‘Good’ Cholesterol May Not Be So Great After All

iStock
iStock

Bad news for good cholesterol: A Danish study published in European Heart Journal finds that people with extremely high high-density lipoprotein (HDL, often called “good” cholesterol) levels face a higher, not lower, risk of death.

Cholesterol as a substance is neither good nor bad, but an important part of our body chemistry. Like most things, in moderation, it's fine; the health risks set in once our levels get out of whack. Scientists and doctors have long understood cholesterol as a sort of angel-on-one-shoulder, devil-on-the-other situation, in which low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is harmful and HDL is helpful. HDL mediates LDL's negative effects, which means that having more HDL is good.

Or at least that's what we thought.

Researchers pulled health information on 116,000 people from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study, then cross-checked it against death reports from the Danish Civil Registration System. They followed study subjects for six years, during which more than 10,500 people died. 

What they found surprised them. Extremely high levels of HDL were associated with significantly greater risks of death than normal levels—68 percent higher for women and a staggering 106 percent for men. Men with very high HDL (one step down from "extremely high") were 36 percent more likely to die.

"These results radically change the way we understand 'good' cholesterol. Doctors like myself have been used to congratulating patients who had a very high level of HDL in their blood. But we should no longer do so, as this study shows a dramatically higher mortality rate," co-author Børge Nordestgaard of the University of Copenhagen said in a statement.

Before we get too worried, it's worth noting that these extremely high HDL levels were incredibly rare, affecting only 0.4 percent of male participants and 0.3 percent of women. The researchers say these people were also more likely to share unusual genetic variants. It's possible that these genes and not the cholesterol are responsible for their higher mortality rates.

Some elements of our ideas about cholesterol still held true. People with extremely low HDL levels also faced an increased mortality risk.

The safest levels seemed to be right in the middle, at 1.9 mmol/L for men and 2.4 mmol/L for women. 

More research is needed, as this study focused exclusively on white Danish people and only looked at correlation, not causation. 

Still, Nordestgaard said, "It appears that we need to remove the focus from HDL as an important health indicator in research, at hospitals and at the general practitioner. These are the smallest lipoproteins in the blood, and perhaps we ought to examine some of the larger ones instead."

A Massive Beef Recall Due to E. Coli Might Affect Your Memorial Day Meal Plans

iStock/Kameleon007
iStock/Kameleon007

If your Memorial Day weekend plans involve grilling meat, you're going to want to take some extra precautions. The U.S. Department of Agriculture announced Wednesday that 62,112 pounds of raw beef are being recalled due to possible contamination with E. coli bacteria, which causes food poisoning.

The meat originated with the Aurora Packing Company of North Aurora, Illinois on April 19. Aurora Packing is recalling the products, which have an EST. 788 number on the USDA mark of inspection found on packaging and were shipped to stores around the country. The meat was packaged in multiple cuts, including ribeye and briskets.

Escherichia coli, better known as E. coli, is bacteria that affects the gastrointestinal system, causing cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, and other serious symptoms that can derail one's celebratory mood. If you think you've purchased any of the contaminated meat, it's recommended that you immediately discard it.

[h/t USA Today]

Airports Are Fighting Traveler Germs with Antimicrobial Security Bins

iStock/Chalaba
iStock/Chalaba

If you plan to do any air travel this summer, chances are you'll be negotiating a path riddled with bacteria. In addition to airport cabins being veritable Petri dishes of germs from the seat trays to the air nozzles, airport security bins are utterly covered in filth thanks to their passage through hundreds of hands daily. These bins are rarely sanitized, meaning that cold, flu, and other germs deposited by passengers are left for you to pick up and transmit to your mouth, nose, or the handle of your carry-on.

Fortunately, some airports are offering a solution. A new type of tray covered in an antimicrobial substance will be rolled out in more than 30 major U.S. airports this summer.

The bins, provided by Florida-based SecurityPoint Media, have an additive applied during the manufacturing process that will inhibit bacterial growth. The protective coating won't wear or fade over time.

Microban International, a company specializing in antimicrobial products, made the bins. According to the company, their antimicrobial protection works by disrupting the cellular function of the microorganism, making it unable to reproduce. As a result, surfaces tend to harbor less of a bacterial load than surfaces not treated with the solution.

While helpful, Microban is careful to note it's no substitute for regular cleaning and that its technology is not intended to stop the spread of disease-causing germs. In other words, while the bins may be cleaner, they're never going to be sterile.

If you're flying out of major airports in Denver, Nashville, or Tampa, you can expect to see the bins shortly. They'll carry the Microban logo. More airports are due to get shipments by early July.

[h/t Travel and Leisure]

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