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Want to Improve Your Foreign-Language Skills? Grab a Beer.

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If you're in the midst of learning a new language, speaking can be the hardest part. Conjugating verbs and thinking up vocabulary on the fly isn't easy, even if you've been studying a foreign language for a while. A new study suggests that a little Dutch courage can go a long way when it comes to speaking in a new language, though, as Time reports.

The new research from Maastricht University in the Netherlands, published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, asked 50 German-speaking students who recently passed the university's Dutch-as-a-second-language exam to get their drink on in the lab to see if they would be better or worse at speaking once they were drunk.

Part of the key to speaking a foreign language has to do with the brain's inhibitory control abilities. To speak a second language, your brain has to filter out the words you would use in your first language. Since drinking lowers your inhibitory control, it would stand to reason that booze would make your language skills worse rather than better.

For the study, some of the participants were given Smirnoff vodka and bitter lemon to drink, while others drank water. They then were breathalyzed to see if they had reached a certain blood alcohol level (around 0.4 percent, or about half of the legal limit for driving in the U.S.) and asked to talk about animal testing with a Dutch experimenter for two minutes. The conversation was recorded, then played back for two native Dutch speakers who graded the speakers on their speaking skills. The participants self-rated their speaking performance at the end of their speech, as well as taking a self-esteem test before and after. And to make sure their change in skill level was language specific, they also had to do some arithmetic for two minutes.

The students who got tipsy before speaking Dutch fared "significantly better" than the sober students in the eyes of the evaluators, who couldn't tell from the audio who was drunk or not. (They did not get any better or worse at arithmetic, though.)

Drunk people are apt to overestimate their own abilities, but in this study, the improvement wasn't in the participants' heads. In fact, they didn't perceive themselves to be speaking better when asked to self-evaluate. But according to the native Dutch speakers grading them, they were better speakers and had better pronunciation than the sober volunteers.

The researchers suggest that the improvement could be due to reduced anxiety over speaking a foreign language. Previous studies have found that students who are really anxious about speaking a foreign language tend to perform worse than students who aren't as anxious about it, so a little alcohol might loosen you up just enough to let you get past your fears of mispronunciation and botched cases to actually have a conversation.

The alcohol level was so low, though, that it's hard to extrapolate whether the result would be the same if people got more drunk; slurring your words certainly isn't the key to better pronunciation. And the study only tested Germans learning Dutch, so the results might not apply to all languages. Both languages are Germanic, so there are some similarities. It would be interesting to see whether the results would hold up across languages that aren't as closely related, like perhaps Punjabi and English or Chinese and Finnish. However, a 1972 study [PDF] on English speakers' drunken ability to pronounce unfamiliar words in Thai, a language that they had never studied, found that a little bit of booze can have a positive impact on foreign pronunciation, so it's not out of the question.

Notably, this is the first study to look at people's ability to drunkenly bumble through a language they had actually spent time studying. The case for getting a little tipsy with your language tutor just got a little stronger, though.

[h/t Time]

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7 Science-Backed Ways to Improve Your Memory
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Being cursed with a bad memory can yield snafus big and small, from forgetting your gym locker combination to routinely blowing deadlines. If your New Year's resolution was to be less forgetful in 2018, it's time to start training your brain. The infographic below, created by financial website Quid Corner and spotted by Lifehacker Australia, lists seven easy ways to boost memory retention.

Different techniques can be applied to different scenarios, whether you're preparing for a speech or simply trying to recall someone's phone number. For example, if you're trying to learn a language, try writing down words and phrases, as this activates your brain into paying more attention. "Chunking," or separating long digit strings into shorter units, is a helpful hack for memorizing number sequences. And those with a poetic bent can translate information into rhymes, as this helps our brains break down and retain sound structures.

Learn more tips by checking out the infographic below.

[h/t Lifehacker.com.au]

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The Only Way to Answer ‘What Is Your Greatest Weakness?’ In a Job Interview
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Thanks in part to the influence of Silicon Valley and its focus on the psychological probing of job applicants, interview questions have been steadily getting more and more abstract. As part of the interview process, today's job seekers might be asked to describe a vending machine to someone who’s never seen one before, or plan a fantasy date with a famous historical figure.

Even if the company you’re approaching isn’t fully on board with prodding your brain, at some point you may still come up against one of the most common queries applicants face: "What is your greatest weakness?"

"Some 'experts' will tell you to try and turn a strength into a 'weakness,' to make yourself look good," writes Inc. contributor Justin Bariso. "That advice is garbage."

"Think about it," Bariso continues. "Interviewers are asking the same question to countless candidates. Just try and guess how many times they hear the answers 'being a perfectionist' or 'working too much.' (Hint: way too often.)"

While responding that you work too hard might seem like a reliable method of moving the conversation along, there’s a better way. And it involves being sincere.

"The fact is, it's not easy to identify one's own weaknesses," Bariso writes. "Doing so takes intense self-reflection, critical thinking, and the ability to accept negative feedback—qualities that have gone severely missing in a world that promotes instant gratification and demands quick (often thoughtless) replies to serious issues."

Bariso believes the question is an effective way to reveal an applicant’s self-awareness, which is why companies often use it in their vetting process. By being self-aware, people (and employees) can correct behavior that might be affecting job performance. So the key is to give this question some actual thought before it’s ever posed to you.

What is your actual greatest weakness? It could be that, in a desire to please everyone, you wind up making decisions based on the urge to avoid disappointing others. That’s a weakness that sounds authentic.

Pondering the question also has another benefit: It prompts you to think of areas in your life that could use some course-correcting. Even if you don’t land that job—or even if the question is never posed to you—you’ve still made time for self-reflection. The result could mean a more confident and capable presence for that next interview.

[h/t Inc.]

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