Tracking the Migration of a Strange Animal: The Scientist

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iStock

We have a lot of outdated notions of what a scientist looks like. Among them: that scientists stay in one laboratory room, bent over the same Bunsen burners, for decades. Now a new study suggests that researchers are far more mobile than we realized—and that this mobility is hugely beneficial for science. The research is part of a special issue of Science focused on human migration.

“Ideas do not carry passports,” the Science editors note in their introduction to the issue. “But lines on maps, as well as policies and pressures that influence who does or does not cross them, can be powerful determinants of whether and how ideas and skills align to advance scientific discovery and technological and economic progress.”

Like the naked gecko, which squirms out of its skin when cornered, the movements of individual scientists are often difficult to keep hold of. There are so many of them, many with the same names, often affiliated with multiple institutions. And while there have been studies of scientists’ travels, these are conducted anonymously, which makes it impossible to track any one person’s migration patterns.

Fortunately, a nonprofit organization called ORCID is now making the process a whole lot easier by offering each researcher their own unique ID code. In the nine years since its launch, ORCID has registered more than 3 million scientists, each with their own story and dashed line across the globe.

This is great for researchers with common names. It’s also great for social scientists, who used the data to survey 17,852 scientists working in 16 countries to find out where their careers were taking them.

Graphic: G. Grullón and J. You/Science; Data: ORCID

The answer seems to be “everywhere, man.” Survey respondents were highly mobile, often moving among several countries as their research progressed. Many of these moves were driven by necessity, author John Bohannon writes in Science. “You spend your days at the border of human knowledge. Depending on the topic, only a dozen people may deeply understand your research—let alone help you push it further—and they are scattered across the world. For many, completing a Ph.D., doing postdoctoral research, and landing a permanent job all in one country is impossible. And so you wander.”

But rather than disrupting the scientific enterprise, the researchers found, migration actually seems to enrich the quality of research. Survey respondents who moved more often were more successful in their research and publication, and departments with higher proportions of migratory researchers thrived. Conversely, countries hostile to immigration—including a post-9/11 U.S.—have taken a hit.

More research is needed to confirm these findings. The survey participants were not a representative sample, rather a self-selected group of researchers who use ORCID. Like many online database users, they’re younger than average, and it’s not clear how this affects the study results.

But individual researchers say the trends mirror their own experience of migration and its benefits, both professional and personal.

“Living and working in another country … makes you more humane and understanding,” biological engineer Helena Pinheiro told Bohannon. At the same time, she says, “crossing borders has always left me with the wish that borders would cease to exist.”

Amazon's Under-the-Radar Coupon Page Features Deals on Home Goods, Electronics, and Groceries

Stock Catalog, Flickr // CC BY 2.0
Stock Catalog, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

Now that Prime Day is over, and with Black Friday and Cyber Monday still a few weeks away, online deals may seem harder to come by. And while it can be a hassle to scour the internet for promo codes, buy-one-get-one deals, and flash sales, Amazon actually has an extensive coupon page you might not know about that features deals to look through every day.

As pointed out by People, the coupon page breaks deals down by categories, like electronics, home & kitchen, and groceries (the coupons even work with SNAP benefits). Since most of the deals revolve around the essentials, it's easy to stock up on items like Cottonelle toilet paper, Tide Pods, Cascade dishwasher detergent, and a 50 pack of surgical masks whenever you're running low.

But the low prices don't just stop at necessities. If you’re looking for the best deal on headphones, all you have to do is go to the electronics coupon page and it will bring up a deal on these COWIN E7 PRO noise-canceling headphones, which are now $80, thanks to a $10 coupon you could have missed.

Alternatively, if you are looking for deals on specific brands, you can search for their coupons from the page. So if you've had your eye on the Homall S-Racer gaming chair, you’ll find there's currently a coupon that saves you 5 percent, thanks to a simple search.

To discover all the deals you have been missing out on, head over to the Amazon Coupons page.

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The Northern Lights Storms Are Getting Names—and You Can Offer Up Your Suggestions

A nameless northern lights show in Ylläs, Finland.
A nameless northern lights show in Ylläs, Finland.
Heikki Holstila, Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0

While all northern lights are spectacular, they’re not all spectacular in the same way. Aurora borealis, or “northern dawn,” occurs when electrons in the magnetic field surrounding Earth transfer energy to oxygen and nitrogen molecules in the atmosphere. The molecules then emit the excess energy as light particles, which create scintillating displays whose colors and shapes depend on many known and unknown factors [PDF]—type of molecule, amount of energy transferred, location in the magnetosphere, etc.

Though the “storms” are extremely distinct from each other, they haven’t been named in the past the way hurricanes and other storms are christened. That’s now changing, courtesy of a tourism organization called Visit Arctic Europe. As Travel + Leisure reports, the organization will now christen the strongest storms with Nordic names to make it easier to keep track of them.

“There are so many northern lights visible in Arctic Europe from autumn to early spring that we started giving them names the same way other storms are named. This way, they get their own identities and it’s easier to communicate about them,” Visit Arctic Europe’s program director Rauno Posio explained in a statement.

Scientists will be able to reference the names in their studies, much like they do with hurricanes. And if you’re a tourist hoping to check out other people’s footage of the specific sky show you just witnessed, searching by name on social media will likely turn up better results than a broad “#auroraborealis.”

Visit Arctic Europe has already given names to recent northern lights storms, including Freya, after the Norse goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, and Sampo, after “the miracle machine and magic mill in the Finnish national epic poem, ‘Kalevala.’” A few other monikers pay tribute to some of the organization’s resident “aurora hunters.”

But you don’t have to be a goddess or an aurora hunter in order to get in on the action. Anybody can submit a name (along with an optional explanation for your suggestion) through the “Naming Auroras” page here. It’s probably safe to assume that submissions related to Nordic history or culture have a better chance of being chosen, but there’s technically nothing to stop you from asking Visit Arctic Europe to name a northern lights show after your dog.

[h/t Travel + Leisure]