Why Do Whales Beach Themselves?

iStock/shayes17
iStock/shayes17

Humans have observed marine mammals stranding themselves on land since at least the first century CE, when the ancient Romans and Greeks recorded beaching incidents. Modern marine biologists are only able to determine the cause of a beaching about 50 percent of the time, according to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and the reasons they find are varied.

Often the cause is obvious injury or illness. Disease or wounds from predators can leave an animal too weak to keep itself afloat, and at some point it gives up and lets the tides wash it ashore.

Cases where a group of animals beach themselves together, and not all of them exhibit signs of trauma, are more puzzling. One explanation biologists offer is that whales and dolphins, which hunt and travel together in groups called pods, fall victim to their own social structure. If the group leader or dominant animal is sick or hurt and runs ashore, the rest of the group might follow. Other times, the pod may just get itself stuck by a low tide after hunting or traveling too close to shore.

In some instances, mass beachings have occurred shortly after active use of military sonar in an area. In 2000, for example, 17 animals from four species (Cuvier’s beaked whale, Blainville’s beaked whale, Minke whale, and the spotted dolphin) were found beached within a 36 hour period in the Bahamas the day of, and after, a U.S. Navy sonar exercise. A joint Navy and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) investigation soon concluded that the tactical mid-range frequency sonars used by the Navy ships “were the most plausible source of the acoustic or impulse trauma” that occured. The evidence suggests that sonar may have both physical and behavioral effects on marine mammals.

Some animals also beach themselves purposefully as a hunting tactic. Killers whales, or orcas, frequently chase pinnipeds, like seals and sea lions, into the surf zone and onto shore, where the prey has to make a clumsy transition from swimming to walking in shallow, turbulent water. As the prey struggles to escape, the orca launches itself, or rides a wave, onto the beach and grabs the prey in its jaws. After the meal is secured, the orca can either wriggle back into deeper water or let a large wave lift it off the ground and back out to sea.

Therapy Puppy Provides Comfort to Grieving Families at North Carolina Funeral Home

AllenSphoto, iStock via Getty Images
AllenSphoto, iStock via Getty Images

Emotional support animals have become common sights at places like airports, and now the funeral industry is embracing their therapeutic benefits. As WGAL reports, Macon Funeral Home in North Carolina now has a Bernese mountain dog puppy to provide comfort to grieving clients.

Nine-week-old Mochi isn't a fully trained therapy dog yet, but she's already winning over visitors. Tori McKay, Macon's funeral office administrator, had dreamed of bringing a grief-support dog into the business for a decade. Shortly after her 30th birthday on January 4, she and her husband "decided that Mochi would make a wonderful addition to our family and this decade of our lives," she wrote on the funeral home's website.

McKay chose a Bernese mountain dog for the breed's affectionate personality, relaxed disposition, and successful history as an emotional support animal. Between ages 6 months to 1 year, Mochi will receive therapy dog training in Asheville. The plan is to eventually make her available to families upon request and bring her to nursing homes to meet with residents. Until then, the puppy is meeting guests in a more casual setting as she gets used to socializing with strangers.

"Stop by and meet her, she loves making new friends!" a post on the funeral home's Facebook page reads.

[h/t WGAL]

One of the World’s Most Dangerous Spiders Could Invade Homes after Australia's Recent Rainfall

Ian Waldie, Getty Images
Ian Waldie, Getty Images

While recent rainfall has been a welcome change in Australia after destructive bushfires caused a widespread crisis, it hasn’t come without an asterisk. According to the Australian Reptile Park, the wet and warm conditions have made Sydney funnel web spiders highly active—and the funnel web spider happens to be one of the most venomous arachnids on the planet.

In a video the park shared on Facebook, officials warn that the weather might cause a marked increase in the spiders' activity, as males cover territory in search of a mate. They might be found in shoes, in laundry, or in yards. Fortunately, Atrax robustus is easy to identify, with its shiny body providing a helpful visual cue to immediately begin walking in the other direction.

Male funnel webs are thought to have venom up to six times more dangerous than females and also tend to move around more, making human encounters with them more likely. Because they can’t climb smooth surfaces, funnel webs are also prone to burrowing in piled-up clothing or other hiding spaces, providing an unwelcome surprise for anyone looking to retrieve their discarded shirt or socks.

The funnel web is also aggressive, quick to attack when provoked, and packs a powerful enough bite to pierce shoes. After being bitten, pain, muscle spasms, and pulmonary edema follow. Victims should use a compression bandage and limb immobilization to compress surface tissue until they receive medical attention.

Though the species is believed to have caused 13 human deaths, there haven’t been any fatalities attributable to a funnel web bite since 1981. That’s due in large part to antivenom made from milked spiders, an advancement that saved the life of a 10-year-old boy, Matthew Mitchell, bitten by the spider in 2017. The spider was loitering in his shoe and bit him on the finger. After 12 vials of antivenom, Mitchell made a complete recovery.

The Australian Reptile Park is actually encouraging citizens to trap the spiders and bring them in to drop-off sites to aid in the antivenom production effort. They advise nudging the spider into a plastic or glass container with a spoon. Extreme caution should be exercised, but you knew that.

[h/t CNET]

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