Philosopher Jeremy Bentham's Mummified Head Is Back on Display

J. Posselwhite/Getty Images
J. Posselwhite/Getty Images

Jeremy Bentham had a problem. He may have been dead, but that wasn't it—the iconoclastic philosopher left strict instructions about what to do with his body after his demise in 1832, and they didn't turn out as planned. After a public dissection by his friend Thomas Southwood Smith, and the transformation of his corpse into a skeleton, Bentham's head was supposed to be dried out with an air pump and some sulfuric acid "in the style of the New Zealanders." Sadly, the sulfuric acid worked a little too well, and with the philosopher's head looking like a theatrical prop, Smith chose to replace it with a life-like wax replica featuring some of Bentham's own hair.

Bentham's body, which he called his "auto-icon," spent several years on display in Smith's office before going to the University College London (UCL), of which the philosopher was an early supporter. While his real head once rested inside the cabinet, it was moved into storage following World War II. (Rumors that students at a rival school once stole it for soccer practice are unfounded.) Now, according to The Telegraph, for the first time in decades, Bentham's head is back on display at UCL, as part of an exhibit on how "science mediates the dilemma of death."

A black-and-white photograph of Jeremy Bentham's auto-icon, with his mummified head
Jeremy Bentham's auto-icon, with his mummified head between his feet, circa 1950
Hulton Archive/Getty

"What Does It Mean To Be Human? Curating Heads at UCL" includes several drafts of Bentham's will, showing how his views about the disposal of his own body changed over time, as well as a draft version of important legislation meant to address the lack of corpses then available for medical dissection in Britain (part of what motivated Bentham's own public dissection) and other materials. The exhibit also includes the head of archaeologist Flinders Petrie, who also left his remains to science.

According to The Telegraph, scientists have recently taken DNA samples from Bentham's head that will be used to study whether the philosopher might be posthumously diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome, a theory first put forward by researchers Philip Lucas and Anne Sheeran in 2006 [PDF]. Diagnosing famous figures from the past, particularly with psychological ailments, is fraught with practical and ethical difficulties—although few would debate that Bentham was, by the standards of his own age and ours, remarkable. Aside from leaving explicit instructions about turning his own skeleton into a piece of educational art, Bentham was known for championing ideas (like women's rights and the legalization of homosexuality) that were well ahead of his time. He also, as The Telegraph notes, "called his walking stick Dapple, his teapot Dickey, and kept an elderly cat named The Reverend Sir John Langbourne."

"What Does It Mean to be Human?" runs at the Octagon Gallery in the Wilkins Building of UCL until February 28, 2018. Stateside Bentham fans will be thrilled to know that his auto-icon will then travel to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, where it will be part of an exhibition on the human body.

[h/t The Telegraph]

Wales Is Home to the Baked Bean Museum of Excellence

Baked Bean Museum of Excellence
Baked Bean Museum of Excellence

If you don't think it's possible to get excited about beans, you've clearly never been to the Baked Bean Museum of Excellence in Port Talbot, Wales. The site is filled with memorabilia celebrating canned baked beans, but the legume-loving "superhero" in charge of it all may be the most intriguing attraction.

Before legally changing his name to "Captain Beany" in 1991, the owner of the Baked Bean Museum was a Welsh man named Barry Kirk, according to Atlas Obscura. He was born in 1954 and spent the early part of his adulthood working in the computer department of a British petroleum plant in South Wales.

But his life took a much different direction in 1986 when he broke the world record for longest time in a baked bean bath at 100 hours. He fully adopted his Captain Beany persona five years later and began painting his face and head orange. He also started dressing in a gold-and-orange superhero costume. Since then, he's raised nearly $130,000 for charity by performing various bean-related stunts like pushing a can of beans along the beach with his nose. His biggest claim to fame, though, is his Baked Bean Museum, which he opened in his two-bedroom council flat in 2009.

Baked Bean Museum of Excellence.
Baked Bean Museum of Excellence

Visit Captain Beany's home and you'll find more baked bean swag than most people see in a lifetime. His lavatory has been transformed into the "Branston Bathroom," with the British product's logo embellishing every surface, and the kitchen is all about Heinz. The museum also features vintage advertisements, collectible cans, and knick-knacks like a pair of baked bean cufflinks. And if you ever start to feel overwhelmed, Captain Beany will be there as your personal guide in one of his tomato-sauce-orange outfits.

Baked Bean Museum of Excellence.
Baked Bean Museum of Excellence

The Baked Bean Museum of Excellence is technically free to enter, but Captain Beany does accept donations that he gives to charity. You can visit the Port Talbot institution from Monday through Friday between 10 a.m. and 5 p.m.

[h/t Atlas Obscura]

7 Bizarre Lawsuits Involving McDonald's

McDonald's can sometimes offer up a side of litigation.
McDonald's can sometimes offer up a side of litigation.
Yu Chun Christopher Wong, S3studio/Getty Images

Since the 1950s, McDonald’s has been serving up a menu full of convenient, fast-service food, from their signature Big Mac to the portable Chicken McNugget. Unfortunately, not everyone has been happy with their Happy Meals. The company has occasionally found itself embroiled in complaints from customers who have been dissatisfied and requested a side order of litigation. Take a look at some of the legal cases tossed around the Golden Arches over the years.

1. McDonald’s v. Ronald McDonald

A photo of Ronald McDonald outside of a McDonald's in Thailand
McDonald's mascot Ronald McDonald.
PhonlamaiPhoto/iStock via Getty Images

The ability for McDonald’s to find itself in the middle of legal quandaries was demonstrated early on. After being in business for 14 years, the independently-owned McDonald’s Family Restaurant in Fairbury, Illinois, was issued a legal notice from the McDonald’s corporation in 1970 warning them to avoid using any arches or offering drive-in service. The letters continued for decades, with owner Ronald McDonald (yes, that is his real name) paying little attention. It was, after all, his family’s name and restaurant. But McDonald’s upped the ante in 1992, when a local franchisee finally opened a mile down the road, and a flurry of activity commenced. McDonald (the person) eventually settled, and the two locations became known to locals as McDonald’s East and McDonald’s West. The agreement also required Ron to take the possessive “S” off the family restaurant name, but it went back up in 1996, when the franchise location closed.

2. The Quarter Pounder Controversy

The McDonald’s Quarter Pounder seemingly leaves little to the imagination. It promises one quarter-pound of meat, which it delivers. (You can also opt for the Double Quarter Pounder, which gets you closer to an entire cow.) It also comes with cheese, which caused some strife at a South Florida location in 2018. Two customers, Cynthia Kissner and Leonard Werner, filed a $5 million class action lawsuit in Fort Lauderdale because the restaurant charged them the full price of a Quarter Pounder despite their request for employees to hold the cheese. The plaintiffs argued that the McDonald’s app offered a Quarter Pounder without cheese for roughly 30 cents less and that they should not have been charged more when they asked to hold the cheese. Not all locations, however, offer that option, and the argument that the cheese and no-cheese burgers are somehow one product was not convincing to the judge. As the customers were unable to prove damages, the case was thrown out of court.

3. H.R. Pufnstuf Invades McDonaldland

H.R. Pufnstuf attends "Sid & Marty Kroft's Saturday Morning Hits" DVD release party at Every Picture Tells A Story on November 20, 2010 in Santa Monica, California
H.R. Pufnstuf attends "Sid & Marty Kroft's Saturday Morning Hits" DVD release party.
John M. Heller/Getty Images

McDonaldland, that child oasis found in many McDonald’s commercials of the 1970s and featuring a variety of characters from the Hamburglar to Grimace, was once the subject of a legal struggle. Sid and Marty Krofft, producers of the psychedelic kid’s series H.R. Pufnstuf, sued McDonald’s alleging that Mayor McCheese was copied from its own political abomination, Pufnstuf. (Both have enormous heads, and Pufnstuf was mayor of Living Island.) The Kroffts claimed that Needham, Harper & Steers, the ad agency responsible for McDonaldland, consulted with them before breaking ties and producing the commercials on their own. The courts ruled in favor of the Kroffts in 1977, declaring the ads took the “total concept and feel” of the Kroffts’ show. McDonald’s was ordered to pay $1 million and had to stop airing the ads.

4. The contaminated Coca-Cola

In 2016, Trevor Walker ordered a Diet Coke from a Mickey D's in Riverton, Utah. While lower in calories, it was apparently higher in illegal substances. The drink was somehow contaminated with Suboxone, a heroin substitute. Walker temporarily lost feeling in his arms and legs and had to be taken to the emergency room of a local hospital. Walker sued, but McDonald’s argued they should be dropped from the lawsuit owing to the fact that they are removed from the day-to-day operations of franchised locations. (A manager and employee were suspected of spiking the drink, but security footage was unavailable to confirm the theory.) Third District Court Judge James Gardner was unmoved, saying McDonald’s couldn’t be that separated if they also mandated franchise managers attend Hamburger University for training—or “this hamburger school,” as Gardner put it. The case is ongoing.

5. Big Macs and brothels

In 2012, former McDonald’s employee Shelley Lynn sued McDonald’s and made the audacious claim that the company’s low wages had forced her into a side job as a prostitute for a Nevada brothel. Lynn was hired for a position at an Arroyo Grande, California, McDonald's location, where she alleged manager Keith Handley pushed her into a life of sex work. Lynn complained there was no practical grievance system in place and that Handley should not have been sold a franchise. A United States District Court judge in California found in favor of McDonald’s and Handley that same year.

6. McDonald's In a Pickle

A double hamburger is seen on July 18, 2002 at a Burger King in Miami, Florida.
Joe Raedle/Getty Images

In 1999, Veronica Martin and her husband ordered hamburgers from a McDonald’s in Knoxville, Tennessee. What should have been a delicious treat turned ugly as—according to Martin—a very hot pickle shot out from between the bun, landed on her chin, and scalded her, leaving her with second-degree burns. A lawsuit followed, with Martin arguing the pickle was “defective.” She sought $110,000 while her husband asked for $15,000 for losing the “service and consortium” of his wife. The two parties settled in 2001, though McDonald’s maintained no monetary payment was offered.

7. a Weighty Problem

It can be assured that excess consumption of calories, whether they come from McDonald’s or other sources, will result in an accumulation of fatty tissue. This did not prevent several overweight teenagers in New York from taking McDonald’s to court in 2002 in an attempt to place responsibility for their habit of eating at McDonald’s several times a week at the feet of the corporation. The plaintiffs, Ashley Pelman, 14, and Jazlyn Bradley, 19, among others, said they did not know how fattening the food was and complained of high blood pressure and high cholesterol, among other ailments. One plaintiff, a 600-pound 15-year-old, said he ate there every day. Lawyers argued advertising to children helped foster a trust of the food’s nutritional value.

The case was rejected by a judge in 2003. Now at least 26 states have “common sense consumption” laws, which prevent lawsuits from being filed against food manufacturers for adverse health effects as a result of gorging on a decadent diet. It's also known as the "cheeseburger law."

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