Cats Didn't Need Our Help to Become Domesticated

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Among domestic animals, cats are best known for their independence. With good reason: They have been living alongside humans for far longer than they've been domesticated. Felines lived side by side with humans for thousands of years before we finally began to influence their breeding, according to new research (via Smithsonian). Whereas it has been 40,000-odd years since we started domesticating dogs, selective breeding of cats may have started only in the medieval era.

Writing in Nature Ecology and Evolution, scientists from the University of Leuven in Belgium and the Institut Jacques Monod in Paris (among many other institutions) analyzed cat DNA from ancient and modern cats from Europe, north and east Africa, and southwest Asia, looking at samples dating back 9000 years. They got their samples from the bones and teeth from more than 200 cat remains from Stone Age sites, Viking graves, and Egyptian tombs.

There is plenty of evidence that cats and humans have lived together for millennia, like a cat skeleton buried with a person in Cyprus around 7500 BCE and skeletons of cats buried in an Egyptian cemetery from around 3700 BCE. But the "evidence points to a commensal relationship between cats and humans lasting thousands of years before humans exerted substantial influence on their breeding," they write.

Domestication came in two waves, according to this research. Of five different subspecies of wildcat that originated all over the world, domestic cats only belong to one: Felis silvestris lybica, the African wildcat. When the first farmers in the Fertile Crescent began to store grain from their fields, wildcats flocked to hunt the mice that were attracted to the food stores. Farmers likely began to tame these cats, realizing that they could keep rodents away from the food supply. These cats from the Middle East then started to spread into Europe.

Several thousand years later, ancient Egyptian cats began to spread out across what is now Turkey, Bulgaria, and other places, becoming a more common type than the Middle Eastern cats that had previously dominated the population. Egyptian cats traveled throughout the world thanks to shipping, because boats needed feline sailors to keep rats from chewing through their ropes and eating their food on board. Egyptian cat DNA showed up in samples from as far north as a Viking port on the Baltic Sea, so it's likely that they were taken on trade routes to northern Europe.

Unlike with dogs, though, it seems that people were employing cats as mousers but not selecting specific aesthetic traits. People haven't been breeding cats until quite recently—just about 700 years ago. In order to pinpoint the spread of domestication by humans (which is a contentious thing to define, as house cats are still very similar genetically to their wild cousins), the researchers followed the spread of the genetic change that leads to blotched tabby markings; because the coloration is due to a recessive gene mutation, its proliferation was probably due to humans breeding for that pattern. (It doesn't show up in wildcat populations.) According to the scientists' samples, the allele for this pattern didn't show up until the medieval era, around 1300 CE, when it was present in what is now Turkey. It would take a long time before humans really began choosing their cats for their appearance. Breeding for looks didn't really take off until the 19th century.

Even now, cats are much more like their wild counterparts than dogs are. They may be tame, but thanks to their ability to live in harmony with humans while remaining independent, they've managed to retain many of the physical and genetic characteristics of their wild brethren.

[h/t Smithsonian]

6 Protective Mask Bundles You Can Get On Sale

pinkomelet/iStock via Getty Images Plus
pinkomelet/iStock via Getty Images Plus

Daily life has changed immeasurably since the onset of COVID-19, and one of the ways people have had to adjust is by wearing protective masks out in public places, including in parks and supermarkets. These are an essential part of fighting the spread of the virus, and there are plenty of options for you depending on what you need, whether your situation calls for disposable masks to run quick errands or the more long-lasting KN95 model if you're going to work. Check out some options you can pick up on sale right now.

1. Cotton Face Masks; $20 for 4

Protective Masks with Patterns.
Triple7Deals

This four-pack of washable cotton face masks comes in tie-dye, kids patterns, and even a series of mustache patterns, so you can do your part to mask germs without also covering your personality.

Buy it: $20 for four (50 percent off)

2. CE- and FDA-Approved KN95 Mask; $50 for 10

A woman putting on a protective mask.
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You’ve likely heard about the N95 face mask and its important role in keeping frontline workers safe. Now, you can get a similar model for yourself. The KN95 has a dual particle layer, which can protect you from 99 percent of particles in the air and those around you from 70 percent of the particles you exhale. Nose clips and ear straps provide security and comfort, giving you some much-needed peace of mind.

Buy it: $50 for 10 (50 percent off)

3. Three-Ply Masks; $13 for 10

Woman wearing a three-ply protective mask.
XtremeTime

These three-ply, non-medical, non-woven face masks provide a moisture-proof layer against your face with strong filtering to keep you and everyone around you safe. The middle layer filters non-oily particles in the air and the outer layer works to block visible objects, like droplets.

Buy it: $13 for 10 (50 percent off)

4. Disposable masks; $44 for 50

A batch of disposable masks.
Odash, Inc.

If the thought of reusing the same mask from one outing to the next makes you feel uneasy, there’s a disposable option that doesn’t compromise quality; in fact, it uses the same three-layered and non-woven protection as other masks to keep you safe from airborne particles. Each mask in this pack of 50 can be worn safely for up to 10 hours. Once you're done, safely dispose of it and start your next outing with a new one.

Buy it: $44 for 50 (41 percent off)

5. Polyester Masks; $22 for 5

Polyester protective masks.
Triple7Deals

These masks are a blend of 95 percent polyester and 5 percent spandex, and they work to block particles from spreading in the air. And because they're easily compressed, they can travel with you in your bag or pocket, whether you're going to work or out to the store.

Buy it: $22 for five (56 percent off)

6. Mask Protector Cases; $15 for 3

Protective mask case.
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You're going to need to have a stash of masks on hand for the foreseeable future, so it's a good idea to protect the ones you’ve got. This face mask protector case is waterproof and dust-proof to preserve your mask as long as possible.

Buy it: $15 for three (50 percent off)

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Tear Gas vs. Pepper Spray: What’s the Difference?

This is probably pepper spray.
This is probably pepper spray.
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Pepper spray and tear gas are both non-lethal irritants that cause extreme burning of the eyes, nose, and throat—but there are a few key differences between the two substances.

For one, they’re created from different chemicals. According to biohazard remediation company Aftermath, the active ingredient in pepper spray is oleoresin capsicum, which comes from the compound that makes hot peppers so hot: capsaicin. If you’ve ever accidentally rubbed your eyes after chopping a chili pepper, you’ve gotten a very tiny taste of what it’s like to be sprayed with pepper spray. Tear gas, on the other hand, contains 0-Chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile (CS), 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (CN), or a similar artificial chemical. At room temperature, both of those chemicals are powdery solids, not gases—they’re mixed with liquids or gases so they can be dispersed in the air.

Delivery methods differ, too. Pepper spray often comes in an aerosol can, which shoots it in a stream, a mist, or some other relatively direct path (though it’s also available as a gel or foam). As the Berkeley Science Review explains, tear gas is mainly dispersed with a grenade, which releases the substance over a wide area when it explodes. Since the grenades can cover so much ground, law enforcement officers are more likely to use tear gas to try to break up a crowd, and civilians are more likely to carry pepper spray as a personal safety measure.

The immediate effects of the two substances are similar—burning sensation in mucous membranes, rise in blood pressure, difficulty breathing, runny nose, etc.—but tear gas can also cause nausea and vomiting in higher concentrations.

For more on tear gas, including what to do if you’re exposed to it, head here.

[h/t Aftermath]