Ape Women: 10 Dedicated Primate Researchers

iStock/Joel Carillet
iStock/Joel Carillet

Women are doing amazing work in primatology, the study of monkeys, apes, prosimians, and even humans. Although many are working on furthering our understanding of our closest relatives, we will take a look at just a few of them.

1. Vanessa Woods

Vanessa Woods is a native of Australia, a research scientist at Duke University, a writer for The Discovery Channel, and an advocate for bonobos, apes that closely resemble chimpanzees. Read about Woods research in the Congo at Bonobo Handshake and follow her blog at Psychology Today.

2. Francine Patterson

Francine "Penny" Patterson began an experiment as a graduate student in 1972. Almost 40 years later, the experiment is still going! Patterson received permission from the San Francisco Zoo to work with a one-year-old gorilla on language acquisition. So Patterson began training little Koko to use American Sign Language. The gorilla began using words within a couple of weeks, and now has a vocabulary of over a thousands words in "Gorilla Sign Language", a slightly modified form of American Sign Language. Work with Koko led Patterson to found The Gorilla Foundation, a non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of the lowland gorilla.

3. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh

Sue Savage-Rumbaugh spent 30 years as a language researcher at the University of Georgia, during which time she taught a bonobo named Kanzi to communicate through the use of pictograms. Savage-Rumbaugh is now doing language research at The Great Ape Trust, a research center in Des Moines, Iowa. The trust is home to six bonobos and six orangutans.

4. Claudine Andre

Claudine Andre is a Belgian researcher who grew up in the Congo. She volunteered at the Kinshasa Zoo and became enamored with bonobos. In 1994 she founded Lola Ya Bonobo, a sanctuary for orphaned bonobos in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The 60 bonobos sheltered there were mostly confiscated from poachers. Andre also founded Friends of Bonobos to support the sanctuary and is trying to find ways to return orphaned apes to the wild.

5. Sarah Hrdy

Sarah B. Hrdy is an anthropologist with the University of California at Davis. Her research into human evolution led her to study primates, starting with the behavior of Hamuman Langurs in India. Since then, Hrdy uses other primates as well to develop theories that contribute to the investigation of human sociobiology and evolution. Despite a shortage of vowels, she has written a half-dozen books on the subject of motherhood in human and other primates.

6. Sally Boysen

Sally Boysen is a psychology professor at Ohio State University. She studies cognitive development in great apes, particularly the mathematical abilities of chimpanzees. She began teaching chimpanzees to count in 1984. She later worked on teach several chimps to read, including one named Sheeba, who lived with Boysen for almost all her life.

7. Mireya Mayor

Mireya Mayor is an anthropologist who studies primates and other wildlife in Africa. In 2000, she discovered a mouse lemur that is the world's smallest primate, a find that led to the establishment of a national park in Madagascar to conserve the tiny animal. A former Miami Dolphins cheerleader, Mayor received her PhD from Stony Brook University in 2008. She is a host at Nat Geo Wild where her show Mystery Gorillas is now running. Mayor's new series Wild Nights will premiere in August. Her adventures will be chronicled in a forthcoming book.

8. Birute Galdikas

Birute Galdikas has dedicated her life to orangutans; their study, protection, and conservation. She was born in Germany to Lithuanian parents and grew up in Toronto. Galdikas received her PhD in anthropology at UCLA. She launched her dream of studying orangs in Borneo with the help of renowned anthropologist Louis Leakey in 1971, and became one of "Leakey's Angels". Since then, Galdikas has been based in Asia. She founded The Orangutan Foundation International in 1986 to fund orangutan research. Galdikas isn't a hero to everyone in Indonesia, where she fights for acreage to be set aside for the apes, and fights against those who wish to use the land for more profitable endeavors. She is now a citizen of Indonesia, but spends a few months every year teaching at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia. She is also a full professor at Universitas Nasional in Jakarta.

9. Dian Fossey

Dian Fossey was another of Leakey's Angels. Fossey lived in Rwanda for 18 years studying the mountain gorilla in its natural habitat. She approached and befriended a colony of gorillas, gaining their trust over time, and was even accepted as a member of their group. Over the years, Fossey wrote about her relationship with the gorillas, which led to the supporting of her work through the Digit Fund (named after her favorite juvenile gorilla), which later grew into the organization The Gorilla Fund. Fossey's conservation efforts were not welcomed by Rwandan poachers, whom she fought tooth and nail. She was found murdered in her cabin in 1985. The crime was never solved. Fossey had already written the book Gorillas in the Mist, which became a major motion picture in 1988.

10. Jane Goodall

The third member of Leakey's Angels here, Jane Goodall is currently the premier authority on chimpanzees. Goodall first traveled to Africa from her native England in 1957. There, she met and impressed Louis Leakey, who hired her to do research on chimpanzees. Goodall began her research at Gombe, Tanganyika (now Tanzania). Over the years, she documented the social structure of a chimpanzee colony and reported on it for National Geographic Magazine. Goodall founded the Jane Goodall Institute in 1977. The foundation works to conserve areas where chimpanzees can flourish, and funds research into our understanding of these apes who are so closely related to us. In 1994, Goodall also founded TACARE, an organization dedicated to helping the people of Tanzania. Now 76, she travels the world to educate people about apes and raise funds for chimpanzee conservation.

Save Up to 93 Percent on 8 Gaming Accessories and Enter to Win a Free Nintendo Switch Bundle

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Stackcommerce

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13 Elusive Facts about Greta Garbo

Arnold Genthe, Library of Congress // No Known Restrictions on Publication
Arnold Genthe, Library of Congress // No Known Restrictions on Publication

In the 1920s and '30s, Greta Garbo achieved fame and won accolades for her roles in hit MGM films such as The Torrent (1926), Anna Christie (1930), Mata Hari (1931), Grand Hotel (1932), Anna Karenina (1935), and Camille (1936). Garbo's expressive eyes, subtle acting, and sensual beauty won over audiences and critics, and her secretive, reclusive nature off screen only added to her mystique. In honor of her birthday on September 18, here are 13 things you might not know about the Swedish Sphinx.

1. Greta Garbo's birth name was Greta Lovisa Gustafsson.

Born in Sweden on September 18, 1905, Greta Lovisa Gustafsson lived in poverty with her parents and two older siblings. When she was 14, her father, an unskilled worker, died, and she started working in a barbershop and a department store. In 1924, after getting a scholarship to study acting at the Royal Dramatic Theatre, she starred in a silent film called The Saga of Gosta Berling. Following the advice of the director, Mauritz Stiller, she changed her last name to Garbo.

2. MGM didn't want audiences to hear Greta Garbo's Swedish accent.

When she came to America in 1925, Garbo didn’t know any English. Although she eventually learned the language, her heavy accent and deep voice made MGM executives hesitant to transition her from a silent film actress to one who spoke. In 1930, though, she appeared in Anna Christie, her first sound film. MGM publicized the film with the tagline "Garbo Talks!," and Anna Christie was a huge success—Garbo was nominated for a Best Actress Academy Award.

3. Greta Garbo often sent directors out for milkshakes when she filmed love scenes.

According to Rouben Mamoulian, who directed Garbo in 1933's Queen Christina, the actress told him that she had strict privacy rules for filming intimate scenes. "During these scenes I allow only the cameraman and lighting man on the set. The director goes out for a coffee or a milkshake," she said. Mamoulian told her that as the director, he wouldn’t be leaving the set for a milkshake. Garbo acquiesced.

4. Greta Garbo was dubbed "the Swedish Sphinx" due to her enigmatic personality.

Although Garbo was an international movie star, she shied away from the press, her fans, and Hollywood events. The Swedish Sphinx avoided making public appearances and granted only a handful of interviews to journalists. In 1927, she told Photoplay about her extreme introversion: "When I was just a little child, as early as I can remember, I have wanted to be alone. I detest crowds … don't like many people." Later in life, Garbo used aliases and bought multiple airplane and theater seats to preserve her privacy.

5. Greta Garbo might have worked as a spy during World War II.

In films, she played a Russian spy and Mata Hari (a Dutch dancer who was executed for being a spy during World War I), and in real life, Garbo reportedly collected information about Nazi sympathizers in Sweden for the British Secret Intelligence Service. She also allegedly conveyed messages between British agents and the king of Sweden. Garbo told her friends that she wanted to meet Adolf Hitler, who had sent her a fan letter, so she could kill him with a gun hidden in her purse.

6. Greta Garbo retired from acting in her mid-30s.

With three Academy Award nominations and multiple successful movies under her belt, Garbo retired in 1941 after her role in the romantic comedy film (and box office failure) Two-Faced Woman. Although she was only 36 years old, Garbo took a hiatus from acting and never appeared on screen again. Once, when she was older, she reportedly warned a new friend: "Don’t ever ask me about the movies … especially why I left them."

7. Greta Garbo ate a lot of wheat germ and celery loaf.

A writer for The Cut described Garbo’s diet as "strange" and "horrifying." Garbo followed celebrity nutritionist Gayelord Hauser’s dietary advice, which meant that she consumed foods such as vegetables, wheat germ, yogurt, yeast, molasses, and buttermilk. One of Hauser’s recipes is celery loaf, a vegetarian meatloaf made with pureed celery, chopped nuts, and milk. According to Garbo’s friends, her diet was more flexible than Hauser’s, and she sometimes ate foods such as tuna sandwiches, Triscuits, and cheese.

8. Greta Garbo owned one of Rin Tin Tin's puppies.

Rin Tin Tin, the famous German Shepherd, was a huge film star in the 1920s. He sired at least 48 puppies during his lifetime, and Garbo (like other celebrities such as Jean Harlow) was given a pup.

9. Greta Garbo's sexuality is still debated.

Greta Garbo reclines in a publicity still for 1926's Flesh and the Devil with frequent co-star John Gilbert.Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

For decades, film scholars and biographers have speculated about Garbo’s sexuality. Although she never married, Garbo purportedly had relationships with both men and women, including her frequent co-star John Gilbert, whom she allegedly left at the altar. A number of women said that they had romantic relationships with Garbo, who was known to describe herself as a '"bachelor."

10. Greta Garbo was a major art collector.

After retiring from acting, Garbo collected paintings and 18th-century French furniture. In the 1950s and '60s, she visited art galleries and exhibitions looking for pieces to buy. According to David Nash of Sotheby's, the living room of Garbo's Manhattan apartment featured three Renoir paintings and a Savonnerie rug. She also owned a Louis XV chair and banquette. After her death, her paintings and furniture (which were worth millions of dollars) were auctioned at Sotheby's.

11. Greta Garbo loved watching Hollywood Squares.

Speaking about her taste in television, Garbo reportedly said, "I watch the dreck." According to her friends, Garbo loved watching cartoons such as The Flintstones, but her favorite show might have been Hollywood Squares, the trivia game show featuring celebrities. Her friends said that she regularly watched the show and loved Paul Lynde, who was frequently featured in the center square position.

12. New Yorkers had fun when they spotted Greta Garbo in public.

Greta Garbo fills out her U.S. citizenship paperwork circa 1950.Los Angeles Times, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

For almost four decades, Garbo regularly walked around Manhattan, people-watching and window-shopping. Her walks were not brief—she would usually walk south from her apartment on East 52nd Street to Washington Square Park and back. Although Garbo disguised herself in men’s pants, sunglasses, and big hats (she also used pseudonyms), some New Yorkers enjoyed recognizing the actress when they saw her out and about. She was also a Rangers fan, and had a seat behind the penalty box.

13. Greta Garbo's face is on Sweden's 100-krona bill.

Starting in 2015, the Swedish national bank began introducing a series of redesigned currency featuring important figures in Sweden’s history, including Pippi Longstocking author Astrid Lindgren. The 100 krona note now features Greta Garbo.