15 Things You Should Know About Jacques-Louis David's 'Death of Socrates'

Wikimedia // Public Domain
Wikimedia // Public Domain

Long before he was regarded as a pioneer of the Neoclassical style, 18th-century French painter Jacques-Louis David was fascinated by history, enamored by ancient art, and determined to use his works to change the world. With The Death of Socrates, he brought politics into painting, shook up the art scene, and won major admirers ahead of the French Revolution.

1. THE DEATH OF SOCRATES DEPICTED A REAL AND TRULY HORRIFIC EVENT.

In 399 BCE, the Athenian courts convicted the philosopher Socrates of impiety, declaring he was corrupting the youth and had failed to worship the city's gods. He was sentenced to execution by hemlock poisoning. His protégé Plato recounted in the Phaedo that Socrates did not run from nor cry over his impending demise. Instead, he treated his execution as his final lesson. Taking the poison before his students, he did so while lecturing about how he believed in the immortality of the soul, and so did not fear death. Nonetheless, his friends and students wept around him.

2. IT'S AN IDEALIZED PORTRAIT OF SOCRATES.

At the time of his execution, Socrates would have been about 70 years old, and was unlikely to have looked quite so fit. But a beefier body wasn't his only upgrade. Comparing The Death of Socrates to busts of the famed philosopher, it's clear David gave him a makeover with a softer profile and less bulbous nose.

3. PLATO MAKES AN APPEARANCE.

Socrates sits just off center of the painting, reaching for the cup of poison, while giving a pointed speech. At the foot of the bed, turned away from him, is an old man with a beard and white robes. This is David's depiction of Plato, who wasn't actually present at the scene. Notably, he chose to make the Phaedo author look much older than he would have been at the time. Plato was roughly 29 when Socrates died.

4. DAVID BROKE FROM THE FACTS TO MAKE HIS MASTERPIECE.

David studied the Phaedo and conversed with scholar Father Jean Félicissme Adry, among others. But David did not feel beholden to his research. He made Plato older, Socrates fitter. He excluded some attendees from the scene, yet included both Plato and Apollodorus of Phaleron, a student of Socrates who the philosopher had kicked out for his intense display of grief. Apollodorus is the curly-haired blond who has thrown himself against the pillar inside the arch.

5. SOCRATES'S WIFE XANTHIPPE IS THERE TOO.

Look past all the weeping students, past the sullen Plato, into the hallway, where a woman in dusty pink robes waves her hand. That's Socrates's wife, seemingly regarded as an afterthought.

6. DAVID SIGNED THIS PIECE TWICE, AND WITH PURPOSE.

"L. David" can be spotted on the gray bench on which a man in a coral robe sits. That is Crito, an agriculturist and companion of Socrates depicted in Plato's works. It's believed this signature placement means David related most to Crito. The writer Victor Moeller has suggested this means the painter saw himself as someone who "clutches at the morals and values that Socrates represents," which is suggested by how Crito clutches at the philosopher's thigh.

The other signature is just his initials, L.D. They can be found on the bench where Plato sits. Art historians believe this is a sort of citation to the source material, nodding to Plato's contribution to this painting via his Phaedo.

7. IT WASN'T JUST HISTORY. IT WAS PROPAGANDA.

A few years ahead of the French Revolution, The Death of Socrates was commissioned by the Trudaine de Montigny brothers, two radical political reformers who were calling for an upheaval of French norms by promoting a free market system. To them, Socrates was a hero who sacrificed himself to his principles rather than accepting banishment and shame. In this painting of stoicism in the face of death, David was creating a clarion call for how the rebels should push toward their goals, not with cowardice and outcry like Socrates's students—save for Plato and Crito!—but with self-control, honor, and fearlessness.

8. IT MIGHT BE INTENDED TO BE READ RIGHT TO LEFT.

In his video essay "The Death of Socrates: How To Read A Painting," writer Evan Puschak argues that the painting is meant to be read like an ancient Roman frieze. If perceived through this lens, first the viewer would take in the wailing students, and perhaps wonder why they cry. Then they'd regard Socrates, lecturing and strong. Then, in the direct center of the painting, the cup of poison, hanging heavy with threat and finality. Next is the red-robed student so rattled he can't even look at his teacher in this final moment. Lastly, we'd regard the old man on the bench, Plato, left behind to tell the story that survived his friend and mentor.

9. READING IT LEFT TO RIGHT OFFERS A DIFFERENT BUT STILL PLAUSIBLE INTERPRETATION.

Puschak notes that Socrates became famous because of Plato's writings about him and his philosophies. With this in mind, you could regard The Death of Socrates left to right and see it as essentially being about Plato. In this context, the philosopher is thinking back on that fatal day. Behind him the death of Socrates plays out as memory—vibrant, beautiful, and bittersweet.

10. THE MUTED COLOR PALETTE MIGHT BE DUE TO DAVID'S CRITICS.

In 1784, David debuted Oath of Horatii, which depicted a Roman legend with vibrant colors of crimson and blue. This palette was panned by critics, who called it "garish." As such, art historians suspect that David chose to subdue his reds in this piece. Notably, the colors grow more vibrant toward the center of the painting, thus drawing our eyes to Socrates and the young man holding the cup of poison.

11. THIS WAS ONE OF SEVERAL POLITICALLY MOTIVATED DEATH PORTRAITS DAVID PAINTED.

Outraged by the French monarchy, David became a passionate member of the Jacobin Club, a radical democratic group born during the French Revolution. He used his skills as a painter to benefit their cause whenever possible. As the years went by, David grew bolder, moving away from ancient history as allegory and painting more recent events to engage his audience. In 1793 and 1794, he memorialized French Revolutionaries with The Death of Marat, The Last Moments of Michel Lepeletier, and The Death of Young Bara.

12. THE DEATH OF SOCRATES FLEW IN THE FACE OF WHAT WAS POPULAR IN PAINTING.

At this time, Rococo was all the rage. This late 18th-century French artistic movement embraced light colors, ornate compositions, curves, whimsy, and luxurious gold tones. In David's painting, the focal point is a man made of angular geometry; those whose spines curve around him are perceived as weak. The colors are more vibrant, the composition detailed but not florid, the subject life and death, not whimsy.

13. YET THE DEATH OF SOCRATES WAS GREATLY PRAISED IN ITS TIME.

The painting debuted at a Paris salon on August 25, 1787. It's unknown how long its exhibition lasted, but what is known is that Thomas Jefferson was one of its earliest admirers. According to art historian Narim Bender, influential English painter Sir Joshua Reynolds compared it to Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel and Raphael's Stanze rooms. After visiting the salon nine more times to view it, he declared The Death of Socrates "in every sense perfect."

14. THAT VERY SALON WAS DEPICTED IN A FAMOUS ENGRAVING.

Italian artist Pietro Antonio Martini expressed his admiration over this epic exhibition by creating the breathlessly detailed depiction Exposition au Salon du Louvre en 1787. The piece captures numerous visitors, walls full of paintings, and The Death of Socrates. You can find it near the center of the painting, in the bottom row. Just below the large portrait of a woman in a gown, it stands out with its gaping archway hovering above a trio of chatting guests.

15. TODAY THE DEATH OF SOCRATES IS REGARDED AS A DEFINING PIECE IN THE NEOCLASSICAL STYLE.

Though Oath of Horatii was criticized for its color, it's now viewed as the start of the Neoclassical style. But it was the critical reception and popularity of The Death of Socrates that both cemented the style and brought it to the attention of the world. Neoclassicism found inspiration in ancient Greek and Roman art's focus on anatomy and musculature, the stark simplicity of their statues, and the two-dimensional friezes that captured historical events. Essentially, David took these inspirations and gave them new life in relevance with oil paints.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which proudly houses The Death of Socrates today, declares it as "arguably the artist’s most perfect statement of the Neoclassical style."

10 LEGO Sets For Every Type of LEGO Builder 

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If you’re looking for a timeless gift to give this holiday season, look no further than a LEGO set. With kits that cater to a wide age range—from toddlers fine-tuning their motor skills to adults looking for a more engaged way to relax—there’s a LEGO set out there for everyone. We’ve rounded up some of our favorite sets on Amazon to help you find the LEGO box that will make your loved one smile this year. If you end up getting one for yourself too, don’t worry: we won’t tell.

1. Classic Large Creative Gift Box; $44

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You can never go wrong with a classic. This 790-piece box contains dozens of types of colored bricks so builders of any age can let their inner architect shine. With toy windows, doors, tires, and tire rims included in addition to traditional bricks, the building possibilities are truly endless. The bricks are compatible with all LEGO construction sets, so builders have the option of creating their own world or building a new addition onto an existing set.

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2. Harry Potter Hogwarts Express; $64

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Experience the magic of Hogwarts with this buildable Hogwarts Express box. The Prisoner Of Azkaban-inspired kit not only features Hogwarts's signature mode of transportation, but also Platform 9 ¾, a railway bridge, and some of your favorite Harry Potter characters. Once the train is built, the sides and roof can be removed for play within the cars. There is a Dementor on board … but after a few spells cast by Harry and Lupin, the only ride he’ll take is a trip to the naughty list.

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3. Star Wars Battle of Hoth; $160

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Star Wars fans can go into battle—and rewrite the course of history—by recreating a terrifying AT-AT Walker from the Battle of Hoth. Complete with 1267 pieces to make this a fun challenge for ages 10 and up, the Walker has elements like spring-loaded shooters, a cockpit, and foldout panels to reveal its deadly inner workings. But never fear: Even though the situation might look dire, Luke Skywalker and his thermal detonator are ready to save the day.

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4. Super Mario Adventures Starter Course; $60

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Kids can play Super Mario in 3D with LEGO’s interactive set. After constructing one of the courses, young designers can turn on the electronic Mario figurine to get started. Mario’s built-in color sensors and LCD screens allow him to express more than 100 different reactions as he travels through the course. He’ll encounter obstacles, collect coins, and avoid Goomba and Bowser to the sound of the Mario soundtrack (played via an included speaker). This is a great gift for encouraging problem-solving and creativity in addition to gaming smarts.

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5. Gingerbread House; $212

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Gingerbread houses are a great way to enjoy the holidays … but this expert-level kit takes cookie construction to a whole new level. The outside of the LEGO house rotates around to show the interior of a sweet gingerbread family’s home. Although the living room is the standout with its brick light fireplace, the house also has a kitchen, bedroom, bathroom, and outdoor furniture. A LEGO Christmas tree and presents can be laid out as the holidays draw closer, making this a seasonal treat you can enjoy with your family every year.

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6. Elsa and Olaf’s Tea Party; $18

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LEGO isn’t just for big kids. Toddlers and preschoolers can start their LEGO journey early by constructing an adorable tea party with their favorite Frozen characters. As they set up Elsa and Olaf’s ice seats, house, and tea fixings, they’ll work on fine-motor, visual-spatial, and emotional skills. Building the set from scratch will enable them to put their own creative spin on a favorite movie, and will prepare them for building more complicated sets as they get older.

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7. Collectible Art Set Building Kits; $120

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Why buy art when you can build it yourself? LEGO’s Beatles and Warhol Marilyn Monroe sets contain four options for LEGO art that can be built and displayed inside your home. Each kit comes with a downloadable soundtrack you can listen to while you build, turning your art experience into a relaxing one. Once you’re finished building your creation it can be exhibited within a LEGO brick frame, with the option to hang it or dismantle it to start on a new piece. If the 1960s aren’t your thing, check out these Sith and Iron Man options.

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8. NASA Apollo Saturn V; $120

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The sky (or just the contents of your LEGO box) is the limit with LEGO’s Saturn V expert-level kit. Designed for ages 14 and up, this to-scale rocket includes three removable rocket stages, along with a command and service module, Lunar Lander, and more. Once the rocket is complete, two small astronaut figurines can plant a tiny American flag to mark a successful launch. The rocket comes with three stands so it can be displayed after completion, as well as a booklet for learning more about the Apollo moon missions.

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9. The White House; $100

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Reconstruct the First Family’s home (and one of America’s most famous landmarks) by erecting this display model of the White House. The model, which can be split into three distinct sections, features the Executive Residence, the West Wing, and the East Wing of the complex. Plant lovers can keep an eye out for the colorful rose garden and Jacqueline Kennedy Garden, which flank the Executive Residence. If you’re unable to visit the White House anytime soon, this model is the next best thing.

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10. Volkswagen Camper Van; $120

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Road trip lovers and camping fanatics alike will love this vintage-inspired camper. Based on the iconic 1962 VW vehicle, LEGO’s camper gets every detail right, from the trademark safari windshield on the outside to the foldable furniture inside. Small details, like a “Make LEGO Models, Not War” LEGO T-shirt and a detailed engine add an authentic touch to the piece. Whether you’re into old car mechanics or simply want to take a trip back in time, this LEGO car will take you on a journey you won’t soon forget.

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13 Gorgeous Coffee Table Books for Anyone on Your List

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This holiday season, give the gift of a gorgeous, conversation-starting coffee table book. Here are 13 that you can get for anyone on your list, whether they're obsessed with history, art, or cats.

1. Posing Beauty: African American Images from the 1890s to the Present; $50

W.W. Norton/Amazon

Deborah Willis’s incredible book features more than 200 photos—many that were previously unpublished—organized by theme. There are famous figures like Josephine Baker, Lil Kim, and Condoleezza Rice, as well as anonymous Black people in the neighborhood, reading magazines, and getting a cut from the barber. Willis spent 10 years doing research and combing through archives to create the book, which has been hailed as “a definitive history of black beauty … a treasure, a triumph and a singular achievement that invites fresh and enduring insights with each viewing.”

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2. Parks: United States National Park Service Maps from the Collection of Brian Kelley; $57

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National Park enthusiasts will love this book, which pulls together more than 400 maps and other incredible visual treasures dating as far back as 1910.

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3. America 1900; $70

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This stunning, 588-page behemoth of a book (it weighs almost nine pounds!) features the first color photos of North America, produced between 1888 and 1924. Taschen also has books devoted to France, Italy, and Germany at the same time period if you’re looking to gift a set.

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4. Walter Chandoha. Cats: 1942-2018; $50

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After snapping photos of a kitten he’d rescued in 1949, Walter Chandoha—who had previously worked as a photographer for the Army during World War II—started to photograph shelter cats … and didn’t stop taking photos of cats for the next 70 years. This book pulls together his incredible images (which influenced Andy Warhol) in one place, and it’s a gift that any ailurophile/bibliophile will appreciate.

Buy it: Taschen

5. Bibliostyle: How We Live at Home with Books; $24

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This tome, which features drool-worthy home libraries from history and around the world, will inspire (and possibly enable!) any book lover.

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6. Cabinet of Natural Curiosities; $70

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This reprint of Albertus Seba’s prized natural history book weighs in at more than 10 pounds and features incredible, colorful illustrations that will delight lovers of the natural world.

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7. The Photography of Game of Thrones; $43

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Pop culture aficionados who miss the fiery palace intrigue of Game of Thrones can revisit Westeros with this book of photos by set photographer Helen Sloan. Not only does the book provide gorgeous shots of the show and its iconic characters, but it also provides readers with a peek behind-the-scenes of Thrones. (The Night King doesn’t look so scary snapping a selfie, now does he?)

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8. The NASA Archives. 60 Years in Space; $150

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Anyone who has dreamed of going to space will love this nearly 13-pound book, which includes more than 400 photos from NASA’s history, rare illustrations, and text by former NASA historian Roger Launius, Apollo historian Andrew Chaikin, and journalist Piers Bizony.

Buy it: Taschen

9. Dog People; $35

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Sandra Müller’s hilarious collection of photos of pups dressed as people is the perfect gift for any dog owner who’s constantly anthropomorphizing their pooch.

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10. Patterns of India: A Journey Through Colors, Textiles, and the Vibrancy of Rajasthan; $22

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Brighten up the dull winter months with Christine Chitnis’s 288-page book that features more than 200 lush and bright photographs of life in Rajasthan, India. One reviewer called Patterns of India “an inspiring celebration of one of the most visually compelling and engaging destinations for travelers and photographers, where every detail, from the mundane to the sacred, is a divine expression of ancient and modern artisanal mastery.”

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11. Booze & Vinyl: A Spirited Guide to Great Music and Mixed Drinks; $23

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The perfect gift for the person who loves sipping a cocktail while listening to their favorite record, Booze & Vinyl has been billed as “the ultimate listening party guide.” The book is organized by mood and features 50 albums released from the 1950s to the 2000s. (Under Rock, for example, you’ll find The Clash’s London Calling, while Dance features Lady Gaga’s Fame Monster.) Each album is accompanied by notes and a cocktail recipe—Bjork’s Debut, for example, is paired with a cocktail called The Swan that originated at The Waldorf before Prohibition.

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12. History as They Saw It: Iconic Moments from the Past in Color; $36

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The colorization of black and white videos and images might be somewhat controversial, but it’s undeniable that adding hues to our views of history can give us a new perspective. This book by Wolfgang Wild and Jordan Lloyd brings color to 120 photos of unforgettable historical events, including the building of the Eiffel Tower and the sinking of the Titanic, making it a beautiful gift for history buffs who wish they could travel back in time and see these scenes with their own eyes.

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13. The Art of Looking Up; $20

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In The Art of Looking Up, art historian Catherine McCormack gives the backgrounds and stories behind the most incredible ceilings around the globe. The book is split into four themes—Religion, Culture, Power, and Politics—and features incredible eye candy like the glass flowers that adorn the ceilings of the Bellagio hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada; the intricately tiled ceiling of the Imam Mosque in Isfahan, Iran; and the stained-glass ceiling above the Toluca Botanical Gardens in Mexico.

Buy it: Amazon

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