Dinosaur Fossils Don’t Get Much Better Than This

© Royal Tyrrell Museum
© Royal Tyrrell Museum

Attention dinosaur nerds: if you haven’t already, you’re going to want to add Alberta, Canada, to your bucket list, as the province now hosts one of the most spectacular dino fossils the world has ever seen.

Alberta is well known as home to one of the densest dinosaur deposits on the planet. The Canadian Rockies in general are rich in both fossils and fossil fuels, and the search for one has not infrequently led to the other. The latest stunner was unearthed in 2011 by workers in a mine near Fort McMurray, who knew something was amiss when their bucket pulled up oddly patterned, deep-brown lumps of some unfamiliar mineral. They dug in farther, more carefully, and that’s when they found it: a 9-foot-long chunk of monster, sculpted in stone.

But there had been no sculptor, only time and happenstance. The 2500-pound stone that eventually emerged was not a skull, or a footprint, or an egg. It was a petrified dinosaur.

“We don’t just have a skeleton,” Caleb Brown of the Royal Tyrrell Museum, where the dinosaur is on display, told National Geographic. “We have a dinosaur as it would have been.”


©Royal Tyrrell Museum

And not just any dinosaur, either. The hulking, armored beast preserved in the oil sands is new to science, the first of its species ever found. We know that it’s a type of ankylosaur called a nodosaur, and that its last days likely took place somewhere between 110 and 112 million years ago.


©Royal Tyrrell Museum

The recovered fossil contains only the dinosaur’s front end to its hips. In life, the nodosaur would have been 18 feet long and almost 3000 pounds. If that wasn’t enough to keep the haters away, it also had a pair of 20-inch spikes protruding from its shoulders, like a boss. Even in death, this herbivore looks tough.

Needless to say, dinosaur researchers are beside themselves with glee. The preservation is so good, paleobiologist Jakob Vinther of the University of Bristol told National Geographic, that “it might have been walking around a couple of weeks ago.”

[h/t National Geographic]

Stegosaurus Tracks Discovered on Scotland’s Isle of Skye

Warpaintcobra, iStock via Getty Images
Warpaintcobra, iStock via Getty Images

Today, Scotland's Isle of Skye is a picturesque tourist destination. But 170 million years ago, it was home to one of the most iconic dinosaurs to ever roam the Earth. As The Guardian reports, paleontologists have found prehistoric footprints on the island that are believed to have come from a stegosaurus.

As researchers from the University of Edinburgh note in their new study published in the journal Plos One, the discovery marks the first evidence of stegosaurus on the Isle of Skye. The tracks, which were found in sedimentary rock on the east side of the island, are roughly the size of grapefruits. They follow a line stretching several feet, with a right-left sequence reflecting the gait of a four-legged animal. The shape of the prints themselves—larger, triangular back feet and slightly smaller front ones—match the skeleton of the armor-plated stegosaurus. If they do belong to stegosaurus, the 170-million-year-old find "represents one of the oldest fossil records of this major dinosaur group from anywhere in the world," the researchers write.

The stegosaurus made up just part of the recent Isle of Skye discoveries. Paleontologists also found prints with three-toes and claws from theropods (the group of carnivores that included T. Rex), and stubby three-toed tracks potentially belonging to ornithopods like duck-billed dinosaurs. Altogether, 50 new footprint fossils were found.

The Isle of Skye has long been known as a hotspot for dinosaur remains. During the Middle Jurassic period, the area had a swampy, subtropical climate that supported a vibrant wildlife population. The location where these latest tracks were discovered was a mudflat fringing a lagoon 170 million years ago. The mudflats were likely only around for a brief time before they were overtaken by the lagoon, indicating the species making up the batch of prints occupied the area around the same time. The researchers write, "As a result of this diversity, we can infer that a thriving community of dinosaurs lived in and near the subtropical lagoons of Middle Jurassic Scotland."

[h/t The Guardian]

Tiny, Bird-Like Skull Found in Amber Could Belong to the Mesozoic Era's Smallest Known Dinosaur

The skull of Oculudentavis khaungraae preserved in 99-million-year-old amber.
The skull of Oculudentavis khaungraae preserved in 99-million-year-old amber.
Lida Xing

Scientists recently discovered the skull of an extremely tiny, bird-like dinosaur that could be the smallest known species of the Mesozoic era—the period in which giant dinos like brachiosaurus, stegosaurus, and allosaurus evolved.

The specimen is preserved in a lump of 99-million-year-old amber from northern Myanmar and measures just 7.1 millimeters long, suggesting that the entire animal might have been even smaller than the bee hummingbird, which, at about 2.25 inches, is the smallest bird in existence. Very small fossils like this one are rarely found because layers of silt and rock usually destroy the delicate tissues. Amber preserves them intact.

Jingmai O’Connor, the paleontologist at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology in Beijing who discovered the skull within the amber, and her colleagues found that the jaws contained more than 100 teeth—implying that, despite its size, the creature was a predator, possibly feasting on insects. However, since its eye sockets face the side, it probably didn’t have binocular vision, which gives many other predators the depth perception needed to catch prey. The conical shape of the bones in those eye sockets indicates that the animal had rather small pupils and was likely active during the day. The findings were published in the journal Nature.

sketch of Oculudentavis khaungraae
The tiny dinosaur targets an unsuspecting insect.
Nature, YouTube

Because of its defining eyes and teeth, the researchers named the new species Oculudentavis khaungraae. Oculudentavis comes from the Latin words for eye (oculus), teeth (dentes), and bird (avis), and khaungraae derives from Khuang Ra, who had originally donated the amber to China’s Hupoge Amber Museum.

While scientists have unearthed quite a few fossils of large dinosaurs from the Mesozoic era—and pop culture like the Jurassic Park franchise likes to capitalize upon the public’s endless obsession with enormous animals—not as much is known about the era’s most diminutive dinosaurs.

“People focus on how big dinosaurs were,” O’Connor tells Mental Floss. “Now we know they were also really tiny.”

Amber, tree resin that has hardened over millions of years, might be our best hope for learning more.

“When you have an animal preserved in amber, it looks like it just died yesterday. All the soft tissue in place, trapped in this little window into an ancient time,” O’Connor explains in the video above.

The researchers are publishing their full study in the science journal Nature, but there are still plenty of questions to answer.

“This paper is just scratching the surface of the information preserved. Is the skull petrified or is it the original material unaltered, preserved in the amber? Mummified, if you will? What color was it, and can we use isotopes to figure out exactly what it ate; can we reconstruct the brain better?” O’Connor says. “We need the young, tech-savvy generation to develop new methods for extracting data from amber specimens in a non-destructive manner to get at these questions.”

In the meantime, dig into these 26 fascinating facts about fossils.

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