How Does a Sea Breeze Form?

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iStock

Walking outside during the summer can feel like walking into the bathroom after someone takes a shower. The muggy air gives you a great big unwanted hug, fogging up your glasses and forcing you into a gross and near-immediate sweat. If you're seeking relief, head to the beach: One of the great benefits of being near the coast is the cool afternoon breeze that takes the edge off of a hot summer day.

The sea breeze is a wind circulation that forms near the coast when there's a large difference between the temperature of the air over land and the temperature of the air over water. Land heats up much faster than water, so there's usually a big temperature gradient between, say, Mobile, Alabama, and the Gulf of Mexico just a few miles offshore.

The sea breeze process starts when warm, unstable air over the land begins to rise. This rising air creates a small area of lower air pressure at the surface. As part of Mother Nature's balancing act, cooler air over the ocean starts to rush toward land to fill the void left by the rising air. This eventually creates a circulation that continues for as long as daytime heating is present. As cooler air lingering over the water starts to spill inland, humidity goes up a bit, but air temperatures drop as much as 10°F to 15°F once it passes through. You don't need to be on the beach to reap the benefits of this phenomenon, either: A sea breeze can travel as much as 50 miles inland in some locations.

Aside from their cooling relief, sea breezes are most notable for the thunderstorms they can trigger near the coast. Sea breeze thunderstorms don't last for very long, but they can be a doozy, sometimes producing flooding rains, vivid lightning, and occasionally some damaging wind gusts.

Central Florida is famous for dealing with sea breeze thunderstorms almost every day during the warm season. The state's narrow shape allows two sea breezes—one from the Gulf of Mexico and one from the Atlantic Ocean—to collide with each other right in the middle of the peninsula. One sea breeze usually packs enough punch to fire up a hefty storm, but the lift created by two sea breezes colliding can trigger especially vivacious storms, as anyone who's ever visited Orlando's theme parks can tell you.

Once the Sun goes down and the sea breeze wanes, the opposite effect begins to take hold. Water holds onto its heat much better than the land, and as a result the air over the water usually stays warmer at night than the air over land. This disparity between land and sea causes what's known as a land breeze; it's the exact process that goes into a sea breeze, but blowing from the land out toward the sea instead. This process can also lead to thunderstorms, just close enough to the coast that anyone standing on the beach in the early hours of the morning can watch lightning flashing off in the distance.

Denver's Temperature Dropped a Record 64 Degrees In 24 Hours

Leonid Ikan/iStock via Getty Images
Leonid Ikan/iStock via Getty Images

One sure sign summer is over: On Wednesday, residents of Denver, Colorado were experiencing a comfortable 82-degree day. Just before midnight, the temperature dropped to 29 degrees. Between Wednesday and Thursday afternoon, the Denver airport recorded a differential of 79 degrees down to 24 degrees. At one point on Wednesday, a staggering 45-degree drop was seen in the span of just three hours.

All told, a one-day span saw a 64-degree change in temperature, from a high of 83 to a low of 19, a record for the state in the month of October and just two degrees shy of matching Denver’s all-time record drop of 66 degrees on January 25, 1872. On that date, the temperature plummeted from 46 degrees to -20 degrees.

Back to 2019: Citizens tried their best to cope with the jarring transition in their environment, to mixed success. On Wednesday, the city’s Washington Park was full of joggers and shorts-wearing outdoor enthusiasts. Thursday, only the most devoted runners were out, bundled up against the frigid weather.

The cold snap also brought with it some freezing drizzle which prompted several vehicular accidents, including 200 reported during Thursday's morning commute. It’s expected to warm up some in the coming days, but residents shouldn't get too comfortable: Melting ice could lead to potholes.

[h/t KRDO]

Fall Foliage Is Running Late This Year

Free art director/iStock via Getty Images
Free art director/iStock via Getty Images

The August arrival of the pumpkin spice latte might have you feeling like fall is in full swing already, but plants aren’t quite so impressionable. According to Travel + Leisure, the best fall foliage could be coming a little later than usual this year.

Historically, the vibrant transformation starts to sweep through northern regions of the Rocky Mountains, Minnesota, and New England in mid-September, and reaches its peak by the end of the month. Other areas, including the Appalachians and Midwest states, don’t see the brightest autumn leaves until early or mid-October. The Weather Channel reports that this year, however, the forecast from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration predicts unseasonably warm temperatures for the next two weeks, which could impede the color-changing process.

Warm temperatures aren’t necessarily bad for fall foliage, as long as they occur during the day and are offset by cool nights. Since meteorologists don’t expect the overnight temperatures to drop off yet, plants will likely continue producing enough chlorophyll to keep their leaves green in the coming days.

The good news is that this year’s fall foliage should only be about a week late, and meteorologist David Epstein thinks that when leaves do start to change color, we’re in for an especially beautiful treat. If the current weather forecast holds, he told Boston.com, we'll "see a longer season than last year, we’d see a more vibrant season than last year, and it would come on a little earlier than last year, which was so late.”

Though poor weather conditions like early snow, heavy rain, drought, or strong winds can cause leaves to fall prematurely, most trees right now are in a good position to deliver a brilliant display of color after a healthy, rain-filled summer.

Find out when you’ll experience peak fall foliage in your area with this interactive map.

[h/t Travel + Leisure]

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