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Why Does Toilet Water Move When It's Windy Outside?

Reader Erin from Baltimore wrote in wondering why the water in her toilet bowl moves on windy days. This is one of those questions – like the one Jason asked about his dog’s popcorn-scented paws – that makes me pause and wonder if I’m getting trolled, or if I’m missing out on a strange phenomena that everyone else seems to be aware of.

So, I did a little Googling and even hung out in the bathroom staring at the toilet bowl one morning (yes, folks, this is the exciting life of a science writer). Turns out Erin isn’t messing with me. Perhaps I'm one of the last people on Earth to realize toilet water moves with the breeze. Way to go, Soniak.

So, what causes this commotion in the latrine?

In many homes (at least in the U.S.), part of the plumbing system is a pipe that runs up and out to the roof. This outlet, called a “vent stack,” allows sewage gases to vent outside instead of through the toilet, sink or tub—which would make the house reek. The stack also allows air to move through the pipes, which makes wastewater drain smoothly and keeps obnoxious gurgling to a minimum.

When the wind blows over the vent stack outlet on the roof, the air pressure in the pipe is lowered. This is Bernoulli’s principle (“as the speed of a moving fluid increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases”), the same thing that gives airplanes their lift, in action in your bathroom. The lowered pressure in the pipes creates a slight suction effect throughout the plumbing system, pulling on water in the toilet below. As the wind kicks up and dies down, the suction gets stronger and weaker, and the water in the bowl sloshes around accordingly.

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Mary-Lynn, Flickr, CC BY 2.0
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11 Primal Facts About Dian Fossey
Mary-Lynn, Flickr, CC BY 2.0
Mary-Lynn, Flickr, CC BY 2.0

Born in San Francisco on January 16, 1932, Dian Fossey came from a world far removed from the dense jungles of East Africa. She discovered that environment in her thirties and spent the final decades of her life studying the gorillas that lived there. From her groundbreaking primatology work to her mysterious death, here are 11 facts about the scientist behind Gorillas in the Mist.

1. HER LOVE OF ANIMALS BEGAN WITH A PET GOLDFISH.

Though she went on to become one of history's most famous animal-lovers, Fossey didn't grow up in a pet-friendly household. The only animal she was allowed to keep as a child was a single goldfish. She loved her fish, but when it died, her parents barred her from getting another animal to replace it. Even a pet hamster offered to her by a classmate was forbidden from entering the house.

2. SHE WAS A PRIZE-WINNING EQUESTRIAN.

Not permitted to keep pets in the home, Fossey nurtured her passion for animals through equestrianism. She received her first horseback-riding lesson at age 6. By the time she reached her teen years, she was advanced enough to merit an invitation to join the riding team at Lowell High School in San Francisco. Her hobby earned her several awards and pushed her to pursue an education in animal husbandry at the University of California, Davis. Even after she'd shifted career aspirations to occupational therapy, Fossey chose to move to Kentucky to be closer to farm life.

3. SHE SPENT HER LIFE SAVINGS ON HER FIRST TRIP TO AFRICA.

Dian Fossey was 31 when she first stepped foot on the continent where she'd complete her most important work. Inspired by a friend's trip to Africa, she collected her life savings (about $8000), took out a three-year bank loan, and planned a seven-week trip through the wilderness of Kenya, Tanzania, Congo, and Zimbabwe. On her adventures there she met Louis Leakey, the anthropologist famous for sponsoring the all-woman trio of primatology pioneers (the "trimates") that included Jane Goodall, Biruté Galdikas, and eventually Dian Fossey herself. It was also during this period when Fossey saw gorillas in the wild for the first time. She met wildlife photographers Joan and Alan Root and joined them on an expedition to photograph the animals in the Congolese mountains. The vacation wasn't scientific in nature, but as Fossey later wrote, "The seed was planted in my head, even if unconsciously, that I would someday return to Africa to study the gorillas of the mountains."

4. SHE PROVED HER DEDICATION WITH AN APPENDECTOMY.

Leakey reconnected with Fossey back in the States in 1966. The anthropologist had spent the last several years supporting his former secretary Jane Goodall in her chimpanzee research, and now he was in search of a candidate to do for gorillas what Goodall had done for chimps. After getting to know Fossey better, he decided she was the right woman for the job. He offered to gather the funding for her trip back to Africa, but before she left she would need to remove her appendix as a precaution. This didn't scare her off. When Leakey wrote six weeks later to say the surgery wouldn't be necessary and he had just wanted to make sure she was committed, she was already appendix-less.

5. HER FIRST RESEARCH EXPEDITION ENDED ABRUPTLY.

Fossey returned to the Congo toward the end of 1966—just months before a civil war erupted in the already volatile region. Rebel soldiers captured her at her base camp in July 1967. After spending two weeks in military detainment, she was able to bribe her way out with promises of cash and her Land Rover. The guards agreed to drive her to Uganda, and shortly after they arrived, she had them arrested. After the scare, Fossey was ready to resume her research almost immediately: This time she set up camp in Rwanda, ignoring warnings from the U.S. Embassy.

6. SHE UNCOVERED THE GORILLAS' TRUE NATURE.

Prior to Fossey's research, the public viewed gorillas as beasts similar in temperament to King Kong. She quickly disproved the notion that gorillas were bloodthirsty animals that would attack humans when given the chance.

To infiltrate their society, she adopted their habits. Walking on her knuckles and chewing on celery stalks allowed her to gain the apes' trust. As long as she maintained a nonthreatening profile and made her presence known at all times, she was safe around the gentle behemoths. Today we know that despite their intimidating size, gorillas are some of the least violent members of the great ape family.

7. SHE EARNED A UNIQUE NICKNAME FROM LOCALS.

Dian Fossey spent enough time at her research center in Rwanda to garner a reputation. To the locals she was Nyiramachabelli, a Swahili name that when roughly translated means "the woman who lives alone on the mountain."

8. SHE USED THE GORILLAS' NOSES TO TELL THEM APART.

Many of the gorillas Fossey studied were given names, such as Peanut, Rafiki, and Uncle Bert. Fossey used another method to tell her subjects apart: She drew sketches of their noses. Each gorilla has a unique pattern of wrinkles around its nose that makes it easy to identify. These nose prints are the equivalent of fingerprints in humans, but instead of getting up close to study them, Fossey was able to document them from far away using binoculars and a sketchpad.

9. ONE OF HER GORILLAS IS ALIVE TODAY.

Hundreds of gorillas made it into Dian Fossey's body of research. In 2017, only one specimen from that original pool is still alive. Poppy was born into a group of gorillas on Fossey's radar in 1976. The researcher documented the animal's birth and childhood in her journals. Today, at 41, Poppy is the oldest gorilla currently monitored by the Dian Fossey Fund.

10. HER WORK IS THE SUBJECT OF A BOOK, A MOVIE, AND AN OPERA.

In 1983, Fossey published the book that helped make her famous. Gorillas in the Mist is the autobiographical account of her first 13 years in the African jungle and the scientific discoveries she made about the gorillas living there. The title went on to become a bestseller. Five years later, Sigourney Weaver starred as Fossey in a film of the same name. The biopic snagged five Oscar nominations and converted Weaver into a gorilla conservationist.

There's another dramatization of Fossey's life that's not so widely known: In 2006, the Kentucky Opera VISIONS! program staged an opera called Nyiramachabelli—a nod to the researcher's nickname.

11. HER DEATH REMAINS A MYSTERY.

Next to her groundbreaking gorilla research, Fossey is perhaps best known for her mysterious and tragic murder. On December 27, 1985, she was found dead in her cabin at her Rwandan research camp. The cause of death was a machete blow to the head, but the identity of her assailant remains unknown to this day. (A Rwandan court convicted in absentia her American research assistant, Wayne McGuire, for her murder and sentenced him to death. McGuire, who fled Rwanda before the conviction, has always maintained his innocence.) Fossey was buried in the nearby mountains beside the grave of her favorite gorilla Digit, who had been slaughtered by poachers years earlier. Before she was killed, Fossey wrote one final entry in her diary. It reads:

“When you realize the value of all life, you dwell less on what is past and concentrate on the preservation of the future.”

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Mysterious 'Hypatia Stone' Is Like Nothing Else in Our Solar System
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iStock

In 1996, Egyptian geologist Aly Barakat discovered a tiny, one-ounce stone in the eastern Sahara. Ever since, scientists have been trying to figure out where exactly the mysterious pebble originated. As Popular Mechanics reports, it probably wasn't anywhere near Earth. A new study in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta finds that the micro-compounds in the rock don't match anything we've ever found in our solar system.

Scientists have known for several years that the fragment, known as the Hypatia stone, was extraterrestrial in origin. But this new study finds that it's even weirder than we thought. Led by University of Johannesburg geologists, the research team performed mineral analyses on the microdiamond-studded rock that showed that it is made of matter that predates the existence of our Sun or any of the planets in the solar system. And, its chemical composition doesn't resemble anything we've found on Earth or in comets or meteorites we have studied.

Lead researcher Jan Kramers told Popular Mechanics that the rock was likely created in the early solar nebula, a giant cloud of homogenous interstellar dust from which the Sun and its planets formed. While some of the basic materials in the pebble are found on Earth—carbon, aluminum, iron, silicon—they exist in wildly different ratios than materials we've seen before. Researchers believe the rock's microscopic diamonds were created by the shock of the impact with Earth's atmosphere or crust.

"When Hypatia was first found to be extraterrestrial, it was a sensation, but these latest results are opening up even bigger questions about its origins," as study co-author Marco Andreoli said in a press release.

The study suggests the early solar nebula may not have been as homogenous as we thought. "If Hypatia itself is not presolar, [some of its chemical] features indicate that the solar nebula wasn't the same kind of dust everywhere—which starts tugging at the generally accepted view of the formation of our solar system," Kramer said.

The researchers plan to further probe the rock's origins, hopefully solving some of the puzzles this study has presented.

[h/t Popular Mechanics]

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