Who Exactly Is J.D. Power?

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undefined undefined/iStock via Getty Images

It feels like every car commercial you see touts the vehicle’s sterling showing in a J.D. Power and Associates survey. The awards are bandied about as if their origins are common knowledge. But who exactly is J.D. Power, and who are his much-discussed associates? Let’s take a look at the man behind the car ads.

Who is this Power fellow?

To answer your first question, yes, the name J.D. Power is too terrific to be anything but real. James David Power earned his MBA from Wharton in the late 1950s and went on to work in finance for Ford before taking a job in advertising. On the inauspicious date of April 1, 1968, “Dave” Power and his wife/romantic associate, Julie, started a market research firm at their kitchen table.

Starting a market research company in your kitchen sounds like a longshot, but within a year Dave Power had convinced Toyota to buy his market research, and other large companies like Carnation soon followed. By 1981, the firm was conducting its U.S. Automotive Customer Satisfaction Index Study.

Super Bowl XVIII in 1984 turned out to be a big game for Power, and it wasn’t because he was a big fan of the victorious Los Angeles Raiders. Subaru ran an ad during the game that boasted of its cars’ impressive showing in the J.D. Power rankings. Although the honchos at Subaru probably didn’t realize it, the ad was a watershed moment for car advertising. The Subaru spot was the first car commercial to mention an automaker’s J.D. Power performance, and it started quite a trend. According to the J.D. Power website, over 350,000 television commercials have mentioned their ranking since that first Subaru ad.

What do the numbers mean?

One metric that constantly worms its way into car ads is J.D Power’s survey of “initial quality.” Aren’t all non-lemon cars high on initial quality? Perhaps not. Although the survey’s name doesn’t do much to tell you what it’s measuring, the actual methodology seems fairly sensible. The firm surveys new car owners after they’ve had their rides for 90 days to see what kind of problems they’ve had with their vehicles. The study provides a metric called PP100, or problems per 100 vehicles, and J.D. Power presents awards for the vehicles in each segment with the fewest problems.

J.D Power and Associates publishes four other major auto surveys each year, but the other one that seems to consistently come up in commercials is the group’s ranking of vehicle dependability. Like the initial quality survey, the Vehicle Dependability Study surveys a large group of car owners, but it doesn’t ask its questions until the cars are three years old. At that point, the survey asks what problems the car has had in the previous 12 months.

Where’s the money in these rankings?

It’s nice for consumers to know which cars are more likely to break down in their first 90 days on the road, but how does J.D. Power and Associates make any money? According to a 2004 U.S. News and World Report profile on the company, the auto rankings aren’t really all that lucrative. Automakers and other companies pay a licensing fee to use the awards in their ad campaigns, but the bulk of the firm’s revenue comes from selling its market research to curious companies. The survey rankings we hear about on TV are just a tiny portion of the data collected in the customer surveys, and the rest is placed in corporate hands.

This business model enabled J.D. Power himself to cash in for a nice chunk of money. In 2005 publisher McGraw-Hill acquired J.D. Power and Associates for an undisclosed sum. Although the name J.D. Power and Associates most frequently appears in car ads, the company tracks all sorts of industries, from healthcare to banking to telecommunications.

12 Creative Ways to Spend Your FSA Money Before the Deadline

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stockfour/iStock via Getty Images

If you have a Flexible Spending Account (FSA), chances are, time is running out for you to use that cash. Depending on your employer’s rules, if you don’t spend your FSA money by the end of the grace period, you potentially lose some of it. Lost cash is never a good thing.

For those unfamiliar, an FSA is an employer-sponsored spending account. You deposit pre-tax dollars into the account, and you can spend that money on a number of health care expenses. It’s kind of like a Health Savings Account (HSA), but with a few big differences—namely, your HSA funds roll over from year to year, so there’s no deadline to spend it all. With an FSA, though, most of your funds expire at the end of the year. Bummer.

The good news is: The law allows employers to roll $500 over into the new year and also offer a grace period of up to two and a half months to use that cash (March 15). Depending on your employer, you might not even have that long, though. The deadline is fast approaching for many account holders, so if you have to use your FSA money soon, here are a handful of creative ways to spend it.

1. Buy some new shades.

Head to the optometrist, get an eye prescription, then use your FSA funds to buy some new specs or shades. Contact lenses and solution are also covered.

You can also buy reading glasses with your FSA money, and you don’t even need a prescription.

2. Try acupuncture.

Scientists are divided on the efficacy of acupuncture, but some studies show it’s useful for treating chronic pain, arthritis, and even depression. If you’ve been curious about the treatment, now's a good time to try it: Your FSA money will cover acupuncture sessions in some cases. You can even buy an acupressure mat without a prescription.

If you’d rather go to a chiropractor, your FSA funds cover those visits, too.

3. Stock up on staples.

If you’re running low on standard over-the-counter meds, good news: Most of them are FSA-eligible. This includes headache medicine, pain relievers, antacids, heartburn meds, and anything else your heart (or other parts of your body) desires.

There’s one big caveat, though: Most of these require a prescription in order to be eligible, so you may have to make an appointment with your doctor first. The FSA store tells you which over-the-counter items require a prescription.

4. Treat your feet.

Give your feet a break with a pair of massaging gel shoe inserts. They’re FSA-eligible, along with a few other foot care products, including arch braces, toe cushions, and callus trimmers.

In some cases, foot massagers or circulators may be covered, too. For example, here’s one that’s available via the FSA store, no prescription necessary.

5. Get clear skin.

Yep—acne treatments, toner, and other skin care products are all eligible for FSA spending. Again, most of these require a prescription for reimbursement, but don’t let that deter you. Your doctor is familiar with the rules and you shouldn’t have trouble getting a prescription. And, as WageWorks points out, your prescription also lasts for a year. Check the rules of your FSA plan to see if you need a separate prescription for each item, or if you can include multiple products or drug categories on a single prescription.

While we’re on the topic of faces, lip balm is another great way to spend your FSA funds—and you don’t need a prescription for that. There’s also no prescription necessary for this vibrating face massager.

6. Fill your medicine cabinet.

If your medicine cabinet is getting bare, or you don’t have one to begin with, stock it with a handful of FSA-eligible items. Here are some items that don’t require a prescription:

You can also stock up on first aid kits. You don’t need a prescription to buy those, and many of them come with pain relievers and other medicine.

7. Make sure you’re covered in the bedroom.

Condoms are FSA-eligible, and so are pregnancy tests, monitors, and fertility kits. Female contraceptives are also covered when you have a prescription.

8. Prepare for your upcoming vacation.

If you have a vacation planned this year, use your FSA money to stock up on trip essentials. For example:

9. Get a better night’s sleep.

If you have trouble sleeping, sleep aids are eligible, though you’ll need a prescription. If you want to try a sleep mask, many of them are eligible without a prescription. For example, there’s this relaxing sleep mask and this thermal eye mask.

For those nights you’re sleeping off a cold or flu, a vaporizer can make a big difference, and those are eligible, too (no prescription required). Bed warmers like this one are often covered, too.

Your FSA funds likely cover more than you realize, so if you have to use them up by the deadline, get creative. This list should help you get started, and many drugstores will tell you which items are FSA-eligible when you shop online.

10. Go to the dentist.

While basics like toothpaste and cosmetic procedures like whitening treatments aren’t FSA eligible, most of the expenses you incur at your dentist’s office are. That includes co-pays and deductibles as well as fees for cleanings, x-rays, fillings, and even the cost of braces. There are also some products you can buy over-the-counter without ever visiting the dentist. Some mouthguards that prevent you from grinding your teeth at night are eligible, as are cleaning solutions for retainers and dentures.

11. Try some new gadgets.

If you still have some extra cash to burn, it’s a great time to try some expensive high-tech devices that you’ve been curious about but might not otherwise want to splurge on. The list includes light therapy treatments for acne, vibrating nausea relief bands, electrical stimulation devices for chronic pain, cloud-connected stethoscopes, and smart thermometers.

12. Head to Amazon.

There are plenty of FSA-eligible items available on Amazon, including items for foot health, cold and allergy medication, eye care, and first-aid kits. Find out more details on how to spend your FSA money on Amazon here.

Mental Floss has affiliate relationships with certain retailers and may receive a small percentage of any sale. But we choose all products independently and only get commission on items you buy and don't return, so we're only happy if you're happy. Thanks for helping us pay the bills!

5 Easier Ways to Water Your Christmas Tree

Artfoliophoto/iStock via Getty Images
Artfoliophoto/iStock via Getty Images

A decorated Christmas tree adds instant holiday cheer to any room—for a few days, at least. If you neglect to care for it, however, it doesn't take long for that tree to start dropping needles and dry up into a brittle, brown fire hazard. The key to keeping your tree looking healthy until the New Year is to water it every day. Of course, that comes with its own problems, like sap-covered clothing and sore knees. Here are some alternative methods for watering your Christmas tree that won't have you wishing for the end of the holiday season.

1. Rig a funnel and PVC pipe.

The worst part of watering a Christmas tree is crawling around on your hands and knees, but once you've set up this funnel rig, you can water it while standing up. As Eric Palonen demonstrates in the video above, all you need to do is stick a PVC pipe into the tree stand, attach a funnel to the other end with an elbow connector, and pour in the water.

2. Dig out a pool noodle.

Don't have a spare PVC pipe at home? A foam pool noodle works just as well as the receptacle for your funnel.

3. Disguise a DIY water dispenser as a present.

On Instructables, Rickyspears shares his step-by-step process for building a Christmas tree-watering rig. Using a bucket and plastic tube with brass fittings, you can create a water-siphoning system that automatically keeps your tree hydrated. And because a big bucket of water beneath the tree isn't the most festive sight, Rickyspears also tells you how to disguise it by hiding it in a box decorated with wrapping paper.

4. Use a wine bottle.

Still have some leftover wine bottles from Thanksgiving (or the weekend) lying around the house? Use one of them to water the base of your tree while keeping a safe distance between you and the sticky branches. (Though if you do get some sap on your hands, there are a few easy ways to get rid of it.)

5. Invest in an automated watering system.

DIY watering rigs are inexpensive, but if convenience is your main concern, it's hard to beat a product that was designed just for this purpose. The Christmas tree watering bag from Elf Logic senses when your tree needs water and replenishes it automatically. Plus, it hangs on a branch like an ornament, making it easy to tuck away.

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