A No-Bake Method for Making Bricks on Mars

As anybody who’s ever tried to cram a week’s worth of clothes into a carry-on suitcase can attest, smart packing is key. Nowhere is this truer than on missions to space, where every single ounce counts. Now engineers have figured out a way to ditch one bulky item: the chemistry equipment that Martian settlers would need to turn the planet’s dirt into bricks. They published their research in the journal Scientific Reports.

While some researchers are hard at work puzzling out how to feed future colonists, others, like structural engineer Yu Qiao of UC San Diego, want to make sure we’ve got somewhere to live when we get there.

NASA is currently investigating a number of different building methods and materials, including 3-D printing. The most obvious solution might just be for settlers to make building materials out of Martian soil—or it would be, if the soil’s chemical composition weren’t so tricky. Researchers have come up with ways to transform the dirt into bricks, but these involve complex chemistry or bringing along bulky equipment like nuclear-powered kilns.

Qiao and his colleagues thought there might be a way to simplify the chemical approach. They analyzed the soil and its physical properties, hoping to reduce the number of polymers needed to bind the loose sediment into a solid, strong object.

They reduced the number, all right. Their results showed that the soil could be successfully compressed into dense chunks without any polymers at all. The same iron oxide that gives the planet its rusty color can also help bind soil particles together.


Even without rebar, the new bricks are stronger than steel-reinforced concrete. On the right is a sample after testing to the point of failure. Image Credit: Jacobs School of Engineering/UC San Diego.

The new bricks are also surprisingly tough, able to withstand more force and pressure than steel-reinforced concrete. Best of all, making them uses a no-bake recipe. The soil can be air-dried and compressed using flattened pistons.

Qiao views his team’s progress as a pragmatic but vital contribution to the future. “The people who go to Mars will be incredibly brave,” he said in a statement. “They will be pioneers. And I would be honored to be their brick maker.”

Header image courtesy of NASA/JPL.

This Course Will Teach You How to Play Guitar Like a Pro for $29

BartekSzewczyk/iStock via Getty Images
BartekSzewczyk/iStock via Getty Images

Be honest: You’ve watched a YouTube video or two in an attempt to learn how to play a song on the guitar. Whether it was through tabs or simply copying whatever you saw on the screen, the fun always ends when friends start throwing out requests for songs you have no idea how to play. So how about you actually learn how to play guitar for real this time?

It’s now possible to learn guitar from home with the Ultimate Beginner to Expert Guitar Lessons Bundle, which is currently on sale for $29. Grab that Gibson, Fender, or whatever you have handy, and learn to strum rhythms from scratch.

The strumming course will teach you how to count beats and rests to turn your hands and fingers into the perfect accompaniment for your own voice or other musicians. Then, you can take things a step further and learn advanced jamming and soloing to riff anytime, anywhere. This course will teach you to improvise across various chords and progressions so you can jump into any jam with something original. You’ll also have the chance to dive deep into the major guitar genres of bluegrass, blues, and jazz. Lessons in jam etiquette, genre history, and how to read music will separate you from a novice player.

This bundle also includes courses in ear training so you can properly identify any relative note, interval, or pitch. That way, you can play along with any song when it comes on, or even understand how to modify it into the key you’d prefer. And when the time comes to perform, be prepared with skilled hammer-ons, pull-offs, slides, bends, trills, vibrato, and fret-tapping. Not only will you learn the basic foundations of guitar, you’ll ultimately be able to develop your own style with the help of these lessons.

The Ultimate Beginner to Expert Guitar Lessons Bundle is discounted for a limited time. Act on this $29 offer now to work on those fingertip calluses and play like a pro.

 

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A Prehistoric Great White Shark Nursery Has Been Discovered in Chile

Great white sharks used prehistoric nurseries to protect their young.
Great white sharks used prehistoric nurseries to protect their young.
solarseven/iStock via Getty Images

Great white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) may be one of the most formidable and frightening apex predators on the planet today, but life for them isn’t as easy as horror movies would suggest. Due to a slow growth rate and the fact that they produce few offspring, the species is listed as vulnerable to extinction.

There is a way these sharks ensure survival, and that is by creating nurseries—a designated place where great white shark babies (called pups) are protected from other predators. Now, researchers at the University of Vienna and colleagues have discovered these nurseries occurred in prehistoric times.

In a study published in the journal Scientific Reports, Jamie A. Villafaña from the university’s Institute of Palaeontology describes a fossilized nursery found in Coquimbo, Chile. Researchers were examining a collection of fossilized great white shark teeth between 5 and 2 million years old along the Pacific coast of Chile and Peru when they noticed a disproportionate number of young shark teeth in Coquimbo. There was also a total lack of sexually mature animals' teeth, which suggests the site was used primarily by pups and juveniles as a nursery.

Though modern great whites are known to guard their young in designated areas, the researchers say this is the first example of a paleo-nursery. Because the climate was much warmer when the paleo-nursery was in use, the researchers think these protective environments can deepen our understanding of how great white sharks can survive global warming trends.