The Tardigrade’s Extraordinary Weirdness Continues

Image credit: Aziz Aboobaker, Edinburgh
Image credit: Aziz Aboobaker, Edinburgh

The mystery of the tardigrade—a.k.a. moss piglet, a.k.a. water bear—is one step closer to a solution. Scientists studying the microscopic animals' DNA say the tough, many-legged creatures may be distantly related to nematodes and other "wormy things." The researchers published their findings in the journal PLOS Biology.

Tardigrades are some of the strangest, most badass organisms on Earth. Don't be fooled by their tiny size—these animals are anything but delicate. They can survive in the most brutal conditions, from dehydration and starvation to burning heat, blistering cold, intense radiation, and even the vacuum of space.

How they pull off this near-invincibility is, naturally, a question of some interest among biologists (and to Mental Floss—links to our many articles about these amazing creatures are found throughout this story).

The authors of one 2015 study made headlines when they announced that one-sixth of the tardigrade's genetic blueprint had been swiped from bacteria and other organisms. This horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is not unheard of in nature, but other tardigrade experts, including a team at the University of Edinburgh, felt that 17.5 percent seemed suspiciously high, even for a maverick like the tardigrade.

The skeptics were right. Additional investigation into the tardigrade genome confirmed the presence of a few horizontally transferred genes. Just a few.

HGT aside, there's still plenty to discover in the tardigrade's genes. Tardigrades have been tardigrades for hundreds of millions of years. No fossils remain from their early days to tell us what they might have been before. We don't really know where they came from, evolutionarily speaking, or who their relatives are.

To find out, Edinburgh researcher Mark Blaxter and his colleagues picked apart the genomes of two tardigrade species, Ramazzottius varieornatus and Hypsibius dujardini. They found something unexpected: The armored, many-legged tardigrades seemed more closely related to worms than to insects.

If these findings are accurate, Blaxter told Mental Floss in an email, they challenge the very structure of the Panarthropoda family tree, which assumes "the leggy moulting animals are more closely related to each other than they are to wormy things like nematodes."

But he notes that there's lots more research to be done before issuing that challenge: "We have only looked at a tiny fraction of the 10 or more million species on Earth. Every new group, and possibly every species, will have something exciting in it we haven't seen before, and didn't imagine."

Turn Your LEGO Bricks Into a Drone With the Flybrix Drone Kit

Flyxbrix/FatBrain
Flyxbrix/FatBrain

Now more than ever, it’s important to have a good hobby. Of course, a lot of people—maybe even you—have been obsessed with learning TikTok dances and baking sourdough bread for the last few months, but those hobbies can wear out their welcome pretty fast. So if you or someone you love is looking for something that’s a little more intellectually stimulating, you need to check out the Flybrix LEGO drone kit from Fat Brain Toys.

What is a Flybrix LEGO Drone Kit?

The Flybrix drone kit lets you build your own drones out of LEGO bricks and fly them around your house using your smartphone as a remote control (via Bluetooth). The kit itself comes with absolutely everything you need to start flying almost immediately, including a bag of 56-plus LEGO bricks, a LEGO figure pilot, eight quick-connect motors, eight propellers, a propeller wrench, a pre-programmed Flybrix flight board PCB, a USB data cord, a LiPo battery, and a USB LiPo battery charger. All you’ll have to do is download the Flybrix Configuration Software, the Bluetooth Flight Control App, and access online instructions and tutorials.

Experiment with your own designs.

The Flybrix LEGO drone kit is specifically designed to promote exploration and experimentation. All the components are tough and can totally withstand a few crash landings, so you can build and rebuild your own drones until you come up with the perfect design. Then you can do it all again. Try different motor arrangements, add your own LEGO bricks, experiment with different shapes—this kit is a wannabe engineer’s dream.

For the more advanced STEM learners out there, Flybrix lets you experiment with coding and block-based coding. It uses an arduino-based hackable circuit board, and the Flybrix app has advanced features that let you try your hand at software design.

Who is the Flybrix LEGO Drone Kit for?

Flybrix is a really fun way to introduce a number of core STEM concepts, which makes it ideal for kids—and technically, that’s who it was designed for. But because engineering and coding can get a little complicated, the recommended age for independent experimentation is 13 and up. However, kids younger than 13 can certainly work on Flybrix drones with the help of their parents. In fact, it actually makes a fantastic family hobby.

Ready to start building your own LEGO drones? Click here to order your Flybrix kit today for $198.

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A Prehistoric Great White Shark Nursery Has Been Discovered in Chile

Great white sharks used prehistoric nurseries to protect their young.
Great white sharks used prehistoric nurseries to protect their young.
solarseven/iStock via Getty Images

Great white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) may be one of the most formidable and frightening apex predators on the planet today, but life for them isn’t as easy as horror movies would suggest. Due to a slow growth rate and the fact that they produce few offspring, the species is listed as vulnerable to extinction.

There is a way these sharks ensure survival, and that is by creating nurseries—a designated place where great white shark babies (called pups) are protected from other predators. Now, researchers at the University of Vienna and colleagues have discovered these nurseries occurred in prehistoric times.

In a study published in the journal Scientific Reports, Jamie A. Villafaña from the university’s Institute of Palaeontology describes a fossilized nursery found in Coquimbo, Chile. Researchers were examining a collection of fossilized great white shark teeth between 5 and 2 million years old along the Pacific coast of Chile and Peru when they noticed a disproportionate number of young shark teeth in Coquimbo. There was also a total lack of sexually mature animals' teeth, which suggests the site was used primarily by pups and juveniles as a nursery.

Though modern great whites are known to guard their young in designated areas, the researchers say this is the first example of a paleo-nursery. Because the climate was much warmer when the paleo-nursery was in use, the researchers think these protective environments can deepen our understanding of how great white sharks can survive global warming trends.