted pretty girls and serious customs, wrote it all down stiffly, laboriously for sheer love of it.”

“In this random miscellaneous company,” she wrote, “we may rub against some complete stranger who will, with luck, turn into the best friend we have in the world.”

4. You can skip outdated scientific works, but not old literature // Edward Bulwer-Lytton

edward bulwer-lytton
An 1831 portrait of Edward Bulwer-Lytton, smug at the thought of people reading his novels for centuries to come.
The Print Collector/Getty Images

Though his novels were immensely popular during his lifetime, 19th-century British novelist and Parliamentarian Edward Bulwer-Lytton is now mainly known for coining the phrase It was a dark and stormy night, the opening line of his 1830 novel Paul Clifford. It’s a little ironic that Bulwer-Lytton’s books aren’t very widely read today, because he himself was a firm believer in the value of reading old literature.

“In science, read, by preference, the newest works; in literature, the oldest,” he wrote in his 1863 essay collection, Caxtoniana. “The classic literature is always modern. New books revive and redecorate old ideas; old books suggest and invigorate new ideas.”

To Bulwer-Lytton, fiction couldn't ever be obsolete, because it contained timeless themes about human nature and society that came back around in contemporary works; in other words, you can’t disprove fiction. You can, however, disprove scientific theories, so Bulwer-Lytton thought it best to stick to the latest works in that field. (That said, since scientists use previous studies to inform their work, you can still learn a ton about certain schools of thought by delving into debunked ideas—plus, it’s often really entertaining to see what people used to believe.) 

5. Check out authors’ reading lists for book recommendations // Mortimer J. Adler

mortimer j. adler in 1983
Mortimer J. Adler in 1983, happy to read the favorite works of his favorite authors.
George Rose/Getty Images

In his 1940 guide How to Read a Book, American philosopher Mortimer J. Adler talked about the importance of choosing books that other authors consider worth reading. “The great authors were great readers,” he explained, “and one way to understand them is to read the books they read.”

Adler went on to clarify that this would probably matter most in the philosophy field, “because philosophers are great readers of each other,” and it’s easier to grasp a concept if you also know what inspired it. While you don’t necessarily have to read everything a novelist has read in order to fully understand their own work, it’s still a good way to get quality book recommendations from a trusted source. If your favorite author mentions a certain novel that really made an impression on them, there’s a pretty good chance you’d enjoy it, too.

6. Reading so-called guilty pleasures is better than reading nothing // Mary Wollstonecraft

mary wollstonecraft in 1797
Mary Wollstonecraft in 1797, apparently demonstrating that a book with blank pages is worth even less than a novel.
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

To the 18th-century writer, philosopher, and early feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, just about all novels fell into the category of “guilty pleasures” (though she didn’t call them that). In A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, she disparaged the “stupid novelists, who, knowing little of human nature, work up stale tales, and describe meretricious scenes, all retailed in a sentimental jargon, which equally tend to corrupt the taste and draw the heart aside from its daily duties.”

If her judgment seems unnecessarily harsh, it’s probably because it’s taken out of its historical context. Wollstonecraft definitely wasn’t the only one who considered novels to be low-quality reading material compared to works of history and philosophy, and she was also indirectly criticizing society for preventing women from seeking more intellectual pursuits. If 21st-century women were confined to watching unrealistic, highly edited dating shows and frowned upon for trying to see 2019’s Parasite or the latest Ken Burns documentary, we might sound a little bitter, too.

Regardless, Wollstonecraft still admitted that even guilty pleasures can help expand your worldview. “Any kind of reading I think better than leaving a blank still a blank, because the mind must receive a degree of enlargement, and obtain a little strength by a slight exertion of its thinking powers,” she wrote. In other words, go forth and enjoy your beach read.

7. You get to make the final decision on how, what, and when to read // Theodore Roosevelt

theodore roosevelt in office in 1905
Theodore Roosevelt pauses for a quick photo before getting back to his book in 1905.
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division // No Known Restrictions on Publication

Theodore Roosevelt might have lived his own life in an exceptionally regimented fashion, but his outlook on reading was surprisingly free-spirited. Apart from being a staunch proponent of finding at least a few minutes to read every single day—and starting young—he thought that most of the details should be left up to the individual.

“The reader, the booklover, must meet his own needs without paying too much attention to what his neighbors say those needs should be,” he wrote in his autobiography, and rejected the idea that there’s a definitive “best books” list that everyone should abide by. Instead, Roosevelt recommended choosing books on subjects that interest you and letting your mood guide you to your next great read. He also wasn’t one to roll his eyes at a happy ending, explaining that “there are enough horror and grimness and sordid squalor in real life with which an active man has to grapple.”

In short, Roosevelt would probably advise you to see what Seneca, Albert Einstein, Mary Wollstonecraft, and other great minds had to say about reading, and then make your own decisions in the end.