Scientists Zoom In on Genetic Causes of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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iStock

Study by study, researchers are pushing ever closer toward identifying the gene variants to blame for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The latest and most promising findings were published in the journal Nature.

There are two forms of IBD: ulcerative colitis, which affects only the colon and is more common in women; and Crohn's disease, which can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract and is slightly more common in men. Today, IBD affects between 1 and 1.3 million Americans, yet we understand very little about why it happens or why some groups of people are more susceptible than others.

It's possible and even likely, scientists say, that the root of the illness could lie in our genes. Previous studies have linked IBD to hundreds of different genetic variants, but that's as specific as they could get.

To take a closer look, researchers at three institutions collaborated to build a massive, high-resolution genetic map. They collected the genomes of 67,852 different people—18,967 with Crohn's disease, 14,628 with ulcerative colitis, and 34,257 healthy people for a control group—and combed through, looking for variants unique to the folks with IBD.

Like previous researchers, they found plenty. But the new map was so detailed that its creators could zoom in further and further down, checking how likely it was that any given variant could actually cause the disease. From hundreds, they narrowed it down to just 18 variants, and had at least 95 percent certainty that these were the ones responsible. Some of these gene variants were related to processing amino acids; some seemed to interfere with healthy molecule binding; and some were tied to the switching on and off of immune or gut cells.

"We need to be careful in deciding when we are sure we have the right variant," first author Hailiang Huang, of Massachusetts General Hospital and the Broad Institute, said in a statement. "This new technique helps us to pinpoint which genetic variants are implicated in IBD with greater confidence."

The authors say that isolating IBD-related gene variants will help develop new drugs, and could someday even aid in personalized medicine by helping doctors identify which existing drugs will be most effective for their patients.

Crocs Is Donating More Than 100,000 Pairs of Shoes to Healthcare Workers

Sturdy, comfortable Crocs are a favorite among healthcare professionals.
Sturdy, comfortable Crocs are a favorite among healthcare professionals.
David Silverman/Getty Images

Crocs have long been a favorite among healthcare workers who spend hours on their feet each day—and now, they can get a pair for free.

This week, the company announced that it will give away more than 100,000 pairs of shoes to medical professionals fighting the new coronavirus in the U.S. ClickOrlando reports that workers can submit their requests for Crocs Classic Clogs or Crocs at Work via an online form on the Crocs website, which will open each weekday at 12 p.m. EST and continue accepting orders until it fulfills its daily allotment.

According to a press release, that allotment is a whopping 10,000 pairs of shoes per day. The as-yet-unspecified end date for the program—called “A Free Pair for Healthcare”—depends on inventory levels and the number of requests the company receives. In addition to shipping shoes to individuals, Crocs is also planning to donate up to 100,000 more pairs directly to healthcare organizations. So far, they’ll send shoes to the Dayton Area Hospital Association in Ohio, St. Anthony North Health Campus in Denver, Colorado, the Atlantic Health System in New Jersey, and more.

“These workers have our deepest respect, and we are humbled to be able to answer their call and provide whatever we can to help during this unprecedented time,” Crocs president and CEO Andrew Rees said in the release. “Share the word to all those in healthcare and please be mindful to allow those who need these most to place their requests. This is the least we can do for those working incredibly hard to defeat this virus.”

Healthcare professionals can request their free Crocs here.

[h/t ClickOrlando]

On This Day in 1953, Jonas Salk Announced His Polio Vaccine

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Getty Images

On March 26, 1953, Dr. Jonas Salk went on CBS radio to announce his vaccine for poliomyelitis. He had worked for three years to develop the polio vaccine, attacking a disease that killed 3000 Americans in 1952 alone, along with 58,000 newly reported cases. Polio was a scourge, and had been infecting humans around the world for millennia. Salk's vaccine was the first practical way to fight it, and it worked—polio was officially eliminated in the U.S. in 1979.

Salk's method was to kill various strains of the polio virus, then inject them into a patient. The patient's own immune system would then develop antibodies to the dead virus, preventing future infection by live viruses. Salk's first test subjects were patients who had already had polio ... and then himself and his family. His research was funded by grants, which prompted him to give away the vaccine after it was fully tested.

Clinical trials of Salk's vaccine began in 1954. By 1955 the trials proved it was both safe and effective, and mass vaccinations of American schoolchildren followed. The result was an immediate reduction in new cases. Salk became a celebrity because his vaccine saved so many lives so quickly.

Salk's vaccine required a shot. In 1962, Dr. Albert Sabin unveiled an oral vaccine using attenuated (weakened but not killed) polio virus. Sabin's vaccine was hard to test in America in the late 1950s, because so many people had been inoculated using the Salk vaccine. (Sabin did much of his testing in the Soviet Union.) Oral polio vaccine, whether with attenuated or dead virus, is still the preferred method of vaccination today. Polio isn't entirely eradicated around the world, though we're very close.

Here's a vintage newsreel from the mid 1950s telling the story:

For more information on Dr. Jonas Salk and his work, click here.

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